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Encyclopedia > Musical theatre
The Black Crook (1866), considered by some historians to be the first musical[1]
Musical Theatre Portal

Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The emotional content of the piece – humor, pathos, love, anger – as well as the story itself, is communicated through the words, music, movement and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Black Crook (1866) was the first prototype of the modern American musical. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dialogue (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ...


Musical theatre works, usually referred to as "musicals", are performed around the world. They may be presented in large venues, such as big budget West End and Broadway theatre productions in London and New York City, or in smaller Fringe Theatre, Off-Broadway or regional productions, on tour, or by amateur groups in schools, theatres and other performance spaces. In addition to Britain and the U.S., there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in Germany, Austria, Philippines, France, Canada, Japan, Eastern Europe, Australia, and other countries. West End theatre is a popular term for mainstream professional theatre in London, England, or sometimes more specifically for shows staged in the large theatres of Londons Theatreland. Along with New Yorks Broadway theatre, West End theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Fringe theatre is a term used to describe alternative theatre, or entertainment not of the mainstream. ... Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City in smaller theatres than Broadway, but larger than Off-Off-Broadway, productions. ...


Some famous musicals include Oklahoma!, The Sound of Music, The Fantasticks, West Side Story, Les Misérables, Cats, The Phantom of the Opera, Rent, and The Producers. Oklahoma! was the first musical play written by composer Richard Rodgers and lyricist/librettist Oscar Hammerstein II (see Rodgers and Hammerstein). ... For other uses, see The Sound of Music (disambiguation). ... The Fantasticks is a 1960 musical with music by Harvey Schmidt and lyrics by Tom Jones. ... This article is about the musical. ... Les Misérables (pronunciation ), colloquially known as Les Mis, is a musical composed in 1980 by French composer Claude-Michel Schönberg on a libretto by Alain Boublil. ... Cats is an award-winning musical composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber based on Old Possums Book of Practical Cats and other poems by T. S. Eliot. ... The Phantom of the Opera is a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on the novel by French novelist Gaston Leroux. ... Rent is a rock musical, with music and lyrics by Jonathan Larson[1] based on Giacomo Puccinis opera La bohème. ... This article is about the 2001 stage musical. ...

Contents

Definitions

The three main components of a musical are the music, the lyrics, and the book. The book of a musical refers to the "play" or story of the show – in effect its spoken (not sung) lines; however, "book" can also refer to the dialogue and lyrics together, which are sometimes referred to (as in opera) as the libretto (Italian for “little book”). The music and lyrics together form the score of the musical. The interpretation of the musical by the creative team heavily influences the way that the musical is presented. The creative team includes a director, a musical director and usually a choreographer. A musicals production is also creatively characterized by technical aspects, such as set, costumes, stage properties, lighting, etc. that generally change from production to production (although some famous production aspects tend to be retained from the original production, for example, Bob Fosse's choregraphy in Chicago). For other uses, see Play (disambiguation). ... Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ... A theatre director is a principal in the theatre field who oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a play by unifying various endeavors and aspects of production. ... The title of music director is used by many symphony orchestras to designate the primary conductor and artistic leader of the orchestra. ... Choreography (also known as dance composition) is the art of making structures in which movement occurs, the term composition may also refer to the navigation or connection of these movement structures. ... The term costume can refer to wardrobe and dress in general, or to the distinctive style of dress of a particular people, class, or period. ... Bob Fosse, early promotional image Bob Fosse (June 23, 1927 – September 23, 1987) was a musical theater choreographer and director. ... Chicago is a Kander and Ebb musical set in prohibition era Chicago. ...


There is no fixed length for a musical, and it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length (or even a multi-evening presentation); however, most musicals range from one and a half hours to three hours. Musicals today are typically presented in two acts, with one intermission ten to 20 minutes in length. The first act is almost always somewhat longer than the second act, and generally introduces most of the music. A musical may be built around 4-6 main theme tunes that are reprised throughout the show, or consist of a series of songs not directly musically related. Spoken dialogue is generally interspersed between musical numbers, although the use of "sung dialogue" or recitative is not unknown, especially in so-called "sung-through" musicals such as Les Misérables. An intermission or interval is a break between two performances or sessions, in events such as a theatrical play, opera or musical concert. ... Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas (and occasionally in operettas and even musicals), is melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ...

A Gaiety Girl (1893) was one of the first hit musicals.
A Gaiety Girl (1893) was one of the first hit musicals.

Musical theatre is closely related to another theatrical performance art, opera. These forms are usually distinguished by weighing a number of factors. Musicals generally have a greater focus on spoken dialogue (though some musicals are entirely accompanied and sung through, such as Jesus Christ Superstar and Les Misérables; and on the other hand some operas, such as Die Zauberflöte, and most operettas, have some unaccompanied dialogue), on dancing (particularly by the principal performers as well as the chorus), on the use of various genres of popular music (or at least popular singing styles), and on the avoidance of certain operatic conventions. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Gaiety Girl is an English musical comedy in two acts by a team of musical comedy neophytes: Owen Hall (book, on an outline by James T. Tanner), Harry Greenbank (lyrics) and Sidney Jones (music). ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... This article is about the rock opera. ... Die Zauberflöte (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ...


In particular, a musical is almost never performed in any but the language of its audience. Musicals produced in London or New York, for instance, are invariably sung in English, even if they were originally written in another language (again, Les Misérables, originally written in French, is a good example).


While an opera singer is primarily a singer and only secondarily an actor, a musical theatre singer is usually an actor first, who can at least hold a tune and "put over" a song, but is often not a professional singer as such. Composers of music for musicals often have to take the limitations of such performers into account, and theatres staging musicals generally use amplification of the actors' singing voices in a way that would normally be disapproved of in an operatic context. For the British rock band of the same name, see Amplifier (band). ...


In isolation, at least, none of these features is truly "defining", and in practice it is often difficult to distinguish among the various kinds of light musical theatre, including "operetta", "comic opera", "light opera", "burletta", "musical play", "musical comedy", "extravaganza", "burlesque", "travesty", "music hall", and even "revue". Some works (e.g. by Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim) have received both "musical theatre" and "operatic" treatment. Similarly, some older operettas or light operas have had modern productions or adaptations that treated them as musicals. Sondheim said: "I really think that when something plays Broadway it's a musical, and when it plays in an opera house it's opera. That's it. It's the terrain, the countryside, the expectations of the audience that make it one thing or another."[2] This article primarily concerns musical theatre works that are distinctively "non-operatic", but there inescapably remains some overlap between lighter operatic forms and the more musically complex or ambitious musicals: a grey area, in which production styles are almost as important as actual musical or dramatic content in defining into which art form the piece falls. Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ... Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending. ... Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending. ... A burletta (Italian, meaning little joke), also sometimes burla or burlettina, is a musical term generally denoting a brief comic Italian (or, later, English) opera. ... Extravaganza is a two hour bi-weekly comedy-variety show based in Jakarta, Indonesia which has been broadcast by Trans TV nearly every Saturday and Monday night since its debut on April 5, 2004. ... Photograph of Sally Rand, 1934. ... Burlesque was originally a form of art that mocked by imitation, referring to everything from comic sketches to dance routines and usually lampooning the social attitudes of upper classes. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... A revue is a type of theatrical entertainment that combines music, dance and sketches that satirize contemporary figures, news, or literature. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Stephen Joshua Sondheim (b. ... Stephen Joshua Sondheim (b. ...


As with a well-crafted operetta or opera, a "book" musical's moments of greatest dramatic intensity are often performed in song. Proverbially, "when the emotion becomes too strong for speech (or recitative) you sing; when it becomes too strong for song, you dance." A song is (ideally at any rate) crafted to suit the character (or characters) and their situation within the story; although there have been times in the history of the musical (e.g. the 1920s) when this integration between music and story has been tenuous. Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas (and occasionally in operettas and even musicals), is melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ...


A show often opens with a song that sets the tone of the musical, introduces some or all of the major characters, and shows the setting of the play. Within the compressed nature of the musical, the writers must develop the characters and the plot. Music provides a means to express emotion. However, typically, many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore there is less time to develop drama than in a straight play of equivalent length, since a musical usually devotes more time to music than to dialogue.


Many familiar musical theatre works have been the basis for popular musical films, such as The Sound of Music, West Side Story, and My Fair Lady or were adapted or even written for television presentations (for example Rodgers and Hammerstein's Cinderella). Recently, some popular television programs have set an episode in the style of a musical. There has also been a recent revival of the movie musical, such as the 2002 film, Chicago, based on the 1975 stage musical. Similarly, India produces numerous musical films, referred to as "Bollywood" musicals, and Japan produces a considerable number of Anime musicals. Conversely, there has been a trend in recent decades to adapt musicals from the screen to the stage, both from popular animated film musicals, such as Beauty and the Beast and The Lion King, and live-action films, such as The Producers and The Color Purple. A musical film belongs to a film genre that features songs, sung by the actors, interwoven into the narrative. ... Rodgers and Hammersteins The Sound of Music is a 1965 film directed by Robert Wise and starring Julie Andrews in the lead role. ... West Side Story is a 1961 film directed by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins. ... My Fair Lady is an Academy Award-winning 1964 film adaptation of the stage musical, My Fair Lady, based in turn on the play Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw. ... Rodgers (left) and Hammerstein (right), with Irving Berlin (middle) and Helen Tamiris, watching auditions at the St. ... Rodgers and Hammersteins Cinderella is the name of a musical written for television by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II based upon the fairy tale, Cinderella. ... This article is about the 2002 film. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... “Animé” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ... The Lion King is a Tony Award-winning Broadway and West End stage musical based on the 1994 Disney animated film of the same name and is directed by Julie Taymor, portraying actors in animal costumes as well as giant, hollow puppets. ... This article is about the 2001 stage musical. ... The Color Purple is a Broadway musical based upon the novel The Color Purple by Alice Walker. ...


History

Ancient Greece and middle ages

Musical theatre in Europe dates back to the theatre of the ancient Greeks, who included music and dance in their stage comedies and tragedies as early as the 5th century B.C.[3] Aeschylus and Sophocles even composed their own music to accompany their plays. The Third Century B.C. Roman comedies of Plautus included song and dance routines performed with orchestrations. The popularity of theatre declined somewhat in the Roman Empire, but some innovations were made: to make the dance steps more audible in large open air theatres, Roman actors attached metal chips called "sabilla" to their stage footwear – the first tap shoes.[4] During the middle ages, performers travelled from town to town trying to find an audience. At times, they were barred, as it was feared that they brought the plague.[3] In the 12th and 13th centuries, religious dramas, such as The Play of Herod and The Play of Daniel taught the liturgy, set to church chants. To teach the latin bible to illiterate masses, cycle plays were created that told a biblical story divided into entertaining parts. Several pageant wagons (stages on wheels) would move about the city, and a group of actors would tell their part of the story. Once finished, the group would move on with their wagon, and the next group would arrive to tell its part of the story. These plays developed into an autonomous form of musical theatre, with poetic forms sometimes alternating with the prose dialogues and liturgical chants. The poetry was provided with modified or completely new melodies.[5] Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Titus Macchius Plautus, generally referred to simply as Plautus, was a playwright of Ancient Rome. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Mystery plays and Miracle plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ...


Renaissance to the 1700s

The Renaissance saw these forms evolve into commedia dell'arte, an Italian tradition where raucous clowns improvised their way through familiar stories, and from there, opera buffa. Molière turned several of his farcical comedies into musical entertainments with songs (music provided by Jean Baptiste Lully) and dance in the late 1600s. Arts of all kinds became widely popular, including musical theatre.[3] This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Commedia redirects here. ... Opera buffa (a form of comic opera), also known as Commedia in musica or Commedia per musica, is a genre of opera. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... Jean-Baptiste Lully, originally Giovanni Battista Lulli (November 28, 1632–March 22, 1687), was an Italian-born French composer, who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. ...

Painting based on The Beggar's Opera, Scene V, William Hogarth, c. 1728
Painting based on The Beggar's Opera, Scene V, William Hogarth, c. 1728

By the 1700s, two forms of musical theatre were popular in Britain, France and Germany: ballad operas, like John Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1728), that included lyrics written to the tunes of popular songs of the day (often spoofing opera), and comic operas, with original scores and mostly romantic plot lines, like Michael Balfe's The Bohemian Girl (1845). Other musical theatre forms developed by the 19th century, such as vaudeville, British music hall, melodrama and burlesque. Melodramas and burlettas, in particular, were popularized partly because most London theatres were licensed only as music halls and not allowed to present plays without music. In any event, what a piece was called did not necessarily define what it was. The Broadway extravaganza The Magic Deer (1852) advertised itself as "A Serio Comico Tragico Operatical Historical Extravaganzical Burletical Tale of Enchantment."[6] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1542, 252 KB) Description: Title: de: Gemälde nach John Gays Â»Bettleroper«, Szene V Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 56 × 72,5 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Tate... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1542, 252 KB) Description: Title: de: Gemälde nach John Gays Â»Bettleroper«, Szene V Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 56 × 72,5 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Tate... Painting based on The Beggars Opera, Scene V, William Hogarth, c. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Ballad opera is a genre of 18th century English opera. ... John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 - 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist. ... Painting based on The Beggars Opera, Scene V, William Hogarth, c. ... Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending. ... Michael William Balfe (May 15, 1808 - October 20, 1870), was an Irish composer, best known today for his opera The Bohemian Girl. ... The Bohemian Girl is an operetta composed by Michael Balfe with a libretto by Alfred Bunn. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... In literary criticism, the term burlesque is employed as a term in genre criticism, to describe any imitative work that derives humor from an incongruous contrast between style and subject. ... Extravaganza is a two hour bi-weekly comedy-variety show based in Jakarta, Indonesia which has been broadcast by Trans TV nearly every Saturday and Monday night since its debut on April 5, 2004. ...


The first recorded long running play of any kind was The Beggar's Opera, which ran for 62 successive performances in 1728. It would take almost a century before the first play broke 100 performances, with Tom and Jerry, based on the book Life in London (1821), and the record soon reached 150 in the late 1820s.[7]


New York (and so, America) did not have a significant theatre presence until 1752, when William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg, Virginia and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad-operas such as The Beggar’s Opera and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. By the 1840s, P.T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan (theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate prices, and did not arrive in the Times Square area until the 1920s and 1930s). Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50 performance hit called The Elves in 1857. New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" Seven Sisters (1860) shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... Portia and Shylock (1835) by Thomas Sully The Merchant of Venice is one of William Shakespeares best-known plays, written sometime between 1596 and 1598. ... Phineas Taylor Barnum (July 5, 1810 – April 7, 1891), American showman who is best remembered for his entertaining hoaxes and for founding the circus that eventually became Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus. ...


Development of musical comedy

The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is generally considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866. The production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy."[1] At that time, in England, musical theatre consisted of mostly of music hall, adaptations of risque French operetta and burlesques, notably at the Gaiety Theatre beginning in 1868. In reaction to these a few family-friendly entertainments were created, such as the German Reed Entertainments. The Black Crook (1866) was the first prototype of the modern American musical. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... The Gaiety Theatre, London was a musical theatre in Londons Strand area. ... German Reed Entertainment was founded in 1855 and operated by Thomas German Reed (1817–1888) together with his wife, Priscilla Reed née Horton (1818–1895). ...


Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 (The Mulligan Guard Picnic) and 1885, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers (Lillian Russell, Vivienne Segal, and Fay Templeton) instead of the ladies of questionable repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Edward Harrigan (October 26, 1845 - 1911), American actor, was born in New York of Irish parents. ... Lillian Russell (Helen Louise Leonard) (December 4, 1860 - June 6, 1922) was an American actress and singer. ... Vivienne Segal in a c. ... Fay Templeton (December 25, 1865 - October 3, 1939) was an American stage actress. ...

Poster for an early production.

The length of runs in the theatre changed rapidly around the same time that the modern musical was born. As transportation improved, poverty in London and New York diminished, and street lighting made for safer travel at night, the number of potential patrons for the growing number of theatres increased enormously. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits and improved production values. The first play to achieve 500 consecutive performances was the London (non-musical) comedy Our Boys, opening in 1875, which set an astonishing new record of 1,362 performances.[8] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (528x1024, 126 KB) Circa 1879 Woodblock-print advertisement for a DOyly Carte Opera Company production of [[H.M.S. Pinafore, housed at the Library of Congress. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (528x1024, 126 KB) Circa 1879 Woodblock-print advertisement for a DOyly Carte Opera Company production of [[H.M.S. Pinafore, housed at the Library of Congress. ... Our Boys is a comedy play written by Henry James Byron, first performed in London in 1875. ...


This run was not equalled on the musical stage until World War I, but musical theatre soon broke the 500 performance mark London with the long-running successes of Gilbert and Sullivan's family-friendly comic opera hits, beginning with H.M.S. Pinafore in 1878, which were exceeded by Alfred Cellier and B. C. Stephenson's record-breaking 1886 hit, Dorothy (a show midway between comic opera and musical comedy), with 931 performances, which was chased (but not equalled) by several of the most successful London musicals of the 1890s. The most popular of these shows also enjoyed profitable New York productions and tours of Britain, America, Europe, Australasia and South Africa. These shows were fare for "respectable" audiences and starred respectable girls, a marked contrast from the risqué burlesques, melodramas, bawdy music hall shows and badly translated French operettas that dominated the stage earlier in the 19th century and drew a sometimes seedy crowd looking for easy entertainment. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: H.M.S. Pinafore H.M.S. Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... Alfred Cellier (1844 – 1891), English musical composer, was born at Hackney on the 1st of December 1844. ... Benjamin Charles Stephenson, or B. C. Stephenson, (1838 – 1906) was a dramatist and librettist in Victorian England. ... Queen of my Heart, Dorothys hit song, was very popular as a parlour ballad. ...


Charles Hoyt's A Trip to Chinatown (1891) was Broadway's long-run champion (until Irene in 1919), running for 657 performances. Gilbert and Sullivan's comic operas were both pirated and imitated in New York by productions such as Reginald DeKoven's Robin Hood (1891) and John Philip Sousa's El Capitan (1896). A Trip to Coontown (1898) was the first musical comedy entirely produced and performed by African Americans in a Broadway theatre (largely inspired by the routines of the minstrel shows), followed by the ragtime-tinged Clorindy the Origin of the Cakewalk (1898), and the highly successful In Dahomey (1902). Hundreds of musical comedies were staged on Broadway in the 1890s and early 1900s comprised of songs written in New York's Tin Pan Alley involving composers such as Gus Edwards, John J. McNally, John Walter Bratton, and George M. Cohan (Little Johnny Jones (1904), 45 Minutes From Broadway (1906), and George Washington Jr. (1906)). Still, New York runs continued to be relatively short, with a few exceptions, compared with London runs, until World War I.[9] Poster for A Milk White Flag Charles Hale Hoyt (July 26, 1859 - November 20, 1900) was an American dramatist, born in Concord, N. H. He graduated at the Boston Latin School and, after being engaged in the cattle business in Colorado for a time, took up newspaper work, first with... A Trip to Chinatown is a musical comedy in three acts by Charles H. Hoyt with music by Percy Gaunt. ... Irene is a musical with a book by James Montgomery, lyrics by Joseph McCarthy, and music by Harry Tierney. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... John Philip Sousa (November 6, 1854 – March 6, 1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era known particularly for American military marches. ... El Capitan is a 3,000-foot (1000m) vertical rock formation in Yosemite National Park, located on the north side of Yosemite Valley, near its western end. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... Gus Edwards is the name of a songwriter and vaudevillian born in Germany in 1879 a playwright born in the West Indies in 1939 Categories: Disambiguation | Stub ... John Walter Bratton (January 21, 1867 - February 7, 1947) was an American composer and theatrical producer. ... George Michael Cohan (July 3, 1878 – November 5, 1942) was a United States entertainer, playwright, composer, lyricist, actor, singer, dancer, director, and producer of Irish descent. ... Little Johnny Jones was a Broadway musical that opened at the Liberty Theatre on November 7, 1904. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

George Edwardes

Meanwhile, musicals had spread to the London stage by the Gay Nineties. George Edwardes had left the management of Richard D'Oyly Carte's Savoy Theatre, perceiving that theatregoers' tastes had turned away from Savoy-style comic operas and their intellectual, political, absurdist satire. They wanted breezy music, snappy, romantic banter, and stylish spectacle. He revolutionized the London stage by presenting musical comedies at the Gaiety Theatre, Daly's Theatre and other venues that delivered these elements, borrowing others from Harrigan and Hart and adding in his famous Gaiety Girls to complete the musical and visual fun. The success of first of these, In Town in 1892 and A Gaiety Girl in 1893 (which played at other theatres), confirmed Edwardes on the path he was taking. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (621 × 881 pixel, file size: 204 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph of George Edwardes by Ellis & Walery, scanned from the 1914 edition of Cellier & Bridgemans Gilbert and Sullivan and Their Operas. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (621 × 881 pixel, file size: 204 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph of George Edwardes by Ellis & Walery, scanned from the 1914 edition of Cellier & Bridgemans Gilbert and Sullivan and Their Operas. ... Gay Nineties is an American term that refers to the decade of the 1890s. ... George Edwardes (d. ... Richard DOyly Carte Richard DOyly Carte (May 3, 1844 – April 3, 1901) was an English theatrical impresario during the latter half of the nineteenth century. ... Savoy Theatre London, December 2003 The Savoy Theatre, which opened on 10 October 1881, was built by Richard DOyly Carte (1844 - 1901) on the site of the old Savoy Palace in London as a showcase for the works of Gilbert and Sullivan, which became known as the Savoy Operas... The Savoy Operas are a series of operettas written by Gilbert and Sullivan. ... The Gaiety Theatre, London was a musical theatre in Londons Strand area. ... Dalys Theatre was located in Cranbourn Street, off Leicester Square, London. ... George Edwardes (d. ... In Town is a musical comedy written by Adrian Ross and James T. Tanner, with music by F. Osmond Carr and lyrics by Ross. ... A Gaiety Girl is an English musical comedy in two acts by a team of musical comedy neophytes: Owen Hall (book, on an outline by James T. Tanner), Harry Greenbank (lyrics) and Sidney Jones (music). ...

His early Gaiety hits included a series of light, romantic "poor maiden loves aristocrat and wins him against all odds" shows, usually with the word "Girl" in the title, including The Shop Girl (1894) and A Runaway Girl (1898), with music by Ivan Caryll and Lionel Monckton. These shows were immediately widely copied at other London theatres (and soon in America), and the Edwardian musical comedy swept away the earlier musical forms of comic opera and operetta. At Daly's Theatre, Edwardes presented slightly more complex comedy hits. The Geisha (1896) by Sidney Jones with lyrics by Harry Greenbank and Adrian Ross and then Jones' San Toy (1899) each ran for more than two years and also finding great international success. Other British musical comedy composers of the period included F. Osmond Carr and Edward Solomon. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (822x1059, 186 KB) From an old vocal score in my possession. ... The Shop Girl was a musical comedy in two acts (described by the author as a musical farce) written in 1894 by H. J. W. Dam, with Lyrics by H. J. W. Dam and Adrian Ross, and music by Ivan Caryll and additional numbers by Lionel Monckton and Adrian Ross. ... A Runaway Girl is a musical comedy written in the late 19th century. ... Ivan Caryll was a composer from the late 19th and early 20th century. ... Lionel Monckton (December 18, 1861 - September 15, 1924) was a British writer and composer of musical theatre. ... Cover of the Vocal Score Edwardian Musical Comedies are those British musical theatre shows from the period between the 1890s, when Gilbert and Sullivan began to lose their dominance, to the rise of the American musicals by George Gershwin, Cole Porter and Jerome Kern following the First World War. ... Dalys Theatre was located in Cranbourn Street, off Leicester Square, London. ... The Geisha is a musical comedy composed by Sidney Jones. ... Sidney Jones was a composer most famous for producing the scores for several musical comedies in the last Victorian period. ... Harry Greenbank was an author from the late 19th and early 20th century. ... Arthur Reed Ropes (December 23, 1859 – September 10, 1933) was better known under the psuedonym Adrian Ross a lyricist of British musical comedies in the late 19th and early 20th century. ... San Toy is a musical comedy dating from the late Victorian era . ... Frank Osmond Carr (23 April 1858–29 August 1916), known as F. Osmond Carr was an English composer of musical comedy and operetta. ... Edward Solomon (July 25, 1855 – January 22, 1895) was a prolific English composer, as well as a conductor, orchestrator and pianist. ...


The British musical comedy Florodora (1899) by Leslie Stuart and Paul Rubens made a splash on both sides of the Atlantic, as did A Chinese Honeymoon (1901), by British lyricist George Dance and American-born composer Howard Talbot, which ran for a record setting 1,074 performances in London and 376 in New York. The story concerns couples who honeymoon in China and inadvertently break the kissing laws (shades of The Mikado). After the turn of the century, Seymour Hicks (who joined forces with American producer Charles Frohman) wrote popular shows with composer Charles Taylor and others, and Edwardes and Ross continued to churn out hits like The Toreador (1901), A Country Girl, The Orchid (1903), The Girls of Gottenberg (1907), Our Miss Gibbs (1909), and The Boy (1917). However, only three decades after Gilbert and Sullivan broke the stranglehold that French operettas had on the London stage, European operettas came roaring back to Britain and America beginning in 1907 with the London hit production of The Merry Widow. Florodora was one of the first successful Broadway musicals of the 20th century. ... Leslie Stuart (15 March 1863 – 27 March 1928) was an English composer of early musical theatre, best known for the hit show Florodora (1899) and many popular songs. ... Paul Alfred Rubens, (b London, 29 April 1875; d Falmouth, 25 February 1917) was a songwriter and scribe of the musicals and songs for the Victorian and Edwardian musical stage. ... A Chinese Honeymoon is a musical comedy in two acts by George Dance, with music by Howard Talbot. ... Poster from Dance and Carylls The Girl from Paris, 1897 George Dance (October 14, 1857 - 1932), was an English librettist in the 1890s and an important theatrical manager at the beginning of the 20th Century. ... Richard Lansdale Munkittrick, better known as Howard Talbot, composer, born New York on 9 March 1865 and died in Reigate 12 September 1928. ... The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert, their ninth of fourteen operatic collaborations. ... Seymour Hicks Seymour Hicks (30 January 1871 - 6 April 1949) was a British actor and music hall performer. ... Charles Frohman (1860 - 1915) was a U.S. theatre manager. ... Charles Henry Taylor (1860 - June 27, 1907) was a British lyricist, best known for his lyrics for early 20th century West End musical comedies and a comic opera, Tom Jones. ... The Toreador is a musical comedy in two acts by James T. Tanner and Harry Nicholls, with lyrics by Adrian Ross and Percy Greenbank and music by Ivan Caryll and Lionel Monckton. ... A Country Girl is a musical play in two acts by James T. Tanner, with lyrics by Adrian Ross, additional lyrics by Percy Greenbank, music by Lionel Monckton and additional songs by Paul Rubens. ... The Orchid is a musical play in two acts by James T. Tanner, with lyrics by Adrian Ross and Percy Greenbank and music by Ivan Caryll and Lionel Monckton and additional numbers by Paul Rubens. ... The Girls of Gottenberg is a musical play in two acts by George Grossmith and L. E. Berman, with lyrics by Adrian Ross and Basil Hood, and music by Ivan Caryll and Lionel Monckton, which opened at the Gaiety Theatre, London, managed by George Edwardes, on 15 May 1907, and... Our Miss Gibbs is a musical comedy in three acts by Cryptos and James T. Tanner, with lyrics by Adrian Ross and Percy Greenbank, music by Ivan Caryll and Lionel Monckton. ... The Boy is a musical comedy by Fred Thompson, with music by Lionel Monckton and Howard Talbot. ... For the ballet, see The Merry Widow (ballet). ...


Operetta and World War I

Probably the best known composers of operetta, beginning in the second half of the 19th century, were Jacques Offenbach and Johann Strauss II (usually played in bad, bawdy translations in London and New York). In England, W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan created an English answer to French operetta, styled British comic opera, that became family-friendly hits in Britain and the U.S. in the 1870s and '80s. Although British and American musicals of the 1890s and the first few years of the 20th century had virtually swept operetta and comic opera from the stage, operettas returned to the London and Broadway stages in 1907, and operettas and musicals became direct competitors for a while. The winner of this competition was the theatre going public, who needed escapist entertainment during the dark times of World War I and flocked to theatres for musicals like Maid of the Mountains, Irene, and the astonishing hit Chu Chin Chow, as well as popular revues like The Bing Boys Are Here. Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880) was a French composer and cellist of the Romantic era with German-Jewish descent and one of the originators of the operetta form. ... Johann Strauss II The Waltz King coming to life in the Stadtpark, Vienna Johann Strauss II (in German: Johann Strauß (Sohn), Johann Strauss (son); in English also Johann Strauss the Younger, Johann Strauss Jr. ... Sir William Schwenck Gilbert Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (November 18, 1836 – May 29, 1911) was an English dramatist, librettist and illustrator best known for the fourteen comic operas produced in collaboration with the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan. ... Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (May 13, 1842 – November 22, 1900) was an English composer best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist W. S. Gilbert. ... Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Maid of the Mountains is a light opera or musical play in three acts which, after an initial try out at the Princes Theatre in Manchester on 23 February 1916, was rewritten and then opened at Dalys Theatre in London on February 10, 1917. ... Irene is a musical with a book by James Montgomery, lyrics by Joseph McCarthy, and music by Harry Tierney. ... Chu Chin Chow is a musical comedy written, produced and directed by Oscar Asche, with music by Frederic Norton, based (with minor embelishments) on the story of Ali Baba and the 40 Thieves. ... The Bing Boys Are Here was the first of a series of revues which played at the Alhambra Theatre, London during the last two years of World War One. ...

Victor Herbert

In the early years of the 20th century, translations of 19th century continental operettas, as well as operettas by a new generation of European composers, such as Franz Lehár and Oscar Straus, among others, spread throughout the English-speaking world. They were joined by British and American operetta composers and librettists of the 1910s (the "Princess Theatre" shows) by P. G. Wodehouse, Guy Bolton and Harry B. Smith, who paved the way for Jerome Kern's later work by showing that a musical could combine a light popular touch with real continuity between story and musical numbers, and Victor Herbert, whose work included some intimate musical plays with modern settings as well as his string of famous operettas (The Fortune Teller (1898), Babes in Toyland (1903), Mlle. Modiste (1905), The Red Mill (1906), and Naughty Marietta (1910)). These were all owed much to Gilbert and Sullivan and the composers of the 1890s.[10] Image File history File links Description: Victor Herbert Size: 246 &times 309 pixels Source: What We Hear in Music, Anne S. Faulkner, Victor Talking Machine Co. ... Image File history File links Description: Victor Herbert Size: 246 &times 309 pixels Source: What We Hear in Music, Anne S. Faulkner, Victor Talking Machine Co. ... Lehár Franz Lehár (30 April 1870 – 24 October 1948) was an Austrian composer of Hungarian descent, mainly known for his operettas. ... Oscar Straus (6 March 1870 - 11 January 1954) was a Viennese composer of operettas. ... Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, KBE (15 October 1881 – 14 February 1975) (IPA: ) was a comic writer who has enjoyed enormous popular success for more than seventy years. ... Guy Bolton (November 23, 1884 - September 6, 1979) was a writer of Broadway musical comedies who frequently collaborated with P. G. Wodehouse and Jerome Kern among others. ... Harry B. Smith (born December 28, 1860 in Buffalo, New York - died January 2, 1936 in Atlantic City) was a reknowned and prolific writer, lyricist, and composer. ... Jerome David Kern (January 27, 1885 – November 11, 1945) was an American composer of popular music. ... Victor Herbert Victor August Herbert (February 1, 1859–May 26, 1924) was a popular composer of light opera, and an accomplished cellist and conductor. ... The Fortune Teller is an operetta in three acts written by Victor Herbert, with a libretto by Harry B. Smith. ... Babes in Toyland is a 1903 operetta by Victor Herbert, which wove together various characters from Mother Goose nursery rhymes into a musical — mainly because librettist Glen MacDonough wanted to cash in on the Wizard of Oz phenomena sweeping Broadway that year. ... Mlle. ... The Red Mill is an operetta written by Victor Herbert, with a libretto by Henry Blossom. ... Naughty Marietta is a musical comedy, with libretto by Rida Johnson Young and music by Victor Herbert, which opened on Broadway on November 7, 1910: one of its best-known songs is Ah! Sweet Mystery Of Life. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ...


The legacy of these operetta composers continued to serve as an inspiration to the next generation of composers of operettas and musicals in the 1920s and 1930s, such as Rudolf Friml, Irving Berlin, Sigmund Romberg, George Gershwin, and Noel Coward, and these, in turn, influenced the Rodgers, Sondheim, and many others later in the century.[6] At the same time, George M. Cohan kept the theatres filled with lively musical entertainments, as the Shubert Brothers began to take control of the Broadway theatres. Rudolf Friml (December 7, 1879 - November 12, 1972) was a composer of operettas, musicals, songs, as well as a pianist. ... Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was an American composer and lyricist, one of the most prodigious and famous American songwriters in history. ... Sigmund Romberg (July 29, 1887 – November 9, 1951) was an American composer best known for his operettas. ... “Gershwin” redirects here. ... Noël Peirce Coward (December 16, 1899 – March 26, 1973) was an Academy Award winning English actor, playwright, and composer of popular music. ... George Michael Cohan (July 3, 1878 – November 5, 1942) was a United States entertainer, playwright, composer, lyricist, actor, singer, dancer, director, and producer of Irish descent. ... ...


The Roaring Twenties

The motion picture mounted a challenge to the stage. At first, films were silent and presented only a limited challenge to theatre. But by the end of the 1920s, films like The Jazz Singer could be presented with synchronized sound, and critics wondered if the cinema would replace live theatre altogether. The musicals of the Roaring Twenties, borrowing from vaudeville, music hall and other light entertainments, tended to ignore plot in favor of emphasizing star actors and actresses, big dance routines, and popular songs. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, popular music was dominated by theatre writers. Many shows were revues with little plot. For instance, Florenz Ziegfeld produced annual spectacular song-and-dance revues on Broadway featuring extravagant sets and elaborate costumes, but there was little to tie the various numbers together. In London, the Aldwych Farces were similarly successful, and stars such as Ivor Novello were popular. These spectacles also raised production values, and mounting a musical generally became more expensive. The Jazz Singer (1927) is a U.S. movie musical and the first feature-length motion picture with talking sequences. ... A scene typical of the Follies of Florenz Ziegfeld, the most popular Broadway impresario of the decade. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... 1928 Time cover featuring Ziegfeld Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. ... Ivor Novello David Ivor Davies (January 15, 1893 – March 6, 1951), better known as Ivor Novello, was a Welsh composer, singer and actor who became one of the most popular British entertainers of the early 20th century. ...

Sheet music from Sally, 1920

Typical of the decade were lighthearted productions like Sally; Lady Be Good; Sunny; No, No, Nanette; Oh, Kay!; and Funny Face. Their books may have been forgettable, but they produced enduring standards from George Gershwin, Cole Porter, Jerome Kern, Vincent Youmans, and Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, among others, and stars like Marilyn Miller and Fred Astaire. Audiences tapped their toes to these musicals on both sides of the Atlantic ocean while continuing to patronize the popular operettas that were continuing to come out of continental Europe and also from composers like Noel Coward in London and Sigmund Romberg and Rudolf Friml in America. Clearly, cinema had not killed live theatre. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sally is a theater musical with music by Jerome Kern, lyrics by Clifford Grey and book by Guy Bolton with additional lyrics by Buddy DeSylva and P. G. Wodehouse. ... Sally is a theater musical with music by Jerome Kern, lyrics by Clifford Grey and book by Guy Bolton with additional lyrics by Buddy DeSylva and P. G. Wodehouse. ... Lady Be Good (title sometimes presented with an exclamation point) is the title of a Broadway musical play that was written by Guy Bolton, Fred Thompson, featured music by George and Ira Gershwin. ... Look up sunny in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... No, No, Nanette is an English musical comedy with lyrics by Irving Caesar and Otto Harbach, music by Vincent Youmans, and a book by Otto Harbach and Frank Mandel. ... Oh, Kay! is a Broadway musical with book by Guy Bolton and P. G. Wodehouse, lyrics by Ira Gershwin and music by George Gershwin. ... Funny Face is a 1927 musical composed by George Gershwin, with lyrics by Ira Gershwin. ... “Gershwin” redirects here. ... Cole Albert Porter (June 9, 1891 – October 15, 1964) was an American composer and songwriter from Peru, Indiana. ... Jerome David Kern (January 27, 1885 – November 11, 1945) was an American composer of popular music. ... Vincent Youmans (September 27, 1898 - April 5, 1946) was an American popular composer and Broadway producer. ... This article is about the American composer. ... Lorenz (Larry) Hart (May 2, 1895 - November 22, 1943) was the lyricist half of the famed Broadway songwriting team Rodgers and Hart. ... Marilyn Miller Marilyn Miller (born Mary Ellen Reynolds) (September 1, 1898 – April 7, 1936) was one of the most popular Broadway musical stars of the 1920s and early 1930s. ... Fred Astaire (May 10, 1899 – June 22, 1987), born Frederick Austerlitz in Omaha, Nebraska,[1] was an American film and Broadway stage dancer, choreographer, singer and actor. ... Noël Peirce Coward (December 16, 1899 – March 26, 1973) was an Academy Award winning English actor, playwright, and composer of popular music. ... Sigmund Romberg (July 29, 1887 – November 9, 1951) was an American composer best known for his operettas. ... Rudolf Friml (December 7, 1879 - November 12, 1972) was a composer of operettas, musicals, songs, as well as a pianist. ...


Leaving these comparatively frivolous entertainments behind, and taking the drama a giant step beyond Victor Herbert and sentimental operetta, Show Boat, which premiered on December 27, 1927 at the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York, represented a complete integration of book and score, with dramatic themes, as told through the music, dialogue, setting and movement, woven together more seamlessly than in previous musicals. Show Boat, with a book and lyrics adapted from Edna Ferber's novel by Oscar Hammerstein II and P. G. Wodehouse, and music by Jerome Kern, presented a new concept that was embraced by audiences immediately. Despite some of its startling themes—miscegenation among them—the original production ran a total of 572 performances. Still, Broadway runs lagged behind London's in general. By way of comparison, in 1920, The Beggar's Opera began an astonishing run of 1,463 performances at the Lyric Theatre in Hammersmith, England. For films based on the musical, see Show Boat (film). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ziegfeld Theatre was a Broadway theatre formerly located at the intersection of Sixth Avenue and 54th Street in Manhattan, New York City. ... Edna Ferber (August 15, 1885 - April 16, 1968), was an American novelist, author and playwright. ... For work done with Richard Rodgers, see Rodgers and Hammerstein Oscar Hammerstein II (July 12, 1895 – August 23, 1960) was a New-York born writer, producer, and (usually uncredited) director of musicals for almost forty years. ... Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, KBE (15 October 1881 – 14 February 1975) (IPA: ) was a comic writer who has enjoyed enormous popular success for more than seventy years. ... Jerome David Kern (January 27, 1885 – November 11, 1945) was an American composer of popular music. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. ... Painting based on The Beggars Opera, Scene V, William Hogarth, c. ... Hammersmith is an urban centre in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in West London, England, approximately 5 miles (8km) west of Charing Cross on the north bank of the River Thames. ...


1930s

The Great Depression affected theatre audiences on both sides of the Atlantic, as people had little money to spend on entertainment. In addition, "talkie" films at low prices presented a strong challenge to theatre of all kinds. Only a few shows exceeded a run on Broadway or in London of 500 performances. Still, for those who could afford it, this was an exciting time in the development of musical theatre. Encouraged by the success of Show Boat, creative teams began following the "format" of that popular hit. Of Thee I Sing (1931), a political satire with music by George Gershwin and lyrics by Ira Gershwin and Morrie Ryskind, was the first musical to be awarded the Pulitzer Prize. The Band Wagon (1931), starred dancing partners Fred Astaire and his sister Adele. Porter's Anything Goes (1934) affirmed Ethel Merman's position as the First Lady of musical theatre – a title she maintained for many years. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Of Thee I Sing is a musical set in the White House, with music and lyrics by George and Ira Gershwin, to a book by George S. Kaufman and Morrie Ryskind. ... Ira Gershwin (6 December 1896 – 17 August 1983) was an American lyricist who collaborated with his younger brother, composer George Gershwin, to create some of the most memorable songs of the 20th century. ... Morrie Ryskind (born Morris Ryskind 20 October 1895 in New York City, New York, USA - 24 August 1985 in Washington, DC), was a Jewish-American Hollywood and Broadway writer, lyricist, and director. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... The Band Wagon is a musical comedy film, released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1953, which tells the story of an aging musical star who wants to star in a Broadway play that will restart his career. ... For other uses, see Anything Goes (disambiguation). ... Ethel Merman (January 16, 1908 – February 15, 1984) was a Tony Award winning star of stage and film musicals, well known for her powerful voice and vocal range. ...


Gershwin's Porgy and Bess (1935) was a step closer to opera than Show Boat and the other musicals of the era, and in some respects it foreshadowed such "operatic" musicals as West Side Story and Sweeney Todd. The Cradle Will Rock (1937), with a book and score by Marc Blitzstein and directed by Orson Welles, was a highly political piece that, despite the controversy surrounding it, managed to run for 108 performances. Kurt Weill's Knickerbocker Holiday brought to the musical stage New York City's early history, using as its source writings by Washington Irving, while good-naturedly satirizing the good intentions of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. George Gershwin photograph by Edward Steichen in 1927. ... The cast of Porgy and Bess during the Boston try-out prior to the Broadway opening. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... This article is about the musical. ... Sweeney Todd, the Demon Barber of Fleet Street is a Tony Award-winning musical with a book by Hugh Wheeler and music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. ... The 1937 musical The Cradle Will Rock by Marc Blitzstein was originally a part of the Federal Theatre Project. ... Marc Blitzstein (March 2, 1905 – January 22, 1964) was an American composer. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900 – April 3, 1950), born in Dessau, Germany and died in New York City, was a German and in his later years, a German-American composer active from the 1920s until his death. ... Knickerbocker Holiday was a Broadway musical written by Kurt Weill (music) and Maxwell Anderson (book and lyrics); it was directed by Joshua Logan. ... Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. ... FDR redirects here. ...


British writers such as Noel Coward and Ivor Novello continued to deliver old fashioned, sentimential musicals, such as The Dancing Years. Similarly, Rodgers & Hart returned from Hollywood to churn out a series of lighthearted Broadway hits, including On Your Toes (1936, with Ray Bolger, the first Broadway musical to make dramatic use of classical dance), Babes In Arms (1937), I'd Rather Be Right, a political satire with George M. Cohan as President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and The Boys From Syracuse (1938), and Cole Porter wrote a similar string of hits, including Anything Goes (1934) and DuBarry Was a Lady (1939). He later would go on to write scores for such classics as Can-Can (1953) and Silk Stockings (1955). The Dancing Years was one of the most popular musicals by Ivor Novello. ... Rodgers and Hart (1936) Rodgers and Hart was the songwriting team of Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart. ... On Your Toes has two possible meanings. ... Ray Bolger (January 10, 1904 – January 15, 1987) was an American entertainer of stage and screen, best known for his portrayal of the Scarecrow (and the farmworker Hunk) who was Dorothys favorite in the 1939 film classic, The Wizard of Oz. ... Babes in Arms is a 1937 musical theater production which tells the story of a boy who puts on a show to avoid being sent to a work farm. ... Id Rather Be Right is a 1937 Moss Hart and George Kaufman musical play about Franklin Roosevelt, with George M. Cohan, lyrics by Lorenz Hart, and music by Richard Rodgers. ... George Michael Cohan (July 3, 1878 – November 5, 1942) was a United States entertainer, playwright, composer, lyricist, actor, singer, dancer, director, and producer of Irish descent. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Boys from Syracuse is a musical by Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, based on William Shakespeares play, The Comedy of Errors, as adapted by librettist George Abbott, who also directed. ... Cole Albert Porter (June 9, 1891 – October 15, 1964) was an American composer and songwriter from Peru, Indiana. ... For other uses, see Anything Goes (disambiguation). ... MGM Musical version of DuBarry was a Lady DuBarry Was a Lady was a 1939 musical with songs by Cole Porter. ... Can-Can is a 1953 musical with music and lyrics by Cole Porter, with a book by Abe Burrows. ... Silk Stockings was a 1954 musical composed by Cole Porter, based upon Ninotchka. ...


Despite the economic woes and the competition from film, the musical survived. In fact, the move towards political satire in Of Thee I Sing, I'd Rather Be Right and Knickerbocker Holiday, together with the musical sophistication of the Gershwin, Kern, Rodgers and Weill musicals and the fast-paced staging and naturalistic dialogue style created by director George Abbott showed that musical theatre was finally evolving beyond the gags and showgirls musicals of the Gay Nineties and Roaring Twenties and the sentimental romance of operetta. George Abbott (June 25, 1887 - January 31, 1995) was a theatre producer and director, playwright, screenwriter, and film director and producer whose career spanned more than seven decades. ...


The 1940s would begin with more hits from Porter, Irving Berlin, Rodgers and Hart, Weill and Gershwin, some with runs over 500 performances as the economy rebounded, but artistic change was in the air. Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was an American composer and lyricist, one of the most prodigious and famous American songwriters in history. ...


The Golden Age (1943 to 1968)

The Golden Age of the Broadway musical is generally considered to have begun with Oklahoma! (1943) and to have ended with Hair (1968). Oklahoma! was the first musical play written by composer Richard Rodgers and lyricist/librettist Oscar Hammerstein II (see Rodgers and Hammerstein). ... This article is about the musical. ...


1940s

Rodgers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma! had a cohesive (if somewhat slim) plot, songs that furthered the action of the story, and featured dream ballets which advanced the plot and developed the characters, rather than using dance as an excuse to parade scantily-clad women across the stage. Rodgers and Hammerstein hired ballet choreographer Agnes de Mille, who used everyday motions to help the characters express their ideas. It defied musical conventions by raising its first act curtain not on a bevy of chorus girls, but rather on a woman churning butter, with an off-stage voice singing the opening lines of Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'. It was the first "blockbuster" Broadway show, running a total of 2,212 performances, and was made into a hit film. It remains one of the most frequently produced of the team's projects. The two collaborators created an extraordinary collection of some of musical theatre's best loved and most enduring classics, including Carousel (1945), South Pacific (1949), The King and I (1951), and The Sound of Music (1959). Some of these musicals, including Oklahoma!, Carousel, South Pacific and The Sound of Music, treat more serious subject matter than most earlier shows.[citation needed] Rodgers (left) and Hammerstein (right), with Irving Berlin (middle) and Helen Tamiris, watching auditions at the St. ... Agnes George de Mille (September 18, 1905 – October 7, 1993) was an American dancer and choreographer. ... Oh What a Beautiful Mornin is the opening song from the musical Oklahoma! written by composer Richard Rodgers and lyricist/librettist Oscar Hammerstein II. It is sung by Curly McLain at the beginning of the first scene, and was the first a cappella opening to a musical. ... Carousel is a 1945 stage musical by Richard Rodgers (music) and Oscar Hammerstein II (book and lyrics) that was adapted from Ferenc Molnars play Liliom. ... This article is about the stage musical. ... The King and I is a musical by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, with a script based on the book Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon. ... For other uses, see The Sound of Music (disambiguation). ...


Americana was displayed on Broadway during the "Golden Age", as the wartime cycle of shows began to arrive. An example of this is On The Town (1944), written by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, composed by Leonard Bernstein and choreographed by Jerome Robbins. The musical is set during wartime, where a group of three sailors are on a 24 hour shore leave in New York. During their day, they each meet a wonderful woman. The women in this show have a specific power to them, as if saying, "Come here! I need a man!" The show also gives the impression of a country with an uncertain future, as the sailors also have with their women before leaving. On the Town is a musical that opened on Broadway at the Adelphi Theatre on December 28, 1944, with music by Leonard Bernstein, book and lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, direction by George Abbott, and choreography by Jerome Robbins. ... Comden and Green was the writing duo of Betty Comden and Adolph Green. ... Adolph Green (December 2, 1914 – October 23, 2002) was an American lyricist and playwright who, with long-time collaborator Betty Comden, penned the screenplays and songs for some of the most beloved movie musicals, particularly as part of Arthur Freeds production unit at MGM, during the genres heyday. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Jerome Robbins (October 11, 1918 - July 29, 1998) was an American choreographer whose work has included everything from classical ballet to contemporary musical theater. ...


Oklahoma! inspired others to continue the trend. Irving Berlin used sharpshooter Annie Oakley's career as a basis for his Annie Get Your Gun (1946, 1,147 performances); Burton Lane, E. Y. Harburg, and Fred Saidy combined political satire with Irish whimsy for their fantasy Finian's Rainbow (1944, 1,725 performances); and Cole Porter found inspiration in William Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew for Kiss Me, Kate (1948, 1,077 performances). The American musicals overwhelmed the old-fashioned British Coward/Novello-style shows, one of the last big successes of which was Novello's Perchance to Dream (1945, 1,021 performances). Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was an American composer and lyricist, one of the most prodigious and famous American songwriters in history. ... Annie Oakley (August 13, 1860 – November 3, 1926) b. ... Annie Get Your Gun is a musical with lyrics and music written by Irving Berlin and a book by Herbert Fields and his sister Dorothy Fields. ... Burton Lane (February 2, 1912, New York City - January 5, 1997, New York City) was a composer and lyricist. ... E. Y. Yip Harburg (April 8, 1896 - March 5, 1981) was a lyricist who worked with many well-known composers. ... Fred Saidy (February 11, 1907 - May 14, 1982) was an American playwright and screenwriter. ... Finians Rainbow is a musical with a book by E.Y. Harburg and Fred Saidy, lyrics by Harburg, and music by Burton Lane. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... Kiss Me, Kate is a musical with a book by Samuel and Bella Spewack and music and lyrics by Cole Porter. ... Perchance to Dream is an Operetta/Musical show by UK composer Ivor Novello. ...


1950s

Damon Runyon's eclectic characters were at the core of Frank Loesser's and Abe Burrows' Guys and Dolls, (1950, 1,200 performances); and the Gold Rush was the setting for Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe's Paint Your Wagon (1951). The relatively brief run—289 performances—of that show didn't discourage Lerner and Loewe from collaborating again, this time on My Fair Lady (1956), an adaptation of George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion starring Rex Harrison and Julie Andrews, which at 2,717 performances held the long-run record for many years. Popular Hollywood movies were made of these musicals. Damon Runyon Damon Runyon (October 4, 1884 – December 10, 1946) was a newspaperman and writer. ... Image:FrankLoesser1. ... Abe Burrows on Match Game Abe Burrows (December 18, 1910 – May 17, 1985), was a noted American humorist, author, and director for radio and the stage, particularly Broadway. ... Guys and Dolls is a musical, with the music and lyrics written by Frank Loesser and book by Jo Swerling and Abe Burrows, based on The Idyll Of Miss Sarah Brown, a short story by Damon Runyon. ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... Alan Jay Lerner (August 31, 1918 – June 14, 1986) was an American Broadway lyricist and librettist. ... Frederic Loewe, an Austrian-American composer (June 10, 1901 - February 14, 1988) worked with lyricist Alan J. Lerner in musical theater. ... Paint Your Wagon is a 1951 Broadway musical comedy, with book and lyrics by Alan J. Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe, set in a mining camp in Gold Rush-era California. ... Lerner and Loewe is a designation for the musical comedy writing team of lyricist and librettist Alan Jay Lerner and composer Frederick Loewe. ... My Fair Lady is a musical with a book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe, based on George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was an Irish dramatist, literary critic, and socialist. ... Play cover, depicting Mrs Campbell as Eliza Pygmalion (1913) is a play by George Bernard Shaw based on Ovids tale of Pygmalion. ... Sir Reginald Carey Rex Harrison, KBE (5 March 1908 – 2 June 1990) was an Academy Award- and Tony Award-winning English theatre and film actor. ... Dame Julie Elizabeth Andrews, DBE (born Julia Elizabeth Wells[1] on 1 October 1935[2]) is an award-winning English actress, singer, author and cultural icon. ...


As in Oklahoma!, dance was an integral part of West Side Story (1957), which transported Romeo and Juliet to modern day New York City and converted the feuding Montague and Capulet families into opposing ethnic gangs, the Sharks and the Jets. The book was adapted by Arthur Laurents, with music by Leonard Bernstein and lyrics by newcomer Stephen Sondheim. It was embraced by the critics but failed to be a popular choice for the "blue-haired matinee ladies," who preferred the small town River City, Iowa of Meredith Willson's The Music Man to the alleys of Manhattan's Upper West Side. Apparently Tony Award voters were of a similar mind, since they favored the former over the latter. West Side Story had a respectable run of 732 performances (1,040 in the West End), while The Music Man ran nearly twice as long, with 1,375 performances. However, the film of West Side Story was extremely successful. Arthur Laurents (born July 14, 1918) is an American playwright, novelist, screenwriter, librettist and stage director. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Stephen Joshua Sondheim (b. ... Robert Meredith Willson (18 May 1902 – 15 June 1984) was an American composer and playwright, best known as the writer of The Music Man. ... This article is about the stage musical. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... What is popularly called the Tony Award (formally, the Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre) is an annual award celebrating achievements in live American theater, including musical theater, primarily honoring productions on Broadway in New York. ...


Laurents and Sondheim teamed up again for Gypsy (1959, 702 performances), with Jule Styne providing the music for a backstage story about the most driven stage mother of all-time, stripper Gypsy Rose Lee's mother Rose. The original production ran for 702 performances, and was given three subsequent revivals, with Angela Lansbury, Tyne Daly, and Bernadette Peters tackling the role made famous by Ethel Merman. The 1950s ended with a big bang, however, with The Sound of Music, the last musical written by Rodgers and Hammerstein, which became another hit for Mary Martin and, especially after the release of its extremely successful 1965 film version, has become one of the most popular musicals in history. Gypsy: A Musical Fable is a musical with music by Jule Styne, lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. ... Jule Styne (December 31, 1905 – September 20, 1994) was a British-born American songwriter, especially famous for a series of Broadway Musicals, which included several very well known and frequently revived shows. ... Gypsy Rose Lee (also known as Rose Louise Hovick and Louise Hovick) (February 9, 1911 or 1914 – April 26, 1970) was an American actress and burlesque entertainer, whose 1957 memoir, which included a scathing portrait of her domineering mother, was made into the stage musical and film Gypsy. ... Angela Lansbury CBE (born October 16, 1925) is a four-time Tony-winning, six-time Golden Globe-winning, three-time Oscar-nominated, and eighteen-time Emmy-nominated English actress. ... Tyne Daly (born Ellen Tyne Daly on February 21, 1946 in Madison, Wisconsin) is an Emmy Award and Tony Award-winning American stage and screen actress. ... Bernadette Peters (born February 28, 1948) is an American actress and singer. ... Rodgers (left) and Hammerstein (right), with Irving Berlin (middle) and Helen Tamiris, watching auditions at the St. ... Rodgers and Hammersteins The Sound of Music is a 1965 film directed by Robert Wise and starring Julie Andrews in the lead role. ...


1960s

In 1960, The Fantasticks was first produced off-Broadway. This intimate allegorical show would quietly run for over 40 years at the Sullivan Street Theatre in Greenwich Village, becoming by far the longest-running musical in history. The 1960s would then see a number of traditional blockbusters like Fiddler on the Roof and Hello, Dolly! before moving to more risqué pieces like Cabaret and ending with the emergence of the rock musical. Two men had considerable impact on musical theatre history beginning in this decade: The Fantasticks is a 1960 musical with music by Harvey Schmidt and lyrics by Tom Jones. ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... For the film, see Fiddler on the Roof (film) Fiddler on the Roof is a well-known Tony Award-winning musical with music by Jerry Bock, lyrics by Sheldon Harnick, and book by Joseph Stein, set in Tsarist Russia in 1905. ... Hello, Dolly! is a musical with lyrics and music by Jerry Herman and a book by Michael Stewart, based on Thornton Wilders 1938 farce The Merchant of Yonkers, which Wilder revised and retitled The Matchmaker in 1955. ... Cabaret is a musical with a book by Joe Masteroff, lyrics by Fred Ebb, and music by John Kander. ... A rock opera or rock musical is a musical production in the form of an opera or a musical in a modern rock and roll style rather than more traditional forms. ...


The first project for which Sondheim wrote both music and lyrics was A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1962, 964 performances), with a book based on the works of Plautus by Burt Shevelove and Larry Gelbart, and starring Zero Mostel. Sondheim moved the musical beyond its concentration on the romantic plots typical of earlier eras; his work tended to be darker, exploring the grittier sides of life both present and past. Some of his earlier works include Anyone Can Whistle (1964, which—at a mere nine performances, despite having star power in Lee Remick and Angela Lansbury — is an infamous flop), Company (1970), Follies (1971), and A Little Night Music (1973). He has found inspiration in the unlikeliest of sources — the opening of Japan to Western trade for Pacific Overtures, a legendary murderous barber seeking revenge in the Industrial Age of London for Sweeney Todd, the paintings of Georges Seurat for Sunday in the Park with George, fairy tales for Into the Woods, and a collection of individuals intent on eliminating the President of the United States in Assassins. Hi! Youre car can speak <a href=http://immobilizer. ... Titus Macchius Plautus, generally referred to simply as Plautus, was a playwright of Ancient Rome. ... Burt Shevelove (1915 - 8 April 1981) was an American musical theater writer, lyricist, librettist, and director. ... Larry Gelbart (b. ... Mostel in Sirocco (1951) Zero Mostel (February 28, 1915 – September 8, 1977) was a Brooklyn-born stage and film actor best known for his portrayal of comic characters such as Tevye in Fiddler on the Roof , Pseudolus in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, and Max... Anyone Can Whistle is a musical with a book by Arthur Laurents and music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. ... Lee Remick Lee Remick (December 14, 1935 - July 2, 1991), was an American actress admired for her versality and her great beauty. ... Angela Lansbury CBE (born October 16, 1925) is a four-time Tony-winning, six-time Golden Globe-winning, three-time Oscar-nominated, and eighteen-time Emmy-nominated English actress. ... Company is a musical with a book by George Furth and music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. ... Follies is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and a book by James Goldman. ... A Little Night Music is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by Hugh Wheeler. ... Pacific Overtures was an ambitious 1976 musical by Stephen Sondheim, with a libretto by John Weidman, and additional material by Hugh Wheeler, set in 1853 Japan. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Sweeney Todd, the Demon Barber of Fleet Street is a Tony Award-winning musical with a book by Hugh Wheeler and music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. ... Le Chahut was painted by Seurat from 1889 to 1890. ... Sunday in the Park with George is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by James Lapine. ... Into the Woods is an award-winning musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by James Lapine. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Assassins is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by John Weidman and was based on an idea by Charles Gilbert, Jr. ...


While some critics have argued that some of Sondheim’s musicals are less popular with the public because of their unusual lyrical sophistication and musical complexity, others have praised these features of his work, as well as the interplay of lyrics and music in his shows. Some of Sondheim's notable innovations include a show presented in reverse (Merrily We Roll Along) and the above-mentioned Anyone Can Whistle, in which Act 1 ends with the cast informing the audience that they are mad. Merrily We Roll Along is a musical with a book by George Furth and lyrics and music by Stephen Sondheim. ...


Jerry Herman played a significant role in American musical theatre, beginning with his first Broadway production, Milk and Honey (1961, 563 performances), about the founding of the state of Israel, and continuing with the smash hits Hello, Dolly! (1964, 2,844 performances), Mame (1966, 1,508 performances), and La Cage aux Folles (1983, 1,761 performances). Even his less successful shows like Dear World (1969) and Mack & Mabel (1974) have had memorable scores (Mack & Mabel was later reworked into a London hit). Writing both words and music, many of Herman's showtunes have become popular standards, including "Hello, Dolly!", "We Need a Little Christmas", "I Am What I Am", "Mame", "The Best of Times", "Before the Parade Passes By", "Put On Your Sunday Clothes", "It Only Takes a Moment", "Bosom Buddies", and "I Won't Send Roses", recorded by such artists as Louis Armstrong, Eydie Gorme, Barbra Streisand, Petula Clark and Bernadette Peters. Herman's songbook has been the subject of two popular musical revues, Jerry's Girls (Broadway, 1985), and Showtune (off-Broadway, 2003). Jerry Herman Jerry Herman (born Gerald Herman on July 10, 1933 in New York City) is an American composer/lyricist of the Broadway musical theater. ... Milk and Honey is an original musical by Jerry Herman and Don Appell. ... Hello, Dolly! is a musical with lyrics and music by Jerry Herman and a book by Michael Stewart, based on Thornton Wilders 1938 farce The Merchant of Yonkers, which Wilder revised and retitled The Matchmaker in 1955. ... MAME is an emulator application designed to recreate the hardware of arcade game systems in software, with the intent of preserving gaming history and preventing vintage games from being lost or forgotten. ... La Cage aux Folles is a Tony Award-winning musical with a book by Harvey Fierstein and lyrics and music by Jerry Herman. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mack & Mabel is a Broadway musical play. ... Mack & Mabel is a Broadway musical play. ... One of the most famous Broadway showtunes ever written, Hello, Dolly! is the title song of the popular 1964 musical Hello, Dolly!. The music and lyrics were written by Jerry Herman who also wrote the scores for many other popular musicals including Mame and La Cage aux Folles. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... Eydie Gorme (real name Edith Gormezano) (born August 16, 1931 in The Bronx, New York City, United States), is an American singer, and wife of Steve Lawrence. ... Barbra Streisand (pronounced STRY-sand, IPA: ; born April 24, 1942) is an American singer, theatre and film actress, composer, liberal political activist, film producer and director. ... Petula Clark, CBE (born 15 November 1932), is an English singer, actress and composer best known for her upbeat popular international hits of the 1960s. ... Bernadette Peters (born February 28, 1948) is an American actress and singer. ... Jerrys Girls is a Broadway musical revue based on the songs of composer Jerry Herman. ... Showtune (New York production 2003) is a popular musical revue celebrating the words and music of Jerry Herman, the composer and lyricist of the Broadway musicals Milk and Honey (1961), Hello, Dolly! (1964), Mame (1966), Dear World (1969), Mack & Mabel (1974), The Grand Tour (1979), and La Cage aux Folles...


The musical started to diverge from the relatively narrow confines of the 1950s. Rock music would be used in several Broadway musicals, beginning with Hair, which featured not only rock music but also nudity and controversial opinions about the Vietnam War. For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... This article is about the musical. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Racial and religious tolerance

After Show Boat and Porgy and Bess, and as the struggle in America and elsewhere for minorities' civil rights progressed, Hammerstein, Harold Arlen, Yip Harburg and others were emboldened to write more musicals and operas which aimed to normalize societal toleration of minorities and urged racial harmony. Early Golden Age works that focused on racial tolerance included Finian's Rainbow, South Pacific, and the The King and I. Towards the end of the Golden Age, several shows tackled Jewish subjects and issues, such as Fiddler on the Roof, Blitz! and later Rags. The original concept that became West Side Story was set in the Lower East Side during Easter-Passover celebrations; the rival gangs were to be Jewish and Italian Catholic.[11] For films based on the musical, see Show Boat (film). ... The cast of Porgy and Bess during the Boston try-out prior to the Broadway opening. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Harold Arlen (February 15, 1905 – April 23, 1986) was an American composer of popular music. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Finians Rainbow is a musical with a book by E.Y. Harburg and Fred Saidy, lyrics by Harburg, and music by Burton Lane. ... This article is about the stage musical. ... The King and I is a musical by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, with a script based on the book Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon. ... For the film, see Fiddler on the Roof (film) Fiddler on the Roof is a well-known Tony Award-winning musical with music by Jerry Bock, lyrics by Sheldon Harnick, and book by Joseph Stein, set in Tsarist Russia in 1905. ... BLITZ! Book by Lionel Bart and Joan Maitland Music and lyrics by Lionel Bart played in the Westend of London at the Adelphi Theatre starting 8th May 1962 and ran for 568 performances. ... Rags is a musical with a book by Joseph Stein, lyrics by Stephen Schwartz, and music by Charles Strouse. ... This article is about the musical. ... Categories: Manhattan neighborhoods | Stub ...


Tolerance as an important theme in musicals has continued in recent decades. The final expression of West Side Story left a message of racial tolerance. By the end of the '60s, musicals became racially integrated, with black and white cast members even covering each others' roles, as they did in Hair. Casting in some musicals is an attempt to represent the community at the subject of the drama, as in Rent. Homosexuality has been explored in such musicals, beginning with Hair, and even more overtly in La Cage aux Folles and Falsettos. Parade is a sensitive exploration of both anti-Semitism and historical American racism. La Cage aux Folles is a Tony Award-winning musical with a book by Harvey Fierstein and lyrics and music by Jerry Herman. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Parade is a musical that opened on Broadway at the Vivian Beaumont Theater on December 17, 1998 with a book (musical theatre) book by Alfred Uhry and music and lyrics by Jason Robert Brown. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


More recent eras

1970s

After the success of Hair, rock musicals flourished in the 1970s, with Jesus Christ Superstar, Godspell, Grease and Two Gentlemen of Verona. Some of these rock musicals began with "concept albums" and then moved to film or stage, such as Tommy. Others had no dialogue or were otherwise reminiscent of opera, with dramatic, emotional themes; these were referred to as rock operas. The musical also went in other directions. Shows like Raisin, Dreamgirls, Purlie, and The Wiz brought a significant African-American influence to Broadway. More and more different musical genres were turned into musicals either on or off-Broadway. Automotive companies and other types of corporations hired Broadway talent to write corporate musicals, private shows which were only seen by their employees or customers. A rock opera or rock musical is a musical production in the form of an opera or a musical in a modern rock and roll style rather than more traditional forms. ... This article is about the rock opera. ... Godspell is a 1970 play by John-Michael Tebelak. ... Grease is a musical by Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey. ... Two Gentlemen of Verona is an award-winning rock musical with a book by John Guare and Mel Shapiro, lyrics by Guare, and music by Galt MacDermot. ... Alternate cover Deluxe edition cover Tommy is the first of The Whos two full-scale rock operas (the second being Quadrophenia), and the first musical work explicitly billed as a rock opera. ... The Whos Tommy, the first album explicitly billed as a rock opera A rock opera is a rock music album or stage production that resembles the form of an opera. ... Raisin was a musical theatre adaptation of the Lorraine Hansberry play A Raisin in the Sun, and was first performed on Broadway on October 18, 1973. ... Dreamgirls is a Broadway musical, which opened on December 20, 1981 at the Imperial Theatre. ... Purlie is a Broadway musical with music by Gary Geld, lyrics by Peter Udell and book by Ossie Davis, Peter Udell and Philip Rose. ... This article is about the stage musical. ... Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City in smaller theatres than Broadway, but larger than Off-Off-Broadway, productions. ... An industrial musical is a musical performed for the employees of a business, intended to create a feeling of being part of a team, and/or to educate and motivate the management and salespeople to improve sales and profit. ...


1976 brought one of the great contemporary musicals to the stage. A Chorus Line emerged from recorded group therapy-style sessions Michael Bennett conducted with Gypsies — those who sing and dance in support of the leading players —from the Broadway community. From hundreds of hours of tapes, James Kirkwood, Jr. and Nick Dante fashioned a book about an audition for a musical, incorporating into it many of the real-life stories of those who had sat in on the sessions — and some of whom eventually played variations of themselves or each other in the show. With music by Marvin Hamlisch and lyrics by Edward Kleban, A Chorus Line first opened at Joseph Papp's Public Theater in lower Manhattan. Advance word-of-mouth— that something extraordinary was about to explode - boosted box office sales, and after critics ran out of superlatives to describe what they witnessed on opening night, what initially had been planned as a limited engagement eventually moved to the Shubert Theatre uptown for a run that seemed to last forever. The show swept the Tony Awards and won the Pulitzer Prize, and its hit song, What I Did for Love, became an instant standard. A Chorus Line is a musical with a book by James Kirkwood, Jr. ... Bennett on the cover of his 1990 biography by Kevin Kelly Michael Bennett (April 8, 1943 - July 2, 1987) was a Tony Award-winning American musical theater director, writer, choreographer, and dancer. ... James Kirkwood, Jr. ... Nicholas Dante (born Conrado Morales in 1942, died May 21, 1991 of AIDS in New York City) was an American dancer and writer, best known for A Chorus Line. ... Marvin Hamlisch (born June 2, 1944) is an American composer. ... Edward Kleban (c. ... Joseph Papp (1921 - 1991) was an American theatre producer and director. ... The Public Theater is a New York City arts organization. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Many theatres are named the Shubert Theatre; many of these are now or were previously owned by the Shubert Theatre Corporation. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...


Clearly, Broadway audiences were eager to welcome musicals that strayed from the usual style and substance. John Kander and Fred Ebb explored pre-World War II Nazi Germany in Cabaret and Prohibition-era Chicago, which relied on old vaudeville techniques to tell its tale of murder and the media. Pippin, by Stephen Schwartz, was set in the days of Charlemagne. Federico Fellini's autobiographical film became Maury Yeston's Nine. At the end of the decade, Evita gave a more serious political biography than audiences were used to at musicals, and Sweeney Todd was the precursor to the darker, big budget musicals of the 1980s like Les Misérables, Miss Saigon, and The Phantom of the Opera, that depended on dramatic stories, sweeping scores and spectacular effects. But during this same period, old-fashioned values were still embraced in such hits as Annie, 42nd Street, My One and Only, and popular revivals of No, No, Nanette and Irene. John Harold Kander (born March 18, 1927 in Kansas City, Missouri) is the American composer of a series of musical theatre successes as part of the songwriting team of Kander and Ebb. ... Fred Ebb (April 8, 1933 - September 11, 2004) was a musical theatre lyricist. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Cabaret is a musical with a book by Joe Masteroff, lyrics by Fred Ebb, and music by John Kander. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... Chicago is a Kander and Ebb musical set in prohibition era Chicago. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pippin is a stage musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Schwartz and book by Roger O. Hirson. ... Stephen Lawrence Schwartz (born March 6, 1948) is an American musical theater lyricist and composer. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Federico Fellini (January 20, 1920 – October 31, 1993) was one of the most influential and widely revered film-makers of the 20th century. ... 8½ (Italian: Otto e Mezzo) is a 1963 film written and directed by Italian director Federico Fellini. ... Maury Yeston is a American composer and lyricist educated at Yale and Clare College, Cambridge. ... Nine is a musical with music and lyrics by American composer Maury Yeston. ... Evita is a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber (music) and Tim Rice (lyrics). ... Sweeney Todd, the Demon Barber of Fleet Street is a Tony Award-winning musical with a book by Hugh Wheeler and music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. ... Les Misérables (pronunciation ), colloquially known as Les Mis, is a musical composed in 1980 by French composer Claude-Michel Schönberg on a libretto by Alain Boublil. ... Miss Saigon is a musical by Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil, with lyrics by Boublil and Richard Maltby, Jr. ... The Phantom of the Opera is a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on the novel by French novelist Gaston Leroux. ... For other uses, see Annie (disambiguation). ... 42nd Street was a hugely successful Broadway stage musical, loosely based on the movie of the same name. ... Broadway Playbill My One and Only is a musical with a book by Peter Stone and Timothy S. Mayer and music and lyrics by George and Ira Gershwin. ... Irene is a musical with a book by James Montgomery, lyrics by Joseph McCarthy, and music by Harry Tierney. ...


1980s and 1990s

The 1980s and 1990s saw the influence of European "mega-musicals" or "pop operas," which typically featured a pop-influenced score and had large casts and sets and were identified as much by their notable effects — a falling chandelier (in Phantom), a helicopter landing on stage (in Miss Saigon) — as they were by anything else in the production. Many were based on novels or other works of literature. The most important writers of mega-musicals include the French team of Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil, responsible for Les Misérables, which became the longest-running international musical hit in history. the team, in collaboration with Richard Maltby, Jr., continued to produce hits with Miss Saigon (inspired by Madame Butterfly). The British composer Andrew Lloyd Webber, saw similar mega-success with Evita, based on the life of Argentina's Eva Perón; Cats, derived from the poems of T. S. Eliot; The Phantom of the Opera, derived from the novel "Le Fantôme de l'Opéra" written by Gaston Leroux; and Sunset Boulevard (from the classic film of the same name). Several of these mega-musicals ran (or are still running) for decades in both New York and London. The 90s also saw the influence of large corporations on the production of musicals. The most important has been The Walt Disney Company, which began adapting some of its animated movie musicals—such as Beauty and the Beast and The Lion King—for the stage, and also created original stage productions like Aida, with music by Elton John. Disney continues to create new musicals for Broadway and West End theatres, most recently with its adaptation of its 1999 animated feature, Tarzan. A contemporary chandelier in the Galt House in Louisville, Kentucky. ... Miss Saigon is a musical by Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil, with lyrics by Boublil and Richard Maltby, Jr. ... Claude-Michel Schönberg (born July 6, 1944 in Vannes, France) is a French record producer, actor, singer, popular songwriter, and musical theatre composer, best known for his collaborations with the librettist Alain Boublil. ... Alain Boublil is a librettist, best known for his collaborations with the composer Claude-Michel Schönberg. ... Les Misérables (pronunciation ), colloquially known as Les Mis, is a musical composed in 1980 by French composer Claude-Michel Schönberg on a libretto by Alain Boublil. ... Richard Maltby, Jr. ... Madama Butterfly (or sometimes Madame Butterfly in English) is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, set in Japan. ... Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948) is a highly successful English composer of musical theatre, and also the elder brother of cellist Julian Lloyd Webber. ... Evita is a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber (music) and Tim Rice (lyrics). ... María Eva Duarte de Perón (May 7, 1919 – July 26, 1952) was the second wife of Argentine President Juan Domingo Perón (1895–1974) and the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952. ... Cats is an award-winning musical composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber based on Old Possums Book of Practical Cats and other poems by T. S. Eliot. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Gaston Leroux. ... Sunset Boulevard is a musical with book and lyrics by Don Black and Christopher Hampton and music by Andrew Lloyd Webber. ... Disney redirects here. ... Premiering on April 18, 1994, Beauty and the Beast is currently one of Broadways longest running productions, devised and produced by Disney Theatrical, a fully owned subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. ... The Lion King is a Tony Award-winning Broadway and West End stage musical based on the 1994 Disney animated film of the same name and is directed by Julie Taymor, portraying actors in animal costumes as well as giant, hollow puppets. ... AIDA is an acronym used in marketing that describes a common list of events that are very often undergone when a person is selling a product or service: A - Attention (Awareness): attract the attention of the customer. ... Sir Elton Hercules[1] John CBE[2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is a five-time Grammy and one-time Academy Award-winning English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ... Tarzan is a musical based upon the Tarzan stories of Edgar Rice Burroughs, and more directly on the Disney film of the same name. ...

An example of the trend a small-scale musical that became highly successful
An example of the trend a small-scale musical that became highly successful

The growing scale (and cost) of musicals led to some concern that musicals were eschewing substance in favor of style. In contrast, the last two decades of the 20th century saw many writers create smaller scale, but critically-acclaimed and financially successful musicals (Falsettoland, Passion, Little Shop of Horrors, Bat Boy: The Musical, Blood Brothers). The topics vary widely, and the music ranges from rock to pop, but they often are produced off-Broadway (or for smaller London theatres) and feature smaller casts and generally less expensive productions. Some of these have been noted as imaginative and innovative.[12] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1500, 298 KB) Summary All Rights Reserved. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1500, 298 KB) Summary All Rights Reserved. ... Falsettoland, a musical by William Finn, is the third in a series about a man named Marvin. ... Pasión es una obra musical que se estreno en Broadway en 1994, adaptada de la película de Ettore Scola Passione dAmore que, a su vez , se basa en la novela de Igino Tarchetti Fosca. Con libreto de James Lapine y música y letras de Stephen Sondheim. ... Little Shop of Horrors is a 1982 off-Broadway musical comedy by composer Alan Menken and writer Howard Ashman, about a nerdy florist shop worker who raises a plant that feeds on human blood. ... For other uses, see Blood Brothers (disambiguation). ...


There also had been a concern that the musical had lost touch with the tastes of the general public, that the cost of musicals was escalating beyond the budget of many theatregoers, and that the musical was increasingly doomed to be viewed by a smaller and smaller audience. Jonathan Larson's musical Rent (based on the opera La Bohème) attempted to increase the popularity of musicals among a younger audience. It features a cast of twentysomethings, and the score is heavily rock-influenced. The musical became a hit, even with its composer dying of an aortic aneurysm on the night of the final dress rehearsal at New York Theatre Workshop, before he could see it reach Broadway. A group of young fans, styled RENTheads, line up at the Nederlander Theatre hours early in hopes of winning the lottery for $20 front row tickets, and some have seen the show more than 50 times. Other writers who have attempted to bring a taste of modern rock music to the stage include Jason Robert Brown. Jonathan Larson (February 4, 1960 – January 25, 1996) was an American Tony Award-winning composer and playwright who lived in New York City and authored musicals, including Rent and Tick, Tick. ... Rent is a rock musical, with music and lyrics by Jonathan Larson[1] based on Giacomo Puccinis opera La bohème. ... For other uses, see La bohème (disambiguation). ... An aortic aneurysm is a general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location. ... The New York Theatre Workshop (NYTW) is a non-profit off-Broadway theater in New York City. ... A RENT-head or RENThead is someone who is completely obsessed with or at least a very big fan of the musical RENT (capitalization is optional). ... The Nederlander Theatre is a Broadway theatre. ... Jason Robert Brown (born 1970 in Ossining, New York) is an American musical theater composer and lyricist. ...


Another trend has been to create a minimal plot to fit a collection of songs that have already been hits. These have included Buddy - The Buddy Holly Story (1995), Movin' Out (2002, based on the tunes of Billy Joel), Good Vibrations (the Beach Boys), All Shook Up (Elvis Presley), Jersey Boys (2006, The Four Seasons), Daddy Cool—The Boney M Musical, and many others. This style is often referred to as the "jukebox musical". Similar but more plot-driven musicals have been built around the canon of a particular pop group including Mamma Mia! (1999, featuring songs by ABBA), Our House (based on the songs of Madness), and We Will Rock You (based on the works of Queen). Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story is the popular long-running musical, which opened in Londons West End (at the Victoria Palace Theatre) in 1989. ... Movin Out is a jukebox musical featuring the songs of Billy Joel. ... William Martin Billy Joel (born May 9, 1949) is an American singer, pianist, songwriter, composer and musician. ... Good Vibrations is a Broadway jukebox musical featuring the music of Brian Wilson and The Beach Boys. ... The Beach Boys are an American rock and roll band. ... All Shook Up is a Broadway jukebox musical featuring the music of the classic rock star Elvis Presley, with a book by Joe DiPietro. ... “Elvis” redirects here. ... Jersey Boys is a documentary-style musical based on the lives of one of the most successful 60s rock n roll groups, the Four Seasons. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Daddy Cool is a British musical based upon the music of Boney M and other Frank Farian artists. ... A jukebox musical is a stage or film musical that uses previously released hit songs by a popular musician or group as its musical score and contextualizes the songs in a dramatic plot, sometimes the biographical story of the performers whose music is featured. ... Mamma Mia! is a musical with a book by British playwright Catherine Johnson, based on the songs of ABBA. It is an example of a jukebox musical, and is notably for popularizing the genre. ... Abba redirects here. ... Our House was a relatively short-lived musical production staged at the Cambridge Theatre in Londons West End that ran from 28th October 2002 to 16th August 2003. ... Madness are a British pop/ska band from Camden Town, London, that formed in 1976. ... We Will Rock You is a jukebox musical, based on the songs of Queen and named after their hit single of the same name. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, singer Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ...


2000s

Recent trends

In recent years, familiarity has been embraced by producers anxious to guarantee that they recoup their considerable investments, if not show a healthy profit. Some are willing to take (usually modest-budget) chances on the new and unusual, such as Urinetown (2001), Bombay Dreams (2002; about the "Bollywood" musicals churned out by Indian cinema), Avenue Q (2003; utilizes puppets to tell its adult-themed story), and The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee (2005; people watching the show can become "spellers" in the show). But the majority prefer to hedge their bets by sticking with revivals of familiar fare like Wonderful Town or Fiddler on the Roof or proven hits like La Cage aux Folles. Today's composers are finding their sources in already proven material, such as films (The Producers, Spamalot, Hairspray, Billy Elliot, and The Color Purple – roughly one-third of the current Broadway musicals are based on films); or classic literature such as Little Women, The Scarlet Pimpernel, and Dracula — hoping that the shows will have a built-in audience as a result. The reuse of plots, especially those from The Walt Disney Company, has been considered by some critics to be a redefinition of Broadway: rather than a creative outlet, it has become a tourist attraction.[6] The lack of new concept shows like Sunday in the Park with George and Into the Woods further underlines this. Henry Millers Theatre 2003, Charles Shaughnessy. ... Bombay Dreams on Broadway, New York City Bombay Dreams is a Bollywood-themed musical. ... Avenue Q is a Tony award-winning musical that was conceived by Robert Lopez and Jeff Marx, who wrote the music and lyrics. ... The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee is a musical comedy with music and lyrics by William Finn and a book by Rachel Sheinkin. ... Logo for the 2003 Broadway revival of Wonderful Town Wonderful Town is a musical with lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green and music by Leonard Bernstein. ... For the film, see Fiddler on the Roof (film) Fiddler on the Roof is a well-known Tony Award-winning musical with music by Jerry Bock, lyrics by Sheldon Harnick, and book by Joseph Stein, set in Tsarist Russia in 1905. ... This article is about the 2001 stage musical. ... Monty Pythons Spamalot is a comedic musical lovingly ripped off from the film Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975). ... Hairspray is a musical with music by Marc Shaiman, lyrics by Scott Wittman and Shaiman and a book by Mark ODonnell and Thomas Meehan, based on the 1988 John Waters movie Hairspray. ... Matthew Koon, Billy Elliot, 2006, The Billy Elliot Fansite Billy Elliot the Musical is an award-winning musical based on the 2000 film Billy Elliot. ... The Color Purple is a Broadway musical based upon the novel The Color Purple by Alice Walker. ... Little Women is a novel published in 1868 and written by American author Louisa May Alcott. ... For the eponymous flower, see Scarlet pimpernel. ... This article is about the novel. ... Disney redirects here. ... Sunday in the Park with George is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by James Lapine. ... Into the Woods is an award-winning musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by James Lapine. ...


The musical is being pulled in a number of different directions. Gone are the days when a sole producer – a David Merrick or a Cameron Mackintosh — backs a production. Corporate sponsors dominate Broadway, and often alliances are formed to stage musicals which require an investment of $10 million or more. In 2002, the credits for Thoroughly Modern Millie listed ten producers, and among those names were entities comprised of several individuals. Typically, off-Broadway and regional theatres tend to produce smaller and therefore less expensive musicals, and development of new musicals has increasingly taken place outside of New York and London or in smaller venues. Spring Awakening was developed off-Broadway before being launched on Broadway in 2006. David Merrick (November 27, 1911 - April 25, 2000) was an American theatrical producer and director, associated with both musicals and dramas, brilliant successes and embarrassing fl ops. ... Sir Cameron Mackintosh (born 17 October 1946) is a successful British theatrical producer. ... This article is about the 1967 film. ... Spring Awakening is a Tony Award-winning musical which premiered Off-Broadway at the Atlantic Theatre Company on May 19, 2006 and closed August 17, 2006. ...


It also appears that the spectacle format is on the rise again, returning to the times when Romans would have mock sea battles on stage. This was true of Starlight Express and is most apparent in the musical adaptation of The Lord of the Rings that ran in Toronto, Canada in 2006, and opened for previews in May 2007 at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in London, billed as the biggest stage production in musical theatre history. The expensive production lost money in Toronto. Conversely, The Drowsy Chaperone, The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee, Xanadu and others are part of a Broadway trend to present musicals uninterrupted by an intermission, with short running time of less than two hours. The latter two, together with works like Avenue Q, also represent a trend towards presenting smaller-scale, small cast musicals that are able to show a good profit in a smaller house. Starlight Express is a rock musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber (music) and Richard Stilgoe (lyrics), with later revisions by Don Black (lyrics) and David Yazbek (music and lyrics for the 2nd US tour, though much of his contribution was removed for the UK tour after Andrew Lloyd Webber saw it... This article is about the musicals. ... Currently home to Lord Of The Rings, the musical. ... The Drowsy Chaperone is a musical with a book by Bob Martin and Don McKellar and music and lyrics by Lisa Lambert and Greg Morisson. ... The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee is a musical comedy with music and lyrics by William Finn and a book by Rachel Sheinkin. ... Xanadu is a musical comedy with a book by Douglas Carter Beane, music and lyrics by Jeff Lynne and John Farrar, based on the 1980 cult classic film of the same name which was, in turn, inspired by the 1947 Rita Hayworth film Down to Earth[1]. The title is... Avenue Q is a Tony award-winning musical that was conceived by Robert Lopez and Jeff Marx, who wrote the music and lyrics. ...

Renaissance of the movie-musical and TV "musicals"

With Moulin Rouge! (2001), Baz Luhrmann revived the moribund movie musical. This was followed by a string of film successes, including Chicago in 2002, Phantom of the Opera in 2004, Dreamgirls in 2006 and Hairspray in 2007. Dr. Seuss's How the Grinch Stole Christmas! (2000) and The Cat in the Hat (2003), made the children's book into live-action musicals. Disney and other animated musicals and more adult animated musical films, like South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut (1999), paved the way for the revival of the movie musical. In addition, India is producing numerous "Bollywood" film musicals, and Japan is producing "Anime" film musicals. Occasionally, "made for TV" movies, such as High School Musical (2006), are made in musical format. Moulin Rouge is a 2001 Academy Award-winning jukebox musical film directed by Baz Luhrmann. ... Baz Luhrmann (born Mark Anthony Luhrmann on September 17, 1962) is an Oscar and Golden Globe-nominated Australian film director, screenwriter, and producer. ... This article is about the 2002 film. ... The Phantom of the Opera is the 2004 Joel Schumacher directed film adaptation of Andrew Lloyd Webber and Charles Harts internationally successful 1986 stage musical, which is in turn based on the novel The Phantom of the Opera by Gaston Leroux. ... Dreamgirls is a 2006 American musical film jointly produced and released by DreamWorks Pictures and Paramount Pictures. ... For the 1988 film, see Hairspray (1988 film). ... Theodor Seuss Geisel (March 2, 1904 – September 24, 1991) was an American writer and cartoonist best known for his classic childrens books under the pen name Dr. Seuss, including The Cat in the Hat, Green Eggs and Ham, How the Grinch Stole Christmas and One Fish Two Fish Red... Dr. Seuss How the Grinch Stole Christmas! is a 2000 live-action film, based on the 1957 book by Dr. Seuss. ... Dr. Seuss The Cat in the Hat is a 2003 live-action film, based on the 1957 book, produced by Universal Studios, DreamWorks Pictures, and Imagine Entertainment. ... South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut is a 1999 motion picture based on the cartoon television series of South Park. ... For other uses, see High School Musical (disambiguation). ...


Some recent television shows have set an episode as a musical as a play on their usual format (examples include episodes of Ally McBeal, Buffy the Vampire Slayer's episode Once More, with Feeling, That's So Raven, Daria's episode Daria!, Oz's Variety, or Space Ghost Coast to Coast's O Coast to Coast!/Boatshow) or have included scenes where characters suddenly begin singing and dancing in a musical-theatre style during an episode, such as in several episodes of The Simpsons, and in Hannah Montana, South Park, and Family Guy. Scrubs also featured a recent musical episode, which was written by the creators of Broadway hit Avenue Q. The television series Cop Rock, which extensively used the musical format, was not a success, while the series The Mighty Boosh regularly features musical sequences and has had some acclaim. For the character, see Ally McBeal (character). ... For other uses, see Buffy the Vampire Slayer (disambiguation). ... List of Buffy the Vampire Slayer episodes Once More, With Feeling is a musical episode of the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. ... Thats So Raven is an American Emmy Award-nominated [1] sitcom television series broadcast on the Disney Channel. ... For St. ... Oz was the first one-hour dramatic television series to be produced by HBO. The show, which aired for six seasons between 1997 and 2003, was created by Tom Fontana, and produced by Barry Levinson. ... Space Ghost Coast to Coast (often abbreviated as SGC2C) is an animated spoof talk show on the cable TV channel Cartoon Network in the United States, Adult Swim in Australia, Bravo in the UK, and Teletoon in Canada. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hannah Montana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the TV series. ... Family Guy is an Emmy Award-winning American animated television series about a dysfunctional family in the fictional town of Quahog, Rhode Island. ... This article is about the US sitcom. ... Cop Rock was a short-lived Steven Bochco television series on the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) in 1990. ... The Mighty Boosh is a British cult comedy about two friends who go on magical adventures. ...


International musicals

The U.S. and Britain were the most active sources of book musicals from the mid-19th century through the mid-20th century (although Europe produced various forms of popular light opera and operetta, for example Spanish Zarzuela, during that period and even earlier). However, the light musical stage in other countries has become more active in recent decades. Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending. ... For other uses, see Zarzuela (disambiguation). ...


Musicals from other English speaking countries (notably Australia and Canada) often do well locally, and occasionally even reach Broadway or the West End (e.g., The Boy from Oz and The Drowsy Chaperone). Successful musicals from continental Europe include shows from (among other countries) Germany (Elixier and Ludwig II ), Austria (Dance of the Vampires and Elisabeth), France (Notre Dame de Paris, Les Misérables and Romeo & Juliette) and Spain (Hoy No Me Puedo Levantar). The Boy From Oz is a jukebox musical based on the life of singer/songwriter Peter Allen and featuring songs written by him. ... The Drowsy Chaperone is a musical with a book by Bob Martin and Don McKellar and music and lyrics by Lisa Lambert and Greg Morisson. ... Elixier is a German musical that premiered in 1997. ... Ludwig II: Longing for Paradise is a German musical with music by Franz Hummel and lyrics by Stephan Barbarino. ... Dance of the Vampires (or Tanz der Vampire as the original German version is named) is a musical remake of a 1967 Roman Polanski film called The Fearless Vampire Killers. ... Pia Douwes as Elisabeth and Viktor Gernot as Franz Josef in the original 1992 Vienna production Kata Janza as Elisabeth and Szilveszter P. Szabo as Death in Budapest 2002 Stanley Burleson as Death and Pia Douwes as Elisabeth in Scheveningen 1999 Elisabeth is a German-language musical commissioned by the... Notre Dame de Paris is a French-Canadian musical which debuted on 16 September 1998 in Paris. ... Romeo et Juliette: de la Haine à lAmour is a French musical, based on the Shakespeare play Romeo and Juliet, with music and lyrics by Gerard Presgurvic. ... Hoy No Me Puedo Levantar (English: I Cant Get up Today) is a Spanish musical, with music and lyrics by Nacho Cano, former member of the band Mecano. ...


Japan has recently seen the growth of an indigenous form of musical theatre, both animated and live action, mostly based on Anime and Manga, such as Kiki's Delivery Service and Tenimyu). The popular Sailor Moon metaseries has had twenty-nine Sailor Moon musicals, spanning thirteen years. Beginning in 1914, a series of popular revues have been performed by the all-female Takarazuka Revue, which currently fields five performing troupes. The Indian Bollywood musical, mostly in the form of motion pictures, is tremendously successful. “Animé” redirects here. ... This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... Kikis Delivery Service (, Witchs Delivery Service) is a 1989 anime film, produced, written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki . ... The Prince of Tennis Musical, also known as TeniPuri Musical, Tenimyu, or GekiPuri (Stage Prince), is a series of live action stage musicals based on the anime and manga series, The Prince of Tennis. ... For the title character, see Sailor Moon (character) and for the first story arc, see Sailor Moon (arc). ... Flyer from the 2004 Musical The Sailor Moon musicals ), commonly referred to as SeraMyu ), are a series of live theatre productions based on Naoko Takeuchis metaseries Sailor Moon. ... A revue is a type of theatrical entertainment that combines music, dance and sketches that satirize contemporary figures, news, or literature. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ...


South Africa has an active musical theatre scene, with revues like African Footprint and Umoja and book musicals, such as Kat and the Kings by David Kramer and Taliep Petersen and Sarafina! by Mbongeni Ngema touring internationally. Locally, musicals like Vere, Love and Green Onions, Over the Rainbow: the all-new all-gay... extravaganza and Bangbroek Mountain are recent original musical theatre projects. Kat and the Kings is a musical with a book and lyrics by David Kramer and music by Taliep Petersen. ... David Kramer (born Worcester, South Africa in 1951) is a singer, songwriter, playwright and director, most notable for his musicals about the Cape Coloured communities. ... Taliep Petersen (1950 - 16 December 2006) was a South African singer, composer and director of a number of popular musicals, working most notably with David Kramer. ... Sarafina! is a South African musical by Mbongeni Ngema depicting apartheid; it was later adapted into a movie starring Leleti Khumalo and Whoopi Goldberg. ... Mbongeni Ngema (b. ...


Relevance

In the 2006-07 season, 12 million tickets were purchased on Broadway for a gross sale amount of almost $1 Billion. The League of American Theatres and Producers announced that more than half of those tickets were purchased by tourists (5 million domestic and 1.3 million foreign). This does not include off-Broadway and smaller venues. These statistics were near historic records (including both plays and musicals).[13] Likewise, the Society of London Theatre reported that 2006 set a record for attendance, revenue and advance booking in London. Total attendees in the major commercial and grant-aided theatres in Central London were 12.4 million, and total ticket revenues were just over £400 million.[14] Also, as noted above, the international musicals scene has been particularly active in recent years.


However, Stephen Sondheim has been less than optimistic:

"You have two kinds of shows on Broadway – revivals and the same kind of musicals over and over again, all spectacles. You get your tickets for The Lion King a year in advance, and essentially a family... pass on to their children the idea that that's what the theater is – a spectacular musical you see once a year, a stage version of a movie. It has nothing to do with theater at all. It has to do with seeing what is familiar.... I don't think the theatre will die per se, but it's never going to be what it was.... It's a tourist attraction."[15]

But the success of original material – Avenue Q, Urinetown, Wicked, Spelling Bee, as well as creative re-imaginings of film properties, including Thoroughly Modern Millie, Hairspray and The Color Purple, prompts Broadway historian John Kenrick to write: "Is the Musical dead? ...Absolutely not! Changing? Always! The musical has been changing ever since Offenbach did his first rewrite in the 1850s. And change is the clearest sign that the musical is still a living, growing genre. Will we ever return to the so-called "golden age," with musicals at the center of popular culture? Probably not. Public taste has undergone fundamental changes, and the commercial arts can only flow where the paying public allows."[6] Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880) was a French composer and cellist of the Romantic era with German-Jewish descent and one of the originators of the operetta form. ...


Musical theatre in East Asian traditions

China

Main article: Chinese Opera

Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ...

India

Mohiniaattam Classical Indian musical theatre is a sacred art of the Hindu temple culture. ...

See also

This is a general list of musicals, including Broadway musicals, West End musicals and film musicals, whose titles fall into the A-L alphabetic range. ... A cast recording is a recording of a musical that is intended to document the songs as they were performed in the show and experienced by the audience. ... Showtunes are songs written for musical theater productions, such as: The Phantom of the Opera Jesus Christ Superstar Oklahoma! Guys and Dolls Cabaret See also Musical theater Categories: Stub ... An industrial musical is a musical performed for the employees of a business, intended to create a feeling of being part of a team, and/or to educate and motivate the management and salespeople to improve sales and profit. ... This is a list of notable composers of musicals. ... This is a List of notable musical theatre productions that have been performed on Broadway. ... This is a list of choreographers Paula Abdul Alvin Ailey Richard Alston Robert Alton Gerald Arpino Frederick Ashton Fred Astaire Lea Anderson Jean Babilée George Balanchine Claude Balon often mistakenly called Jean Ballon Pina Bausch Stephen Baynes Pierre Beauchamp Paul Becker Michael Bennett Matthew Bourne August Bournonville Trisha Brown... Part of the AFI 100 Years. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Sheridan, Morley. Spread A Little Happiness, New York: Thames and Hudson, 1987, p.15
  2. ^ Sondheim website
  3. ^ a b c Study guide history of musical theatre
  4. ^ See Denny Martin Flynn, Musical: A Grand Tour (New York: Schirmer Books, 1997), p. 22.
  5. ^ See Rochard H. Hoppin, Medieval Music (New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 1978), pp. 180-181.
  6. ^ a b c d Article on the Musicals 101 website
  7. ^ Article on long-running musicals before 1920
  8. ^ Article on long-running musicals before 1920
  9. ^ Article on long-running musicals before 1920
  10. ^ Midkoff, Neil article
  11. ^ Arthur Laurents, Theatre: West Side Story; The Growth of an Idea, New York Herald Tribune, August 4, 1957. Reproduced on leonardbernstein.com. Accessed 12 February 2006.
  12. ^ BroadwayBaby site article on Bat Boy
  13. ^ Announcement of 2006-07 Broadway season
  14. ^ Press Release "Records Tumble in Theatreland", Jan. 29, 2007
  15. ^ quoted by Frank Rich in Conversations with Sondheim, New York Times Magazine, March 12, 2000, pp. 40 and 88

The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. ... Frank Rich (born June 2, 1949 in Washington, D.C.) is a columnist for The New York Times who focuses on American politics and popular culture. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

References

Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethan Mordden is an American author. ...

External links


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