FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Musical nationalism

Musical nationalism refers to the use of musical ideas or motifs that are identified with a specific country, region, or ethnicity, such as folk tunes and melodies, rhythms, and harmonies inspired by them. Musical nationalism can also include the use of folklore as a basis for programmatic works including opera. Folklore is the body of expressive culture, including tales, music, dance, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, customs, material culture, and so forth within a particular population comprising the traditions (including oral traditions) of that culture, subculture, or group. ...


Although some evidence of the trend can be seen as early as the late eighteenth century, nationalism as a musical phenomenon is generally understood to have emerged part way into the Romantic era, beginning around the mid-nineteenth century and continuing well into the twentieth. It initially began as a reaction against the dominance of "German" music (that is, the European classical tradition) and later developed alongside the growing movements for national liberation and self-determination that characterized much of the 1800s. Countries or regions most commonly linked to musical nationalism include Russia, Czechoslovakia, Scandinavia, Spain, Britain, and the United States. The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... Classical music is a term with three distinct meanings: The European tradition of music which is associated with high culture, as distinct from popular or folk forms (including works in this tradition in non-European countries). ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ...


It should also be noted that musical nationalism is a term often used to describe non-European twentieth century music as well, in particular that originating in Latin America.

Contents

Russia

Until the nineteenth century, Russian art music had been dominated by foreign musicians. Peter the Great (1689-1725) had begun this trend by importing foreign musicians in order to modernize his kingdom. As a result, very few Russian compositions in the western European art music tradition exist before Glinka.


Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857) Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. ...


Mikhail Glinka was the first Russian composer to give a native voice to common musical styles of the day. After studying music and visiting Italy and Berlin, Glinka composed an opera about the Russian peasant and hero Ivan Susanin. The work was titled A Life for the Tsar, and used several aspects new to Russian music. It used recitative instead of spoken dialogue, and had recurring themes. There were two Russian folk tunes in the opera, and several more tunes that had the characteristics of folk music. A Life for the Tsar (Russian: Žizn’ za carâ) is a patriotic-heroic tragic opera in five acts with an epilogue by Mikhail Glinka. ...


The Five The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under...


Moguchaya kuchka (The Mighty Handful) is a phrase coined by Russian music critic Vladimir Stasov to describe a group of five Russian composers whose purpose was to compose music in a Russian style. Members of the five were Mily Balakirev (1836-1910), the leader of the group, César Cui (1835-1918), Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881), Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), and Alexander Borodin (1833-1887). Portrait of Balakirev Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev (Russian: , Milij Alekseevič Balakirev) (January 2, 1837 – May 29, 1910) was a Russian composer. ... César Antonovitch Cui (Russian: Цезарь Антонович Кюи) (January 6/18, 1835 – March 13, 1918) was a Russian composer and music critic of French and Lithuanian descent. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (O.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (O.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a teacher of harmony and... Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Russian: , Aleksandr Porfirevič Borodin) (31 Oct. ...


The Five felt that the folk and religious music of the Russian people should be used a basis for composition. They tried to avoid strict counterpoint in the Germanic style, as well as certain other techniques employed in western Europe. They preferred Romanticism and realism over Classical form. Some of the distinguishing stylistic characteristics of this group included use of non-functional tonal progressions, asymmetrical meters, and a coloristic approach to orchestration.


Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia is a country formed in 1918 by the combination of the Bohemian, Moravian, and Slovakian territories. These territories had been under the control of the Hapsburg Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a result, the imperial language, German, and the imperial religion, Catholicism had become a way of life for the Czech people.


In order to preserve the native language, a Provisional Theater was organized in Prague. This theater would promote the Czech language, composers, folk music, and programs using national themes.


Bedřich Smetana (1824-1884) Portrait of BedÅ™ich Smetana BedÅ™ich Smetana (pronounced ; 2 March 1824 - 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer. ...


Smetana was the first great Czech nationalist composer, a Bohemian. His first nationalist work was written in 1863, in Czech, as a contest entry to the Provisional Theater. He learned to read and write Czech to enter the competition. This opera, Branibori v Cechach (The Brandenburgs in Bohemia) has an historic plot, but the music does not represent folk song.


His second opera, Prodana nevesta (The Bartered Bride, 1863-1866), incorporates folk melodies, and was a success beyond Czechoslovakia. Also included in his nationalistic works are the six tone poems Ma Vlast (My Fatherland, 1872-1880). The Bartered Bride performed at a landscape theatre in Divoká Šárka, Prague; Ema Destinnová on the right The Bartered Bride (in Czech, Prodaná nevÄ›sta) is the second opera of eight by BedÅ™ich Smetana. ... Má vlast (My Country) is a set of six symphonic poems by the Czech composer Bedřich Smetana. ...


Antonín Dvořák (1841-1904) Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( ; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk-music of his native Bohemia in symphonic and chamber music. ...


Dvořák was the most successful of the Czech nationalist composers. He performed viola in the Provisional Theater under Smetana, and was mentored by Brahms. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Dvořák included Bohemian themes and elements into much of his music. In 1871, he left the Provisional Theater and began to set a libretto by a Czech writer, Lobesky, titled Král a uhlíř (The King and the Charcoal Burner). Unfortunately, this opera was not successful. More notable for their national content are his six Slavonic Dances (1879) and the Slavonic Rhapsodies (1880).


Dvořák was invited to New York in order to direct the first national conservatory in America. While abroad, he studied African American and Native American music. Some say that these styles are incorporated into his American works: Symphony no. 9 op. 95 (From the New World), The “American” string quartet op. 96, and the “American” string quintet, op. 97. The Symphony No. ... The String Quartet No. ...


Leoš Janáček (1854-1928) LeoÅ¡ Janáček in 1928 LeoÅ¡ Janáček â–¶ (help· info) (July 3, 1854 in Hukvaldy, Moravia – August 12, 1928 in Ostrava) was a Czech composer. ...


Janáček did a lot of work researching and cataloguing Moravian folk music. His work inspired further research. Because of his interest in folk music, he was predisposed to modality and pentatonic scales which appear frequently in Moravian folk music. He generally wrote without key signatures, in order to freely move between modes.


His most famous opera, Jenufa (1904), was originally written in Czech and translated into German. Janáček was very careful in supervising the translation in order to preserve the integrity of the libretto. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Norway

Edvard Grieg (1843-1907) Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ...


Greig began composing national music after visiting Ole Bull, a violinist and researcher of folk music. His most notable pieces are the incidental music for plays, including his music for Ibsen’s Peer Gynt (1874-1875). He also composed many piano works in a national style. Ole Bull Ole Bull Ole Borneman Bull (February 5, 1810 – August 17, 1880) was a Norwegian violinist. ... Peer Gynt is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ...


Finland

Jean Sibelius (1865-1957) Johan Julius Christian Jean/Janne Sibelius ( ; December 8, 1865 – September 20, 1957) was a Finnish composer of classical music and one of the most notable composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


Jean Sibelius had strong patriotic feelings for Finland. He chose to write program music rather than base his works on Finnish folk music. For his contributions, the government awarded him a pension.


In 1899, patriotism was running high in Finland. Sibelius composed the symphonic poem Finlandia (1899) for a festival, and this rallied the Finnish citizens into a patriotic fervor. A portion of this tone poem has been arranged as a chorale; it remains an important national song of Finland, and is also present in many Protestant hymnals. Finlandia is a symphonic poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. ... The Finlandia Hymn (in Finnish Finlandia-hymni) refers to a serene hymn-like section of the patriotic symphonic poem Finlandia, written in 1899 and 1900 by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. ...


Spain

Isaac Albéniz (1860-1909) Isaac Albéniz Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz (IPA: ) (May 29, 1860 – May 18, 1909) was a Spanish pianist and composer best known for his piano works based on Spanish folk music. ...


Albéniz studied at many of Europes premiere conservatories, including the Escuela Nacional de Música y Declamación in Spain. Many of his piano works reflect his Spanish heritage, including the Suite Iberia (1906-1909). In this piece the piano imitates the guitar and castanets, traditional Spanish instruments.


Enrique Granados (1867-1918) Enrique Granados Enrique Costanzo Granados y Campiña (July 27, 1867 – March 24, 1916) was a Spanish pianist and composer of classical music; he is commonly considered to be a representative of musical Nationalism, and as such his music is in a uniquely Spanish style. ...


Granados composed zarzuelas, a type of Spanish musical theater. He composed his work Goyescas (1911) based on the etchings of the Spanish painter, Goya. Also of a national style are his Danzas españolas and his first opera María del Carmen. Goyescas is an operas in three acts by Enrique Granados to a Spanish libretto by Fernando Periquet y Zuaznabar, inspired by the paintings of Goya. ...


Great Britain

In Great Britain, nationalist music was more prominent in Scotland, Ireland and Wales than in England. These countries have always had a strong connection to their heritage, and Romantic composers incorporated elements of British folk music into their works.


Joseph Parry (1841-1903) Joseph Parry (1841 — February 17, 1903) was a Welsh composer and musician. ...


Parry was born in Wales, but moved to the United States as a child. In his adulthood, he traveled between Wales and America, and performed Welsh songs and glees with Welsh texts in recitals. He composed the first Welsh opera, Blodwen(1878).


Charles Stanford (1852-1924) Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (September 30, 1852 - 29 March 1924) was an Irish composer. ...


Stanford incorporated Irish and English elements in his music, including five Irish Rhapsodies (1901-1914). He published volumes of Irish folk song arrangements, and his third symphony is titled the Irish symphony.


Alexander Mackenzie (1847-1935) Sir Alexander Campell Mackenzie was a British composer, son of an eminent Edinburgh violinist and conductor, was born on the 22nd of August 1847. ...


Mackenzie prepared and published arrangements of Scottish folk songs, and many of his compositions contain folk elements. Included in these are his Highland Ballad for violin and orchestra (1893), and the Scottish Concerto for piano and orchestra (1897). He also composed the Canadian Rhapsody.


United States

Charles Cadman (1881-1946)


Cadman spent time on the Omaha and Winnebago Indian reservations and recorded their songs. He arranged and published some of them. Cadman presented a series of recitals with the Omaha princess Tsianina Redfeather, a mezzo-soprano, and composed an opera, Shanewis or The Robin Woman (1918), based on her life.


Arthur Farwell (1872-1952) Arthur Farwell Arthur Farwell (23 March 1872 - 20 January 1952) was an American composer, conductor, educationalist, lithographer, esoteric savant and music publisher. ...


Farwell also worked with Native American music, but also studied Anglo American and African American folk songs, as well as Mexican and Cowboy music. He founded Wa-Wan Press to publish his American Indian Melodies (1900) and works by contemporary composers. The Wa-Wan Press was an American music publishing company founded in 1901 by composer Arthur Farwell in Newton Center, Massachusetts. ...


See also

Enrique Granados Goyescas Edvard Grieg Peer Gynt Leoš Janáček Jenufa Jean Sibelius Finlandia Bedřich Smetana Má vlast The Bartered Bride This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...

Sources

  • Apel, Willi. 1968. Harvard Dictionary of Music. Boston: Harvard UP.
  • Grout, Donald J. 1960. A History of Western Music. New York: Norton.
  • Stolba, K. Marie. 1990. The Development of Western Music: A History. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, Inc.
  • Taruskin, Richard. n.d. Nationalism. Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 8 December 2005). [<http://www.grovemusic.com>].

  Results from FactBites:
 
Music for the Nation (214 words)
Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music contains more than 62,500 pieces of historical sheet music registered for copyright: more than 15,000 registered during the years 1820-1860 and more than 47,000 registered during the years 1870-1885.
The collection documents the attitudes and tastes of a bygone era with music of many varieties and sources, all of it published in the United States.
The goal of the Library's National Digital Library Program is to offer broad public access to a wide range of historical and cultural documents as a contribution to education and lifelong learning.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m