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Encyclopedia > Music videos

A music video (also video clip, promo) is a short film or video meant to present a visual representation of a popular music song. The American cable television channel MTV ("Music Television" launched in 1981), originated the format of end-to-end music video programming without any conventional programs, although the music video itself has a history dating back to the earliest days of sound film. Short subject is an American film industry term that historically has referred to any film in the format of two reels, or approximately 20 minutes running time, or less. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Popular music is music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and mostly distributed commercially. ... A song is a relatively short musical composition for the human voice (possibly accompanied by other musical instruments), which features words (lyrics). ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house Cable television or Community Antenna Television (CATV) (often shortened to cable) is a system of providing television, FM radio programming and other services to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted directly to people’s televisions through fixed optical... MTV (abbreviation for Music Television) is a cable television network which was originally devoted to music videos, especially popular rock music. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Music videos are primarily a marketing device intended to promote the sale of recordings. Alan Durant (1984, p.115) has criticized music videos tendency for glittery escapism, musical portraiture, which, "may fix currencies of sounds, but...may also close eyes to music seen more broadly as practice." (Middleton 1990, p.91)

Kylie Minogue's video to "Spinning Around" (2000)
Kylie Minogue's video to "Spinning Around" (2000)

Contents

screenshot from music video Spinning Around (2000) showing Kylie Minogue, taken from the DVD Ultimate Kylie (2004). ... screenshot from music video Spinning Around (2000) showing Kylie Minogue, taken from the DVD Ultimate Kylie (2004). ...


History of music videos

Early precedents

Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 film Alexander Nevsky, which features extended scenes of battles choreographed to a score by Sergei Prokofiev, set new standards for the use of music in film and has been described by some as the first music video. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alexander Nevsky is a film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and released in 1938, during the Stalin era. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , April 271, 1891 – March 5, 1953) was a Ukrainian-born Russian composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ...


However, the roots of the music video can be found even earlier. In 1911 Alexander Scriabin wrote his symphony Prometheus -- Poem of Fire for orchestra and "light organ". And as far back as the 1920s, the animated films of Oskar Fischinger (aptly labelled "visual music") were supplied with orchestral scores. 1911 was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Скря́бинь; sometimes transliterated as Skryabin or Skrjabin) (January 6, 1872 – April 27, 1915) was a Russian composer and pianist. ... A symphony is an extended piece of music usually for orchestra and comprising several movements. ... The clavier a lumieres was a musical instrument invented by Scriabin for use in his work Prometheus: Poem of Fire. ... Sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or primarily in North America as the Roaring Twenties. // Events and trends Since the closing of the 20th Century, the 1920s has drawn close associations with the 1990s, and particularly in the United States. ...


Animation pioneer Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball". Early 1930s entries in the series featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. Max Fleischer (July 19, 1883–September 11, 1972) was an important pioneer in the development of the animated cartoon. ... // Events and trends The 1930s were spent struggling for a solution to the global depression. ... Cartoons started in the 1930s and 40s. ...


The early animated efforts of Walt Disney, his Silly Symphonies, were built around music. The Warner Brothers cartoons, even today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were initially fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Brothers musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were also distributed to theatres. Walt Disney For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Silly Symphonies is a series of cartoons made by Walt Disney Productions. ... Warner Bros. ... Looney Tunes is a Warner Brothers cartoon series that preceded the Merrie Melodies series, and is both WBs first animated theatrical series and the second longest continuous animated series in any medium. ... Merrie Melodies end title Merrie Melodies is the name of a series of animated cartoons distributed by Warner Bros. ... The musical film is a film genre that features songs, sung by the actors, interwoven into the narrative. ... Cab Calloway, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1933 Cab Calloway (December 25, 1907–November 18, 1994), born Cabell Calloway III, was a famous American jazz singer and bandleader. ...


Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called Saint Louis Blues (1929) featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. It was shown in theatres until 1932. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Later, in the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a bizarre feature film Lookout; these films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the ancestors of music videos [1]. For other uses, see blues (disambiguation) Blues is a vocal and instrumental music form which emerged in the African-American community of the United States. ... Bessie Smith photographed by Carl Van Vechten Bessie Smith (April 15, 1894 – September 26, 1937) in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA was the most popular and successful blues singer of 1920s and 30s, and a huge influence on the singers who followed her. ... A number of short and feature films have been entitled . ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Louis Jordan (July 8, 1908 - February 4, 1975) was an African-American jazz and rhythm & blues musician who, unlike many of his black peers, was highly popular with mainstream audiences in the post-swing era. ...


Another early form of music video were one-song films called "Soundies" made in the 1940s for the Panoram visual jukebox. These were short films of musical selections, usually just a band on a movie-set bandstand, made for playing. Thousands of Soundies were made, mostly of jazz musicians, but also torch singers, comedians, and dancers. // Events and trends The 1940s were dominated by World War II, the most destructive armed conflict in history. ... A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that can play specially selected songs from self-contained media. ... Jazz master Louis Armstrong was one of the best loved and best known of all jazz musicians. ...


Before the Soundie, even dramatic movies typically had a musical interval, but the Soundie made the music the star and virtually all the name jazz performers appeared in Soundie shorts, many still available on compilation video tapes or DVDs.


The Panoram jukebox with eight three-minute Soundies were popular in taverns and night spots, but the fad faded during World War II. World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that engulfed much of the...


In 1940, Walt Disney released Fantasia, an animated film based around famous pieces of classical music. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Walt Disney For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture, the third in the Disney animated features canon, which was a Walt Disney experiment in animation and music. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Television era

The very first short musical films made specifically for television, however, were the Snader Telescriptions, more than 1000 short musical presentations filmed for use as television filler between 1950 and 1954. The Snader Telescriptions covered the entire musical landscape. Although most of them were of conventional pop performers, there were many rhythm and blues, jazz, and country music performers. Over the years, the Telescriptions have been re-released many times as compilations, such as Showtime at the Apollo. Rhythm and blues (or R&B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Jerry Wexler at Billboard magazine, used to designate upbeat popular music performed by African American artists that combined jazz and blues. ... Jazz master Louis Armstrong was one of the best loved and best known of all jazz musicians. ... Country music, formerly called country and western music or country-western, is an amalgam of popular musical forms developed in the southern United States, with roots in traditional folk music, spirituals, and the blues. ...


Other important influences during this period were the youth-oriented films featuring the then-new rock and roll genre, many of which included performances by noted rock acts like Little Richard. Among the most influential music-oriented films of this period were The Blackboard Jungle and The Girl Can't Help It. Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Little Richard Little Richard (born Richard Wayne Penniman, December 5, 1932 in Macon, Georgia) is an American singer, songwriter, and pianist, and an early pioneer of rock and roll. ... Blackboard Jungle (also known as The Blackboard Jungle) is a 1955 motion picture of social commentary that catalysed a genre of teacher dramas. ... The Girl Cant Help It is a 1956 comedy, musical film, starring Tom Ewell, Edmund OBrien and Jayne Mansfield. ...


In the 1960s, French technology developed for the aerial photography during the war was adapted to create the Scopitone, a modern visual jukebox. The Scopitone was a hit in France with fairly primitive scenes of bands playing, but when it was introduced into the US, the videos took on a vivid quality, with crooners wandering through crowds of girls in bikinis or "jungle" furs. The Scopitone also was a hit, but involvement of organized crime led to its demise, just as rock and roll was being revitalized, too late for Scopitone. The 1960s, or The Sexy Sixties, in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... Scopitone was a trendy invention of the 1960s, a jukebox with a 16mm film component, the forgotten forerunner of music video. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ...


Also in the '60s, the light show became popular for live performances, combining music with abstract visuals, hearkening back to Scriabin's efforts.


Film and video promos

In 1956 Tony Bennett was filmed walking along The Serpentine in Hyde Park, London as his recording of "Stranger in Paradise" played; this film was distributed to and played by UK and US television stations, leading Bennett to later claim he made the first music video. 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tony Bennett, 2000 Tony Bennett (born August 3, 1926) is an American popular music, standards, and jazz singer who is widely considered to be one of the best interpretative singers in these genres. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hyde Park is one of the largest parks in central London, England, and one of the Royal Parks of London. ... Stranger in Paradise is a popular song. ...


In (1961) Ozzie Nelson filmed and edited the video of TRAVELIN MAN by his son Ricky Nelson. It featured images of various parts of the world mentioned in the Jerry Fuller song and Ricky singing. The very first rock video.


The pioneering full-colour music video for The Exciters' "Tell Him" from 1962 greatly influenced all that came afterwards. The Exciters were an American pop music group of the 1960s. ...


The defining work in the development of the modern music video was The Beatles' first major motion picture, A Hard Day's Night in 1964, directed by Richard Lester. The musical segments in this film arguably set out the basic visual vocabulary of today's music videos, influencing a vast number of contemporary musicians, and countless subsequent pop and rock group music videos. The Beatles were a British pop and rock group from Liverpool. ... The film A Hard Days Night (1964) is a mockumentary written by Alun Owen and starring The Beatles during the height of Beatlemania. ... See also: 1963 in music, other events of 1964, 1965 in music, 1960s in music and the list of years in music // Events January 1 - Top of the Pops premieres on BBC television. ... Richard Lester (born January 19, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a UK based film director famous for his work with The Beatles. ...


That same year, The Beatles began filming short promotional films for their songs which were distributed for broadcast on television variety shows in other countries, primarily the U.S.A. By the time The Beatles stopped touring in late 1966 their promotional films, like their recordings, were becoming increasingly sophisticated, and they now used these films to, in effect, tour for them. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ...


Also in 1966 the clip of Bob Dylan performing Subterranean Homesick Blues filmed by D A Pennebaker was much used. The clip's ironic portrayal of a performance and the seemingly random inclusion of a celebrity (Allen Ginsberg) in a non-performing role also became mainstays of the form. The clip has been much imitated. 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... Portrait photograph by Daniel Kramer Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, musician, and poet. ... Subterranean Homesick Blues, a song written by Bob Dylan, was originally released on the album Bringing It All Back Home in 1965. ... D.A. Pennebaker is a documentary filmmaker. ... Allen Ginsberg, far left, at Airport Frankfurt, Germany Irwin Allen Ginsberg (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American Beat poet born in Paterson, New Jersey. ...


Although unashamedly based on A Hard Day's Night, the hugely popular American TV series The Monkees was another important influence on the development of the music video genre, with each episode including a number of specially-made film segments that were created to accompany the various Monkees songs used in the series. The series ran from 1966 to 1968. The Monkees in 1967 (left to right): Michael Nesmith, Davy Jones, Micky Dolenz, Peter Tork The Monkees were a four-man band who appeared in an American television series of the same name, which ran on NBC from 1966 to 1968. ...


The Beatles took the genre to new heights with their groundbreaking films for "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "Penny Lane", made in early 1967, which used techniques borrowed from underground and avant garde film, such as reversed film effects, dramatic lighting, unusual camera angles and rhythmic editing. Created at the height of the psychedelic music period, these two landmark films are among the very first purpose-made concept videos that attempt to "illustrate" the song in an artful manner, rather than just creating a film of an idealized performance. Strawberry Fields Forever is the title of a 1967 song recorded by the Beatles. ... Penny Lane is a street in the English city of Liverpool. ... See also: 1966 in music, other events of 1967, 1968 in music, 1960s in music and the list of years in music // Events January 15 - The Rolling Stones appear on The Ed Sullivan Show. ... Psychedelic music is a musical genre which is not rigorously defined, and is sometimes interpreted to include everything from Flower Power music to Hard Rock and Acid Rock. ...


Other pioneering music videos made during this time include the promotional films made by The Doors. The group had a strong interest in film, since both lead singer Jim Morrison and keyboard player Ray Manzarek had met while studying film at UCLA. The clip for their debut single "Break On Through" is essentially structured as a filmed performance, but it is notable for its accomplished and atmospheric lighting, camera work and editing. The Doors also directed a superb promotional clip for their controversial 1968 anti-war single "The Unknown Soldier", in which the group stage a mock execution by firing squad. One of the clip's most innovative features is its use of external visuals sources, with extensive intercutting of archival footage and shocking contemporary TV footage of the carnage of the Vietnam War. The Doors, Legacy (Clockwise from top right): Jim Morrison, John Densmore, Robby Krieger, Ray Manzarek The Doors (formed in 1965 in Los Angeles, California) were a popular and influential American rock band. ... Jim Morrison. ... Raymond Daniel Manzarek (born Raymond Daniel Manczarek to Helena and Raymond on February 12, 1939 in Chicago). ... The University of California, Los Angeles, popularly known as UCLA, is a public, coeducational university situated in the neighborhood of Westwood within the city of Los Angeles. ... The Vietnam War or Second Indochina War was a conflict between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN, or North Vietnam), allied with the National Liberation Front (NLF, or Viet Cong) against the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, or South Vietnam), and their allies—notably the United States military in support of...


When released in 1968, the animated film Yellow Submarine was an international sensation, although The Beatles themselves had only a tangential involvement with it. Soon it was commonplace for artists to make promotional films, and bands like The Byrds and The Beach Boys were also making promotional films. Although these "film clips" were often aired on pop music TV shows, they were still considered as secondary at that time, with live or mimed performances generally given precedence. See also: 1967 in music, other events of 1968, 1969 in music, 1960s in music and the list of years in music // Events January 4 - Guitarist Jimi Hendrix is jailed by Stockholm police, after trashing a hotel room during a drunken fist fight with bassist Noel Redding. ... Yellow Submarine is a 1966 song by the Beatles and a 1968 animated United Artists film based on the music of The Beatles. ... The Byrds’ original line-up. ... The Beach Boys, 1963 (L to R, David Marks, Carl Wilson, Dennis Wilson, Mike Love, Brian Wilson) The Beach Boys are a pop music group formed in Hawthorne, California in 1961, whose popularity has lasted into the twenty-first century. ...


The promotional clip continued to grow in importance, with television programs such as The Midnight Special and Don Kirshner's Rock Concert mixing concert footage with clips incorporating camera tricks, special effects, and dramatizations of song lyrics. The Midnight Special was a musical television series that ran from 1972 until 1983. ...


Other important contributions to the development of the genre include the film of the Woodstock Festival, and the various concert films that were made during the early Seventies, most notably Joe Cocker's Mad Dogs And Englishmen and particularly Pink Floyd's groundbreaking Live At Pompeii concert film, which featured sophisticated rhythmic cross-cutting. Woodstock redirects here. ... Joe Cocker Joe Cocker (born John Robert Cocker, May 20, 1944) is a pop music singer. ... Pink Floyd (formed in 1965 in Cambridge, England) are a British progressive rock band, noted for their progressive compositions, sonic experimentation, album art and live shows. ...


Many countries with local pop music industries soon copied the trend towards music videos. In Australia promotional films by Australian pop performers were being made on a regular basis by 1966; among the earliest known are clips by Australian groups The Masters Apprentices and The Loved Ones. The Masters Apprentices were an Australian rock band. ... The Loved Ones were an Australian rock group of the 1960s. ...


Surf film makers such as Bruce Brown, George Greenough and Alby Falzon also made important contributions in their films, which featured innovative combinations of images and music, and they notably dispensed with all narration and dialogue for many extended surfing sequences in their films, presenting the surfing action accompanied by suitably atmospheric music tracks. Bruce Brown, born December 1, 1937 is the father of filmmaker Dana Brown and is an early pioneer of surf films. ... George Greenough is a surfer from Santa Barbara, CA who now resides in Byron Bay in N.S.W Australia. ...


Alby Falzon's 1972 film Morning Of The Earth included a spectacular sequence (filmed by Greenough) that was constructed around the extended Pink Floyd track "Echoes". The group reportedly agreed to allowed Falzon to use the music gratis, in exchange for a copy of Greenough's footage, which they used during their concerts for several years. Pink Floyd (formed in 1965 in Cambridge, England) are a British progressive rock band, noted for their progressive compositions, sonic experimentation, album art and live shows. ...


Other notable Australian developments in this field are the early 1970s monochrome promotional films made by Australian musician and filmmaker Chris Lofven, whose clips for the Spectrum song "I'll Be Gone" and the Daddy Cool song "Eagle Rock" were among the best of the early Australian music video productions. It is notable that Lofven's 1971 clip for "Eagle Rock" bears a strong stylistic resemblance to the video for the 1980 hit "Brass In Pocket" by The Pretenders, and it has been speculated that original bassist Pete Farndon may well have seen the Lofven clip when he was working in Australia in the mid-1970s as a member of The Bushwackers. Spectrum was an Australian progressive rock band which formed in Melbourne in 1969 and remained in existence until 1973. ... Daddy Cool was an Australian band (based in Melbourne), led by Ross Wilson, which formed in 1970 and split up in 1972. ... Pretenders album cover, 1980 The Pretenders are a British rock band known for innovative songwriting and charismatic performances. ... The Bushwackers Luke Williams & Butch Miller The Bushwackers were a professional wrestling tag team that also competed as The Sheepherders. ...


The first promo clip to combine all the elements of the modern music video is David Bowie's promotional clip for the song The Jean Genie, which was released as single in late 1972 at the height of Bowie's Ziggy Stardust period. Filmed and directed by renowned photographer Mick Rock, this genre-defining four-minute film was produced for less than $350, shot in one day in San Francisco on 28th October 1972, and edited in less than two days. David Bowie David Bowie (born David Robert Jones on January 8, 1947 in London) is a British rock musician and actor. ... The Jean Genie (or simply Jean Genie) is a song by David Bowie inspired by the lives of Jean Genet and Iggy Pop. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... The Rise And Fall Of Ziggy Stardust And The Spiders From Mars is a 1972 concept album by David Bowie, praised as the definitive album of the 1970s by Melody Maker magazine. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


The Swedish music group, ABBA, used promotional films throughout the 1970's to promote themselves in other countries when travelling or touring abroad became difficult. Almost all of these videos were directed by Chocolat and My Life as a Dog director, Lasse Hallström. Lars Hallström (born Lasse Hallström on 2 June 1946) is a Swedish director. ...


In 1975 Queen released a promo video for "Bohemian Rhapsody" directed by Bruce Gowers, when they were unable to make a personal appearance on Top of the Pops. Considered a landmark in music video, it featured the complete visual grammar of today's music promos. Videos also found distribution through the early laserdisc format. Other notable contributions came from avant-garde bands such as The Residents and Devo and cult performers such as original Monkees member Michael Nesmith. 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... The British rock group Queen in the 1970s. ... Bohemian Rhapsody is a song written by Freddie Mercury, originally recorded by his band Queen for their 1975 album A Night at the Opera. ... Bruce Gowers is a music video director. ... Top of the Pops is a long-running British music chart television programme shown each week on BBC One and now licensed for local versions around the world. ... The Residents The Residents are an avant garde music and visual arts group. ... Promotional photo distributed during Are We Not Men? era. ... Michael Nesmith in the Monkees, circa 1967. ...


Modern era

a-ha's video to "Take On Me" (1985)
a-ha's video to "Take On Me" (1985)

The key innovation in the development of the modern music video was of course video recording and editing processes, along with the development of a number of related effects such as chroma-key. The advent of high-quality colour videotape recorders and portable video cameras coincided with the DIY ethos of the New Wave era and this enabled many pop acts to produce promotional videos quickly and cheaply, in comparison to the relatively high costs of using film. However, as the genre developed music video directors increasingly turned to 35mm film as the preferred medium, while others mixed film and video. By the mid-1980s releasing a music video to accompany your new single had become standard, and acts like The Jacksons sought to gain a commercial edge by creating lavish music videos with multi-million dollar budgets. Image File history File links This is a screenshot of a copyrighted website, video game graphic, computer program graphic, television broadcast, or film. ... Image File history File links This is a screenshot of a copyrighted website, video game graphic, computer program graphic, television broadcast, or film. ... a-ha is a Norwegian pop music band. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the special effect. ... New Wave is a term that has been used to describe many developments in music, but is most commonly associated with a movement in American, Australian, British, Canadian and European popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, growing out of the New York City punk rock scene, itself... The cover to the Jackson 5s first LP, Diana Ross Presents the Jackson 5, released on Motown Records in 1969. ...


Some of the first American music videos of the modern era were produced by ex-Monkee Michael Nesmith who started making short musical films for Saturday Night Live in 1979. In 1981, he released Elephant Parts, the first video album and first winner of a Grammy for music video. A further experiment on NBC television called Television Parts was not successful, due to network meddling (notably an intrusive laugh track and corny gags). The early self-produced music videos by Devo, including the pioneering compilation "The Truth About Devolution" were also important (if somewhat subversive) developments in the evolution of the genre and these Devo video cassette releases were arguably among the first true long-form video productions. The Monkees in 1967 (left to right): Michael Nesmith, Davy Jones, Micky Dolenz, Peter Tork The Monkees were a four-man band who appeared in an American television series of the same name, which ran on NBC from 1966 to 1968. ... Michael Nesmith in the Monkees, circa 1967. ... Saturday Night Live (SNL) is a weekly late-night 90-minute comedy-variety show from NBC which has been broadcast virtually every Saturday night since its debut on October 11, 1975. ... Elephant Parts is a home music video made by Michael Nesmith, former Monkee, in 1981. ... Grammy Award statuette The Grammy Awards, presented by the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the recorded music industry) for outstanding achievements in the recording industry, is one of four major music awards shows held annually in the United States (the Billboard Music Awards, the American Music... The National Broadcasting Company or NBC is an American television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... A laugh track or canned laughter is a separate soundtrack with the sound of audience laughter, made to be inserted into TV comedy shows and sitcoms. ... Promotional photo distributed during Are We Not Men? era. ...


In the UK the importance of Top of the Pops to promote a single created an environment of innovation and competition amongst bands and record labels as the show's producers placed strict limits on the number of videos it would use - therefore a good video would increase a song's sales as viewers hoped to see the video again the following week. David Bowie scored his first UK number one in nearly a decade thanks to the eye catching promo for "Ashes to Ashes". Another act to succeed from this tactic was "Madness" who shot on 16mm and 35mm short micro-comedic films. Top of the Pops is a long-running British music chart television programme shown each week on BBC One and now licensed for local versions around the world. ... Madness has several uses: One who is affected by madness could be deemed insane or could have a mental illness A band, see Madness (band) A violent flash cartoon series, see Madness Combat. ...


"Top of the Pops" was censorus in its approach to video content so another approach was for an act to produce a promo that would be banned or edited and so use the resulting controversy and publicity to promote the release. Early examples of this tactic were Duran Duran's "Girls on Film" and Frankie Goes to Hollywood with "Relax". Top of the Pops is a long-running British music chart television programme shown each week on BBC One and now licensed for local versions around the world. ... At the height of its fame, Duran Duran (The Fab Five) was featured on the cover of the February 1984 issue of Rolling Stone magazine. ... Frankie Goes to Hollywoods biggest selling single, Relax Frankie Goes To Hollywood (FGTH) was one of the biggest, most controversial and most marketed UK pop acts of the 1980s. ...


Although little acknowledged outside Australia, it is arguable that the 1970s-1980s Australian TV pop show Countdown -- and to a lesser extent its commercial competitors Sounds and Nightmoves -- were important precursors to MTV.


Countdown, which was based on Top Of The Pops, hit of in Australia but other countries quickly followed the format. At its highpoint during most of the 1980s it was to be aired in 22 countries including TV Europe. In 1978 the Dutch TV-broadcasting company Veronica started a Dutch version of Countdown which during the 80s had Adam Curry as its best known presenter. Countdown is still aired in the UK up till today as CD:UK by ITV <http://www.cduk.com/home.php>. The program gained international significance in the recording industry in the late 1970s and early 80s. Produced on a shoestring by the government-owned ABC national TV network, its low budget, and Australia's distance proved to be influential factors in the show's early preference for music video. The relative rarity of visits by international artists to Australia and the availability of high-quality, free promotional films meant that Countdown soon came to rely heavily on music videos in order to feature such performers. Top of the Pops is a long-running British music chart television programme shown each week on BBC One and now licensed for local versions around the world. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is Australias national public broadcaster. ...


The show's talent coordinator Ian Meldrum and his producers quickly realised that these music videos were becoming an important new commodity in music marketing. For the first time, pre-produced music videos gave TV the opportunity to present pop music in a format that rivalled or even exceed the impact of radio airplay, and it was soon apparent that Countdown could single-handedly break new pop acts and new songs by established artists -- a role that up until then been the exclusive preserve of radio. From video The Ultimate Kylie 2004 Ian Molly Meldrum (born January 29, 1946) is an Australian popular music critic, journalist, and record producer, and musical entrepreneur best known for hosting the seminal popular music program Countdown from 1974 to 1986. ...


Although Countdown continued to rely heavily on 'live' appearances by local and visiting acts, competing shows like Sounds lacked the resources to present regular studio performances, so they were soon using music videos almost exclusively. As the Eighties progressed, the ability to use music videos to give bands the best possible presentation saw record companies making more, and more lavish, promotional videos.


In 1980 New Zealand group Split Enz had major success with the single "I Got You" and the album True Colours, and later that year they became one of the first bands in the world to produce a complete set of music videos for each song on the album and to market these on video cassette -- the so-called video album. This was followed a year later by the first American video album, The Completion Backwards principle by The Tubes. Split Enz with ...costumes and hair. ... The Tubes are a San Francisco-based theater rock band, popular in the late 1970s and early 1980s, legendary (and/or infamous) for early live performances that combined lewd quasi-pornography with wild satires of media, consumerism and politics. ...


Realising the potential of music video, Countdown negotiated a controversial deal with local record labels, giving them first refusal and a period of exclusive use for any new video that came into the country, and with its nationwide reach and huge audience, Countdown was able to use music videos to break a number of important new local and overseas acts, notably ABBA, Queen, Meat Loaf, Blondie, Devo, Cyndi Lauper and Madonna. This early success in Australia in turn enabled these acts to gain airplay and TV exposure and score breakthrough hits in their home countries. ABBA (clockwise from top left: Frida, Benny, Agnetha, Björn) on the cover of their single Summer Night City. ... The British rock group Queen in the 1970s. ... Picture of Meat Loaf Meat Loaf (born Marvin Lee Aday September 27, 1947 in Dallas, Texas) is an American actor and rock and roll performer who came to fame with his album Bat Out of Hell and for his movie performances such as Eddie in The Rocky Horror Picture Show. ... Cover of the 1976 album Blondie Blondie is a rock band that first gained fame in the 1970s and early 1980s. ... Promotional photo distributed during Are We Not Men? era. ... Cyndi Lauper CD single Stay Cynthia Ann Stephanie Lauper (born June 22, 1953), better known as Cyndi Lauper, is a singer whose melodic voice and wild costumes have come to epitomize the 1980s, the decade in which she first came to fame. ... Madonna on her Ray of Light album cover Madonna Louise Veronica Ciccone (b. ...


During the 1980s promotional videos became pretty much de rigueur for most recording artists, a rise which was famously parodied by UK BBC television comedy program Not The Nine O'Clock News who produced a spoof music video; "Nice Video, Shame About The Song". Frank Zappa also parodied the excesses of the genre in his satirical song "Be In My Video". Corporate logo of the British Broadcasting Corporation The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the national broadcaster of the United Kingdom. ... The cast of Not The Nine OClock News (from left): Griff Rhys Jones, Rowan Atkinson, and Mel Smith, with Pamela Stephenson at the front. ... Frank Zappa Frank Vincent Zappa (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American singer, guitarist, composer and satirist. ...

Michael Jackson's famous short film Thriller (1984)
Michael Jackson's famous short film Thriller (1984)

In the early to mid 1980's, artist started to use more sophisticated effects in their videos, and add a storyline or plot to the music video. Michael Jackson was the first artist to create the concept of the short film. A short film is a music video that has a beginning, middle and end. He did this in a small way with Billie Jean, but it wasn't until the 1984 release of the Thriller short film, that he took music videos to another level. Thriller was a 13 minute long music video that had a beginning, a middle and an ending. Along with the plot, it also had ahead-of-its-time special effects, and a memorable dance sequence which has been mimicked ever since this video was released. Jackson then went on to make more famous short films such as, Bad, Smooth Criminal, Black or White, and Ghosts. Image File history File links Mjthriller. ... Image File history File links Mjthriller. ... Michael Jackson in 1992. ... Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... Michael Jackson in 1992. ...


A non-representational music video is one in which the musical artist is never shown. Because music videos are mainly intended to promote the artist, such videos are rare; two early 1980s examples however are Bruce Springsteen's "Atlantic City" and David Bowie/Queen's "Under Pressure". Bruce Springsteen on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine. ... David Bowie David Bowie (born David Robert Jones on January 8, 1947 in London) is a British rock musician and actor. ... The British rock group Queen in the 1970s. ...


MTV

In 1981, the U.S. video channel MTV launched, beginning an era of 24-hour-a-day music on television. (The first video broadcast was "Video Killed the Radio Star", by The Buggles.) With this new outlet for material, the music video would, by the mid-1980s, grow to play a central role in popular music marketing. Many important acts of this period, most notably Madonna, owed a great deal of their success to the skilful construction and seductive appeal of their videos. Some academics have compared music video to silent film, and it is suggested that stars like Madonna have (often quite deliberately) constructed an image that in many ways echoes the image of the great stars of the silent era such as Greta Garbo. Although many see MTV as the start of a "golden era" of music videos and the unparalleled success of a new artform in popular culture, others see it as hastening the death of the true musical artist, because physical appeal is now critical to popularity to an unprecedented degree. 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... MTV (abbreviation for Music Television) is a cable television network which was originally devoted to music videos, especially popular rock music. ... Video Killed the Radio Star is a song recorded by the Buggles. ... Frame from Video Killed the Radio Star. ... Madonna on her Ray of Light album cover Madonna Louise Veronica Ciccone (b. ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... Greta Garbo (September 18, 1905 – April 15, 1990) was a Swedish-American actress. ...


In the information technology era, music videos now approach the popularity of the songs themselves, being sold in collections on video tape and DVD. Enthusiasts of music videos sometimes watch them muted purely for their aesthetic value. Instead of watching the video for the music, (the basis for the artform), the videos are appreciated for their visual qualities, while viewers remain uninterested in the audio portion of the performance. This is a normal sociological reaction, some say, to the increasing trend in the music business to focus on visual appeal of artists, rather than the quality of the music. Critics say that the corporate music managers, over the course of logical and calculated business decisions, have sought to capitalize on the sex appeal of females in music videos rather than in choosing less profitable musicianship-based music. Categories: Information technology ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... DVD is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... Audio can mean: Sound that can be heard. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... The music industry is the industry that creates and performs music, both in the form of compositions and performances. ... A corporation (usually known in the United Kingdom and Ireland as a company) is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name... ...


Since December 1992, when MTV began listing directors with the artist and song credits, music videos have increasingly become an auteur's medium. However, few if any filmmakers train specifically to make music videos, and very few make them exclusively. Most split their time between videos and other film projects (usually commercials), and many readily admit to feature-film ambitions. As a result, music videos are typically seen as a necessary stepping-stone to greater glories, training ground for budding directors compiling clip reels and building name recognition. That so few people consider the form a destination only reinforces three crucial criticisms that have dogged music videos since the Buggles' "Video Killed the Radio Star" aired on cable 24 years ago: that these short clips are faddishly disposable, that their visuals remain necessarily secondary to the music even as they detract from the listening experience, and that music videos are works of commerce, not art. The term auteur (French for author) is used to describe film directors who are considered to be artists with their own unique vision. ...


What makes music video direction a dubious profession, however, also makes the medium a potentially exciting art form defined by the cross-pollination of ideas and approaches from various disciplines. Because music video directors come from such different backgrounds, they don't share much in the way of common thinking or set-in-stone pedagogy, bringing to the field a diversity of experiences. Cross pollination is a form of pollination in which pollen from one plant pollinates another. ...


Internet

The earliest purveyors of music videos on the internet were members of IRC-based groups who took the time to record music videos as they appeared on television, then digitising them and exchanging the .mpg files via IRC channels. As broadband Internet access has become available more widely, various initiatives have been made to capitalise on the continued interest in music videos. MTV itself now provides streams of artists' music videos, while AOL's recently launched AOL Music features a vast collection of downloadable videos. Apple's iTunes Music Store also provides a section of music videos in high quality compression, sometimes offering special videos as premium content. Another new phenomenon, deriving from the popularity of blogging, is the use of so-called music video "codes", lines of HTML code including links to music videos that the individual can simply copy and paste into their blog in order to feature a given video streaming on it. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of instant communication over the Internet. ... The Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. ... A WildBlue Satellite Internet dish. ... America Online, or AOL for short, is a U.S.-based online service provider and Internet service provider that is owned by Time Warner. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... The United States iTunes Music Store. ... This article is about a type of web application. ... In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable in a browser. ... Streaming media is media that is consumed (read, heard, viewed) while it is being delivered. ...


Unofficial music videos

With the advent of easy distribution over the internet and cheap video-editing software, a number of fan-created videos began appearing as of the late 1990s. These are typically made by synchronizing existing footage from other sources, such as television series or movie, with the song. In the case of AMV's the source material is drawn from Japanese anime (see anime music video) or from American animation series. Since neither the music nor the film footage is typically licensed, distributing these videos is usually copyright infringement on both counts. Singular examples of unofficial videos include one made for DJ Danger Mouse's illegal mash-up of the Jay-Z track "Encore" with music sampled from The Beatles' White Album, in which concert footage of The Beatles is remixed with footage of Jay-Z and rap dancers, as well as a recent politically charged video cut from television footage of the Katrina aftermath, set to an unofficial remix of Kanye West's "Gold Digger", inspired by the rap-artist's comment "George Bush doesn't care about black people." For the military vehicle, see AMV_8x8. ... A scene from Cowboy Bebop (1998) Anime (アニメ) is Japanese animation, sometimes referred to in the Western world by the portmanteau Japanimation. ... An anime music video (sometimes abbreviated AMV) is a music video consisting of clips from one or more anime television series or movies set to a particular song. ... Copyright infringement is the unauthorized use of copyrighted material in a manner that violates one of the copyright owners exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works that build upon it. ... Bastard pop is a musical genre which, in its purest form, consists of the combination (usually by digital means) of the music from one song with the acapella from another. ...


Timeline

Gorillaz - "DARE" (2005)
Gorillaz - "DARE" (2005)
  • 1941: A new invention hits clubs and bars in the USA: The Panoram Soundie is a jukebox that plays short videoclips along with the music.
  • 1956: Hollywood discovers the genre of music-centered films. A wave of rock'n'roll films begins (Rock Around the Clock, Don't Knock the Rock, Shake, Rattle and Rock, Rock Pretty Baby, The Girl Can't Help It), and the famous Elvis Presley movies. Some of these films integrated musical performances into a story, others were simply revues.
  • 1960: In France a re-invention of the Soundie, the Scopitone gains limited success.
  • 1962: British Television invents a new form of music television. Shows like Top Of The Pops, Ready! Steady! Go! and Oh, Boy started as band vehicles and became huge hits.
  • 1964: The US-Television market adapts the format. Hullabaloo is one of the first US shows of this kind, followed by Shindig! (NBC) and American Bandstand; The Beatles star in A Hard Day's Night
  • 1966: The first conceptual promos are aired, for the Beatles' "Paperback Writer" and "Rain". Early in 1967, even more ambitious videos are released for "Penny Lane" and "Strawberry Fields Forever".
  • 1970: The record industry discovers these TV-Shows as a great opportunity to promote their artists. They focus on producing short "Promos", early music videos which started to replace the live performance of the artist on the TV-stage.
  • 1975: "Bohemian Rhapsody" released by Queen.
  • 1981: MTV, the first 24-hour satellite music channel, launches. Initially few cable TV operators carry it, but it rapidly becomes a major hit and cultural icon.
  • 1984: Michael Jackson's short film, Thriller is released changing the concept of music videos forever
  • 1995: MTV begins to credit music video directors.
  • 1996: Pop-up Video is first aired on VH1.
  • 1996: M2 is launched as a 24-hour music video channel.
  • 2000: M2 is renamed to MTV2 is launched to focus on music videos as MTV has largely substituted them with other content.
  • 2002: MTV Hits is launched as MTV2 slowly starts showing less music videos.
  • 2005: MTV2 reformats station with new two-headed dog logo, with 12-24 year old guys as main demographic.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (852x480, 55 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (852x480, 55 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gorillaz is an animated Britpop collective or supergroup and virtual band, comprising four animated band members: 2D, Murdoc, Noodle and Russel. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that can play specially selected songs from self-contained media. ... The Girl Cant Help It is a 1956 comedy, musical film, starring Tom Ewell, Edmund OBrien and Jayne Mansfield. ... Elvis Presley Elvis Aron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), also known as The King of Rock and Roll (sometimes shortened to The King) was an American singer and actor. ... Top of the Pops is a long-running British music chart television programme shown each week on BBC One and now licensed for local versions around the world. ... Ready Steady Go or simply RSG was one of the UKs first rock / pop music TV programmes. ... // The British release A Hard Days Night was The Beatles third album, released in 1964 as the soundtrack to their first film of the same name. ... Bohemian Rhapsody is a song written by Freddie Mercury, originally recorded by his band Queen for their 1975 album A Night at the Opera. ... The British rock group Queen in the 1970s. ... MTV (abbreviation for Music Television) is a cable television network which was originally devoted to music videos, especially popular rock music. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house Cable television or Community Antenna Television (CATV) (often shortened to cable) is a system of providing television, FM radio programming and other services to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted directly to people’s televisions through fixed optical... Michael Jackson in 1992. ... A Pop-Up Video bubble pops during Lisa Loebs Stay (I Missed You) video Pop-Up Video was a VH1 show that popped up bubbles (officially called info nuggets) containing trivia and spry witticisms throughout music videos. ... VH1 (which originally stood for Video Hits 1) is an American cable television channel that was created in 1985 by Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment (then a division of Warner Communications). ... M2 may refer to: m², the basic SI unit of area M2 machine gun, a type of weapon. ... M2 may refer to: m², the basic SI unit of area M2 machine gun, a type of weapon. ... MTV2 is a cable network that is widely available in the United States on digital cable and satellite television, and is progressively being added to basic cable lineups across the nation. ... MTV Hits is an American music video channel that debuted in mid-2002. ... MTV2 is a cable network that is widely available in the United States on digital cable and satellite television, and is progressively being added to basic cable lineups across the nation. ...

Music video stations

Here are some of the most popular music video stations from around the world:

Black Entertainment Television (BET) is a cable television network geared towards African-Americans in their expression of mainstream pop culture. ... C4TV is a music television station operating in New Zealand and owned by Canadian broadcasting conglomerate CanWest. ... Channel [V] is an international music channel chain. ... Fuse is a music television network like MTV, formerly called MuchMusic USA until it was sold in early 2003. ... MTV (abbreviation for Music Television) is a cable television network which was originally devoted to music videos, especially popular rock music. ... MTV Canada returns after CTV said that they were rebranding their failing talktv into a revamped MTV Canada. ... MTV (acronym for Music Television) is a cable television network which was originally devoted to music videos, especially popular rock music. ... MuchMusic logo MuchMusic (often called Much) is a 24-hour cable television music video and variety television channel based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, which debuted on August 31, 1984 as one of the first Canadian cable specialty channels on the air. ... MuchMoreMusic is a 24-hour Canadian music cable channel, owned by CHUM Limited. ... Music 24 is an Israeli music channel which was launched on July 23rd, 2003. ... MusiquePlus is a Quebec French language, 24-hour cable television music video channel launched in 1986, owned by media conglomerate CHUM Limited. ... TMF (The Music Factory) is a pop music channel that operates in the Netherlands (TMF NL), Belgium (TMF Vlaanderen) and the United Kingdom (TMF UK). ... VH1 (which originally stood for Video Hits 1) is an American cable television channel that was created in 1985 by Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment (then a division of Warner Communications). ... Viva can refer to: a bus rapid transit system in York Region, Ontario, Canada. ... ZTV is a commercial television channel broadcasted by Viasat in Sweden and Norway. ...

See also

((amanda wuz here. ... This page indexes the individual list of music videos pages by year. ...

External links and references

  • Music on Television A brief history
  • mvdbase Created in 1998, one of the oldest and most complete databases on the web with information about music videos (but no links or streaming content)
  • Clipland Another database, covering a large selection of videos
  • Music Video CodesMusic video codes library source
  • Video Static Music video production and programming news
  • Music Video Wire "Resource for Music Video Industry news, interviews and educational content"
  • videos.antville A popular collective blog where you "sign up and post links to cool music videos"
  • cliptip A frequently updated showcase providing links to interesting music videos
  • Another Brick In The Wall: Music Video Links One individual's extraordinary collection of links to nearly 1500 music videos; many classics, but it's also regularly updated
  • offuhuge A site offering music videos "codes"
  • Music Videos A cool free music video site offering codes
  • discoverclips Another site offering music video "codes" for blogs
  • Middleton, Richard (1990/2002). Studying Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0335152759.
  • Durant, Alan (1984).
  • Clarke, Donald (1995) The Rise and Fall of Popular Music, St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312115733

Notes

  1. ^  Clarke, pg. 39

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