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Social Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes, emotion, personality, behavior, and relationships. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... Biological psychology is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Emotional redirects here. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated ev-psych or EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain certain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as evolved adaptations, i. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organisational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, or personnel psychology) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is the scientific study of human happiness. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ...


Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... link title Headline text --Cknuth7 16:35, 3 April 2006 (UTC) This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

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Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a qualified professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.

In other words, music therapy is the use of music by a trained professional to achieve therapeutic goals. Goal areas may include, but are not limited to, motor skills, social/interpersonal development, cognitive development, self-awareness, and spiritual enhancement. Allegory of Music on the Opéra Garnier Music is an art form that involves organised sounds and silence. ... // Psychotherapy is a range of techniques based on dialogue, communication and behavior change and which are designed to improve the mental health of a client or patient, or to improve group relationships (such as in a family). ...

Music therapists are found in nearly every area of the helping professions. Some commonly found practices include developmental work (communication, motor skills, etc.) with individuals with special needs, songwriting and listening in reminiscence/orientation work with the elderly, processing and relaxation work, and rhythmic entrainment for physical rehabilitation in stroke victims. A motor skill is a skill required for proper usage of skeletal muscles. ... A songwriter is someone who writes either the lyrics or the music for songs. ... Entrainment (brainwave synchronization) Entrainment (engineering) Entrainment (hydrodynamics) Entrainment (meteorology) Entrainment (physics) Entrainment (chronobiology) Category: ...

The idea of music as a healing modality dates back to the beginnings of history, and some of the earliest notable mentions in Western history are found in the writings of ancient Greek philosophers. Robert Burton wrote in the 16th century in his classic work, The Anatomy of Melancholy, that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness, especially melancholia. [1] [2] [3] Robert Burton Robert Burton (February 8, 1577 – January 25, 1640) was an English scholar and vicar at Oxford University, best known for writing The Anatomy of Melancholy. ... Front page of The Anatomy of Melancholy The Anatomy of Melancholy (Full title The Anatomy of Melancholy, What it is: With all the Kinds, Causes, Symptomes, Prognostickes, and Several Cures of it. ...

Music Therapy is considered one of the expressive therapies. Expressive therapy know alse as art therapy provides the means and support to express and explore feelings, thought problems and potentials through the use of art media and imagery. ...


Music therapy in the United States

Music therapy in its current/modern form has existed in the United States since around 1944, when the first undergraduate degree program in the world was founded at Michigan State University and the first graduate degree program at The University of Kansas. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a public university in East Lansing, Michigan. ... The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU) is an institution of higher learning located in Lawrence, Kansas. ...

The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) was founded in 1998 as a merger between the National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT, founded in 1950) and the American Association for Music Therapy (AAMT, founded in 1971). Numerous other national and international organizations exist, such as the Nordoff-Robbins Center For Music Therapy and The Bonny Institute. In the United States, a music therapist is most commonly designated by MT-BC (Music Therapist, Board-Certified). A music therapist with only this designation has a bachelor's in music therapy and is trained in the specific use of music therapy techniques as an adjunctive/augmentative therapy, complementing the work of other practitioners from different disciplines such as social work, speech/language, physical therapy, medicine, nursing, education, and so forth. A music therapist may have different credentials or professional licenses and may also have a master's degree in music therapy or in another clinical field (social work, mental health counseling, or the like). Some practicing music therapists have held Ph.D.s in non-music-therapy (but related) areas, but more recently Temple University founded a true music therapy Ph.D. program. A music therapist will typically practice in a manner that incorporates music therapy techniques with broader clinical practices such as assessment, diagnosis, psychotherapy, rehabilitation, and other practices. Music therapy services rendered within the context of a social service, educational, or health care agency are reimbursable by insurance and sources of funding for individuals with certain needs. Music therapy services have been identified as reimbursable under Medicaid, Medicare, Private insurance plans and other services such as state departments and government programs. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Temple University is a university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Medicaid is the US health insurance program for individuals and families with low incomes and resources. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ...

A U.S. music therapist may also hold the designation of CMT, ACMT, or RMT--initials which were previously conferred by the now-defunct AAMT and NAMT. More current music therapists hold the designation, MT-BC, music therapist-board certified. In Canada, the designation is MTA (Music Therapist Accredited/Musicotherapie Accreditee).

A degree in music therapy requires proficiency in guitar, piano, voice, music theory, music history, reading music, improvisation, as well as varying levels of skill in assessment, documentation, and other counseling and health care skills depending on the focus of the particular university's program. To become board-certified in the United States, a music therapist must complete 1200 hours of clinical training in addition to required coursework, research, and passing a nationally accredited certification exam. They also need to be able to deal with children and adults with disabilities Philosophically, improvisation often focuses on bringing ones personal awareness into the moment, and on developing a profound understanding for the action one is doing. ...

Music therapy in the United Kingdom

Live music was used in hospitals after both of the World Wars, as part of the regime for some recovering soldiers. Clinical Music therapy in Britain as it is understood today was pioneered in the 60s and 70s by French cellist Juliette Alvin, whose influence on the current generation of British music therapy lecturers remains strong. The Nordoff-Robbins approach to music therapy developed from the work of Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins in the 1950/60s. It is grounded in the belief that everyone can respond to music,no matter how ill or disabled. The unique qualities of music as therapy can enhance communication, support change, and enable people to live more resourcefully and creatively. Nordoff-Robbins now run music therapy sessions throughout the UK, US, South Africa, Australia and Germany. Its head quarters are in London where it also provides training and further education programmes, including the only PHD course in music therapy available in the UK. Music therapists, many of whom work with an improvisatory model (see clinical improvisation), are active particularly in the fields of child and adult learning disability, but also in psychiatry and forensic psychiatry, geriatrics, palliative care and other areas. The practitioner is an SRAsT(M) (State Registered Arts Therapist (Music)), and must hold a post-graduate diploma in music therapy, though increasingly the move is towards therapists holding masters degrees. There are courses in music therapy in Bristol, Cambridge, Cardiff, Edinburgh and London, and there are therapists throughout the United Kingdom. A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Philosophically, improvisation often focuses on bringing ones personal awareness into the moment, and on developing a profound understanding for the action one is doing. ... Clinical improvisation is one of the main techniques of music therapy, whereby the therapist improvises music according to the development of the patient / client, rather than the musical needs of the situation. ... In the United States and Canada, the term learning disability is used to refer to psychological and neurological conditions that affect a persons communicative capacities and potential to be taught effectively. ... Psychiatrist redirects here. ... Forensic psychiatry is a subspeciality of psychiatry. ... Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life. ... Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms or slowing the diseases progress, rather than providing a cure. ... Clifton Suspension Bridge Bristol (IPA: ) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London and between the cities of Bath, Gloucester and Newport. ... Geography Status City (1951) Region East of England Admin. ... Cardiff (English:  Welsh: ) is the capital, largest and core city of Wales. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

In 2002 the World Congress of Music Therapy was held in Oxford, on the theme of Dialogue and Debate. Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ...

In November 2006, Dr. Michael J. Crawford [4] and his colleagues again found that music therapy helped the outcomes of Schizophrenic patients. [5] Schizophrenia (from the Greek word σχιζοφρένεια, or shjzofreneja, meaning split mind) is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental disorder characterized by impairments in the perception or expression of reality and by significant social or occupational dysfunction. ...

Important Music Therapists and writers on Music Therapy

Juliette Alvin

Kenneth Bruscia

Leslie Bunt

Rajasree Mukherjee - see Rajasree Rajasree Mukherjee (born July 7, 1959 in Tatanagar, India) is a renowned singer and Music Therapist Rajasree Mukherjee, is a renowned Music Therapist Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, President of India with Rajasree Mukherjee Rajasree Mukherjee is an Honors graduate in Zoology from Lady Brabourne College, Kolkata. ...

Paul Nordoff - see Nordoff-Robbins There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Mercedes Pavlicevic

Mary Priestley

Clive Robbins - see Nordoff-Robbins There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Celine Dewy

E. Thayer Gaston E. Thayer Gaston was a psychologist active in the 1940s-1960s who helped develop music therapy. ...

Michael H. Thaut


  1. ^ cf. The Anatomy of Melancholy, Robert Burton, subsection 3, on and after line 3480, "Music a Remedy":

    But to leave all declamatory speeches in praise [3481]of divine music, I will confine myself to my proper subject: besides that excellent power it hath to expel many other diseases, it is a sovereign remedy against [3482] despair and melancholy, and will drive away the devil himself. Canus, a Rhodian fiddler, in [3483]Philostratus, when Apollonius was inquisitive to know what he could do with his pipe, told him, "That he would make a melancholy man merry, and him that was merry much merrier than before, a lover more enamoured, a religious man more devout." Ismenias the Theban, [3484]Chiron the centaur, is said to have cured this and many other diseases by music alone: as now they do those, saith [3485]Bodine, that are troubled with St. Vitus's Bedlam dance. [1]

  2. ^ "Humanities are the Hormones: A Tarantella Comes to Newfoundland. What should we do about it?" by Dr. John Crellin, MUNMED, newsletter of the Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1996.
  3. ^ Aung, Steven K.H., Lee, Mathew H.M., "Music, Sounds, Medicine, and Meditation: An Integrative Approach to the Healing Arts", Alternative & Complementary Therapies, Oct 2004, Vol. 10, No. 5: 266-270. [2]
  4. ^ Dr. Michael J. Crawford page at Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychological Medicine.
  5. ^ Crawford, Mike J.; Talwar, Nakul, et al. (November 2006). "Music therapy for in-patients with schizophrenia: Exploratory randomised controlled trial". The British Journal of Psychiatry (2006) 189: 405-409. 

Imperial College London is a prestigious (ranked 4th in the world for Engineering & Technology) British academic institution focusing on science, engineering and medicine, complemented by a business school. ...


External links

  • http://www.musictherapy.org The American Music Therapy Association
  • http://www.musictherapy.ca Canadian Association for Music Therapy
  • http://www.cbmt.org Certification Board for Music Therapists
  • http://www.bsmt.org/ British Society for Music Therapy
  • http://www.apmt.org/ Association of Professional Music Therapists (United Kingdom)
  • http://www.voices.no Voices. A World Forum for Music Therapy
  • http://www.njmt.no Nordic Jounal of Music Therapy

  Results from FactBites:
American Music Therapy Association (1616 words)
Music is used in general hospitals to: alleviate pain in conjunction with anesthesia or pain medication: elevate patients' mood and counteract depression; promote movement for physical rehabilitation; calm or sedate, often to induce sleep; counteract apprehension or fear; and lesson muscle tension for the purpose of relaxation, including the autonomic nervous system.
Music therapy is comparable to other health professions like occupational therapy and physical therapy in that individual assessments are provided for each client, service must be found reasonable and necessary for the individual’s illness or injury and interventions include a goal-directed documented treatment plan.
The future of music therapy is promising because state of the art music therapy research in physical rehabilitation, Alzheimer's disease, and psychoneuroimmunology is documenting the effectiveness of music therapy in terms that are important in the context of a biological medical model.
FSU College of Music . Academic Programs . Music Therapy (672 words)
The FSU Music Therapy student is characterized by diligence in the pursuit of musical and academic excellence and active dedication to the improvement of the quality of life of their fellow human beings.
Toward this goal, music therapists provide a variety of learning and therapeutic experiences for their clients and are stimulated by current research to seek, evaluate, and appropriately implement current ideas and developments in the therapeutic applications of music.
In addition to personal competencies in music performance, improvisation, conducting, applied music, composing, arranging, analysis, history, repertoire, and other musical skills, they must have competencies in the teaching of music on all levels, nursery school through adulthood, and in the methods of music therapy in the full array of habilitative and rehabilitative settings.
  More results at FactBites »



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