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Encyclopedia > Music of the United States
The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes.
The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes.

The music of the United States reflects the country's multi-ethnic population through a diverse array of styles. Rock and roll, country, rhythm and blues, jazz, and hip hop are among the country's most internationally renowned genres. Since the beginning of the 20th century, popular recorded music from the United States has become increasingly known across the world, to the point where some forms of American popular music are listened to almost everywhere.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (904x593, 160 KB) All genres listed are strongly associated with a place in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (904x593, 160 KB) All genres listed are strongly associated with a place in the United States. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Rhythm and blues (also known as R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences — first performed by African American artists. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ...


The earliest inhabitants of the United States were Native American tribes, who played the first music in the area. Beginning in the 17th century, immigrants from the British Isles, Spain, and France began arriving in large numbers, bringing with them new styles and instruments. African slaves brought musical traditions, and each subsequent wave of immigrants contributed to a melting pot. Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States, and has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the American history even though the foreign born have never been more than... Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ...


Much of modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the late 19th century of African American blues and the growth in the 1920s of gospel music. African American music formed a basis for popular music, which used elements derived from European and indigenous musics. The United States has also seen documented folk music and recorded popular music produced in the ethnic styles of Ukraine, Irish, Scottish, Polish, Hispanic and Jewish communities, among others. Many American cities and towns have vibrant music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. Aside from cities such as Detroit, New York, Chicago, Nashville and Los Angeles, many smaller cities have produced distinctive styles of music. The Cajun and Creole traditions in Louisiana music, the folk and popular styles of Hawaiian music, and the bluegrass and old time music of the Southeastern states are a few examples of diversity in American music. African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that most often follows a twelve-bar structure. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ... Silly Wizard The Tannahill Weavers Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. ... Latin American music, or the music of Latin America, is sometimes called Latin music. ... Jewish music, the music of Jews, is quite diverse and dates back thousands of years. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... “New York, NY” redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Nickname: Location in Davidson County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates: Country United States State Tennessee Counties Davidson County Founded: 1779 Incorporated: 1806 Government  - Mayor Bill Purcell (D) Area  - City  526. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , State California County Los Angeles County Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area  - City  498. ... Cajun music, an emblematic music of Louisiana, is rooted in the ballads of the French-speaking Catholics of Canada. ... The music of Louisiana, like other cultural aspects of the state, can be divided in to three general regions. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hawaiian music refers to the musical style native to the Hawaiian Islands of the United States. ... Bluegrass music is considered a form of American roots music which has its own roots in Irish, African, Scottish and English traditional music. ... Old-time music, a traditional style of American music, has roots in Irish, Scottish and African folk music. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...

Music of the United States
History - Education
(Timeline: –1930/1930–1970/1970–)
Colonial era - to the Civil War - During the Civil War - Late 19th century - Early 20th century - 40s and 50s - 60s and 70s - 80s to the present
Genres: Classical - Folk - Popular: Hip hop - Pop - Rock
Awards Grammy Awards, Country Music Awards
Charts Billboard Music Chart
Festivals Jazz Fest, Lollapalooza, Ozzfest, Monterey Jazz Festival
Media Spin, Rolling Stone, Vibe, Down Beat, Source, MTV, VH1
National anthem "The Star-Spangled Banner" and forty-eight state songs
Ethnic music
Native American - English: old-time and Western music - African American - Irish and Scottish - Latin: Tejano and Puerto Rican - Cajun and Creole - Hawaii - Other immigrants
Local music
AK - AL - AR - AS - AZ - CA - CO - CT - DC - DE - FL - GA - GU - HI - IA - ID - IL - IN - KS - KY - LA - MA - MD - ME - MI - MN - MO - MP - MS - MT - NC - ND - NE - NH - NM - NV - NJ - NY - OH - OK - OR - PA - PR - RI - SC - SD - TN - TX - UT - VA - VI - VT - WA - WI - WV - WY

Contents

The music history of the United States includes many styles of folk, popular and classical music. ... The upper-class during the colonial era promoted ensembles who played serenades, feldparthien and divertimenti, such as those composed by Mozart and Haydn. ... From independence to the start of the Civil War, American music underwent many changes. ... The music history of the United States during the Civil War was an important period in the development of American music. ... The latter part of the 19th century saw the increased popularization of African American music and the growth and maturity of folk styles like the blues. ... // Native Americans Main article: Native American music Modern Native American pow-wows arose around the turn of the 20th century. ... Many musical styles flourished and combined in the 1940s and 1950s, most likely because of the influence of radio had in creating a mass market for music. ... The 1960s was a tumultuous period for the United States, with the Cold War, Vietnam War and Civil Rights causing massive public unrest. ... The 1980s saw New Wave entering the year as the single biggest mainstream market, with heavy metal, punk rock and hardcore punk, and hip hop achieving increased crossover success. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American roots music is a broad category of music including country music, bluegrass, gospel, ragtime, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun and Native American music. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... Subway graffiti The United States was the nation of origin of hip hop, a cultural movement that began in the 1970s in New York City, among primarily African American and Hispanic audiences. ... American Pop is a 1981 American animated film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... // Through the late 1940s and early 1950s, rhythm and blues music had been gaining a stronger beat and a wilder style, with artists such as Fats Domino and Johnny Otis speeding up the tempos and increasing the backbeat to great popularity on the juke-joint circuit. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Country Music Association (CMA) was founded in 1958 in Nashville, Tennessee. ... Billboard is a weekly American magazine devoted to the music industry. ... A music festival is a festival oriented towards music that is sometimes presented with a theme such as; musical genre, nationality or locality of musicians, or holiday. ... The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, often known as Jazz Fest, is an annual celebration of the music and culture of New Orleans and Louisiana. ... Lollapalooza is an American music festival featuring alternative rock, hip hop, and punk rock bands, dance and comedy performances, and craft booths. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Monterey Jazz Festival is a yearly festival of jazz music that takes place at the Monterey Fairgrounds in Monterey, California the third full weekend in September. ... Spin is a music magazine that reports on all the music that rocks. Founded in 1985 by publisher Bob Guccione, Jr. ... This article is about the magazine. ... Janet Jackson on the cover of Vibe in 1998. ... Down Beat is an American magazine devoted to jazz. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... MTV (Music Television) is an American cable television network headquartered in New York City. ... VH1 (VH-1: Video Hits One until 1994) is an American cable television channel that was created in January 1985 by Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment, at the time a division of Warner Communications and owners of MTV. VH1 and sister channel MTV are currently part of the MTV Networks division... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the U.S.A., with lyrics written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key. ... Each state in the United States (except New Jersey) has a state song, selected by the state legislature as a symbol of the state. ... There are hundreds of tribes of Native Americans (called the First Nations in Canada), each with diverse musical practices, spread across the United States and Canada (excluding Hawaiian music). ... The Thirteen Colonies of the original United States were all former English possessions, and Anglo culture became a major foundation for American folk and popular music. ... West Virginia fiddler Edwin Edden Hammons, with unidentified banjo player Old-time music is a form of North American folk music, with roots in the folk music of many countries, including England, Scotland and Ireland, as well as the continent of Africa. ... Poster from the Western Music, directly related to the old English, Scottish, and Irish folk ballads, was originally composed by and about the people settling and working in the American West and western Canada. ... African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ... Irish and Scottish music have long been a major part of American music, at least as far back as the 19th century. ... Latin music has long influenced American popular music, jazz, rhythm and blues, rock and even country music. ... Tejano[1] (Spanish for Texan) or Tex-Mex[2] music is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic-descended Tejanos of Central and South Texas. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ... The vast majority of the inhabitants of the United States are immigrants or descendents of immigrants. ... Alaska is a state of the United States. ... Alabama has played a central role in the development of both blues and country music. ... Arkansas is a Southern state of the United States. ... The Samoas are a Polynesian island chain, currently divided between the independent state of Samoa (formerly Western Samoa) and an American territory called American Samoa. ... Arizonas musical history has been heavily influenced by Mexican immigrants. ... In the United States, California is commonly associated with the film, music, and arts industries; there are numerous world-famous Californian musicians. ... Colorado is a state of the United States, and has a notable reputation for music. ... Connecticut is a state of the United States in the New England region. ... The music of Washington D.C. is known for two primary scenes, hardcore and associated derivatives and a hip hop-dance music hybrid called go go. ... Delaware is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. ... Floridas ethnic diversity has led to a myriad of musical styles from punk rock to salsa and heavy metal being popular in various parts of the state. ... Georgias musical output includes Southern rap groups like Outkast and Goodie Mob, as well as a wide variety of rock, pop and country artists. ... Guam is an unincorporated territory of the United States. ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ... The music of Iowa includes such notable musicians as Slipknot, Stallions Versus Unicorns, Bix Beiderbecke and Greg Brown, as well as Meredith Willson, composer of The Music Man, and Alice Ettinger who was renowned enough to perform in Europe in the 1890s. ... Idaho has produced a number of musicians, including pop star Paul Revere and Doug Martsch of Built to Spill. ... Illinois, which includes Chicago, the third-largest city in the United States, has a wide musical heritage. ... The music of Indiana was strongly influenced by a large number of German and Irish immigrants who arrived in the 1830s. ... For many decades, Kansas has had a vibrant country and bluegrass scene. ... The Music of Kentucky is heavily centered on Appalachian folk music and its descendants, especially in eastern Kentucky. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... New England Conservatory of Music in Boston Massachusetts is a U.S. state in New England. ... Famous musicians from Maryland include Francis Scott Key, who wrote The Star-Spangled Banner and pop punksters Good Charlotte, from Waldorf. ... Maine is a state of the United States, located in New England. ... In Michigan, the city of Detroit has remained the capital of musical innovation for many years. ... The music of Minnesota has played a role in the historical and cultural development of Minnesota. ... St. ... The Northern Mariana Islands are an island chain dependency of the United States. ... Mississippi is best-known as the home of the blues, which developed among the freed African Americans in the latter half of the 19th century. ... Montana is a state of the United States. ... North Carolina is known particularly for its tradition of old-time music, and many recordings were made in the early 20th century by folk song collector Bascom Lamar Lunsford. ... The Music of North Dakota has followed general American trends over much of its history, beginning with ragtime and folk music, moving into big band and jazz. ... The state of Nebraska has spawned few big-name musicians, but has its own musical heritage. ... New Hampshire is a state of the United States, located in the New England region. ... New Mexico is a state of the Southwest United States. ... For most outsiders, Nevadan music is probably most closely associated with lounge singers like Wayne Newton playing in Las Vegas. ... One of the most renowned musicians from New Jersey is probably Bruce Springsteen, who became a 1980s icon with complex lyrical stories about teens growing up in Freehold and other economically depressed areas of New Jersey. ... In the United States, New York City has long been a musical hub and, in some ways, the musical capital of the country. ... The most famous musicians from Ohio are probably Marilyn Manson, Dean Martin and Chrissie Hynde of The Pretenders; the 19th century composer Daniel Emmett, born in Ohio to a Virginian family, wrote many of the most popular songs in his era, including some that remain well-known. ... While the music of Oklahoma is relatively young, Oklahoma having been a state for less than a hundred years, it has a rich history and many fine musicians. ... Oregons music scene is most active in Portland and the college town of Eugene. ... The most famous musical innovaters to come out of Pennsylvania are perhaps the Philly sound in 1970s soul music, Gamble & Huff, The OJays, Teddy Pendergrass, Harold Melvin and The Delphonics, as well as jazz legends like Nina Simone and John Coltrane. ... The music of Puerto Rico has been influenced by African and European (especially Spanish) forms, and has become popular across the Caribbean and in some communities worldwide. ... Rhode Island is a state of the United States, located in the New England region. ... South Carolina is one of the Southern United States, and has produced a number of renowned performers of country, bluegrass and other styles. ... The United States state of South Dakota has an official state song, Hail! South Dakota, written by DeeCort Hammitt. ... The story of Tennessees contribution to American music is essentially the story of two cities: Nashville and Memphis. ... Texas has long been a center for musical innovation. ... Utah music has long been dominated culturally by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (the Mormons), although other groups have also played an important role. ... Virginias musical contribution to American culture has been diverse, and includes Piedmont blues musicians and later rock and roll bands, many centered at such college towns as Blacksburg, Charlottesville (home of Dave Matthews Band) and Richmond. ... The Virgin Islands are partially controlled by the United Kingdom and the United States, and have had long-standing cultural ties to the island nations to the south as well as to various European colonialists. ... Vermont is a state in the United States. ... The U.S. state of Washington includes several major hotbeds of musical innovation. ... Perhaps the most influential musical output of Wisconsin came from Port Washington, Ozaukee County during the 1920s, when Paramount Records released a series of blues and jazz recordings. ... West Virginias folk heritage is a part of the Appalachian folk music tradition, and includes styles of fiddling and other techniques reminiscent of Scotch-Irish music. ... The first music of Wyoming was played by various Native Americans tribes in the present-day U.S. state of Wyoming. ...

Characteristics

The music of the United States can be characterized by the use of syncopation and asymmetrical rhythms, long, irregular melodies, which are said to "reflect the wide open geography of (the American landscape)" and the "sense of personal freedom characteristic of American life".[2] Some distinct aspects of American music, like the call-and-response format, are derived from African techniques and instruments. In music, syncopation is when a stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or failure to sound a tone on an accented beat occurs. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually played by different musicians, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or response to the first. ...


Throughout the early part of American history, and into modern times, the relationship between American and European music has been a discussed topic among scholars of American music. Some have urged for the adoption of more purely European techniques and styles, which are sometimes perceived as more refined or elegant, while others have pushed for a sense of musical nationalism that celebrates distinctively American styles. Modern classical music scholar John Warthen Struble has contrasted American and European, concluding that the music of the United States is inherently distinct because the United States has not had centuries of musical evolution as a nation. Instead, the music of the United States is that of dozens or hundreds of indigenous and immigrant groups, all of which developed largely in regional isolation until the American Civil War, when people from across the country were brought together in army units, trading musical styles and practices. Struble deemed the ballads of the Civil War "the first American folk music with discernible features that can be considered unique to America: the first 'American' sounding music, as distinct from any regional style derived from another country."[3] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

Arts of the
United States

Architecture
Cinema
Comic books
Cuisine
Dance
Literature
Music
Poetry
Sculpture
Television
Theater
Visual arts This article discusses the culture of the United States; for customs and way of life, see Culture of the United States. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... An American comic book is a small magazine originating in the United States containing a narrative in the comics form. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Theater of the United States is based in the Western tradition, mostly borrowed from the performance styles prevalent in Europe. ... The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863 by Albert Bierstadt, one of the Hudson River School painters Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ...

The Civil War, and the period following it, saw a general flowering of American art, literature and music. Amateur musical ensembles of this era can be seen as the birth of American popular music. Music author David Ewen describes these early amateur bands as combining "the depth and drama of the classics with undemanding technique, eschewing complexity in favor of direct expression. If it was vocal music, the words would be in English, despite the critics who declared English an unsingable language. In a way, it was part of the entire awakening of America that happened after the Civil War, a time in which American painters, writers and 'serious' composers addressed specifically American themes."[4] During this period the roots of blues, gospel, jazz and country music took shape; in the 20th century, these became the core of American popular music, which further evolved into the styles like rhythm and blues, rock and roll and hip hop music. Americas first well-known school of painting—the Hudson River School—appeared in 1820. ... This topic is considered to be an essential subject on Wikipedia. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... Rhythm and blues (also known as R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences — first performed by African American artists. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ...


Social identity

Music intertwines with aspects of American social and cultural identity, including through social class, race and ethnicity, geography, religion, language, gender and sexuality. The relationship between music and race is perhaps the most potent determiner of musical meaning in the United States. The development of an African American musical identity, out of disparate sources from Africa and Europe, has been a constant theme in the music history of the United States. Little documentation exists of colonial-era African American music, when styles, songs and instruments from across West Africa commingled in the melting pot of slavery. By the mid-19th century, a distinctly African American folk tradition was well-known and widespread, and African American musical techniques, instruments and images became a part of mainstream American music through spirituals, minstrel shows and slave songs.[5] African American musical styles became an integral part of American popular music through blues, jazz, rhythm and blues, and then rock and roll, soul and hip hop; all of these styles were consumed by Americans of all races, but were created in African American styles and idioms before eventually becoming common in performance and consumption across racial lines. In contrast, country music derives from both African and European, as well as Native American and Hawaiian, traditions and yet has long been perceived as a form of white music.[6] The contemporary United States has no legally-recognized social classes. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... By county. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ... The music history of the United States includes many styles of folk, popular and classical music. ... Colonial America may refer to: Colonial North America north of Rio Grande the Thirteen Colonies that declared independence from Britain in 1776 The period after the European colonization of the Americas Category: ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that most often follows a twelve-bar structure. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... Rhythm and blues (also known as R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences — first performed by African American artists. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Economic and social class separates American music through the creation and consumption of music, such as the upper-class patronage of symphony-goers, and the generally poor performers of rural and ethnic folk musics. Musical divisions based on class are not absolute, however, and are sometimes as much perceived as actual;[7] popular American country music, for example, is a commercial genre designed to "appeal to a working-class identity, whether or not its listeners are actually working class".[8] Country music is also intertwined with geographic identity, and is specifically rural in origin and function; other genres, like R&B and hip hop, are perceived as inherently urban.[9] For much of American history, music-making has been a "feminized activity".[10] In the 19th century, amateur piano and singing were considered proper for middle- and upper-class women, who were, nevertheless, frequently barred from orchestras and symphonies. Women were also a major part of early popular music performance, though recorded traditions quickly become more dominated by men. Most male-dominated genres of popular music include female performers as well, often in a niche appealing primarily to women; these include gangsta rap and heavy metal. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Heavy metal (sometimes referred to simply as metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ...


Diversity

The United States is often said to be a cultural melting pot, taking in influences from across the world and creating distinctively new methods of cultural expression. Though aspects of American music can be traced back to specific origins, claiming any particular original culture for a musical element is inherently problematic, due to the constant evolution of American music through transplanting and hybridizing techniques, instruments and genres. Elements of foreign musics arrived in the United States both through the formal sponsorship of educational and outreach events by individuals and groups, and through informal processes, as in the incidental transplantation of West African music through slavery, and Irish music through immigration. The most distinctly American musics are a result of cross-cultural hybridization through close contact. Slavery, for example, mixed persons from numerous tribes in tight living quarters, resulting in a shared musical tradition that was enriched through further hybridizing with elements of indigenous, Latin and European music.[11] American ethnic, religious and racial diversity has also produced such intermingled genres as the French-African music of the Louisiana Creoles, the Native, Mexican and European fusion Tejano music and the thoroughly hybridized slack-key guitar and other styles of modern Hawaiian music. Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ... West Africa is far-reaching, stretching from the Sahara Desert to the Atlantic Ocean. ... Irish music is a folk music which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many other traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. ... For Louisiana Creole ethnicity, refer to the New Orleans and Louisiana Creole section of the Creole page. ... Tejano[1] (Spanish for Texan) or Tex-Mex[2] music is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic-descended Tejanos of Central and South Texas. ... Slack key guitar is a style of guitar fingerpicking that originated in Hawaii. ... Hawaiian music refers to the musical style native to the Hawaiian Islands of the United States. ...


The process of transplanting music between cultures is not without criticism. The folk revival of the mid-20th century, for example, appropriated the musics of various rural peoples, in part to promote certain political causes, which has caused some to question whether the process caused the "commercial commodification of other peoples' songs... and the inevitable dilution of mean" in the appropriated musics. The issue of cultural appropriation has also been a major part of racial relations in the United States. The use of African American musical techniques, images and conceits in popular music largely by and for white Americans has been widespread since at least the mid-19th century songs of Stephen Foster and the rise of minstrel shows. The American music industry has actively attempted to popularize white performers of African American music because they are more palatable to mainstream and middle-class Americans. This process has produced such varied stars as Benny Goodman, Eminem and Elvis Presley, as well as popular styles like blue-eyed soul and rockabilly.[12] Stephen Foster Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826 – January 13, 1864), known as the father of American music, was the pre-eminent songwriter in the United States of the 19th century. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... Elvis Aron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), often known simply as Elvis and also called The King of Rock n Roll or simply The King, was an American singer, musician and actor. ... Blue-eyed soul is a term used to describe R&B or soul music performed by white people. ... Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock n’ roll music to emerge during the 1950s. ...


Folk music

Main article: American folk music

Folk music in the United States is varied across the country's numerous ethnic groups. The Native American tribes each play their own varieties of folk music, most of it spiritual in nature. African American music includes blues and gospel, descendants of West African music brought to the Americas by slaves and mixed with Western European music. During the colonial era, English, French and Spanish styles and instruments were brought to the Americas. By the early 20th century, the United States had become a major center for folk music from around the world, including polka, Ukrainian and Polish fiddling, Ashkenazi Jewish klezmer and several kinds of Latin music. American folk music, also known as Americana, is a broad category of music including Native American music, Bluegrass, country music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun. ... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that most often follows a twelve-bar structure. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ... West Africa is far-reaching, stretching from the Sahara Desert to the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Music of England has a long history. ... Street musicians in Prague playing a polka Polka is a type of dance, and also a genre of dance music. ... The term fiddle refers to a violin when used in folk music. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, Aškanazi,Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAškănāzî, ʾAškănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Klezmer (from Yiddish כּלי־זמיר, etymologically from Hebrew kli zemer כלי זמר, musical instrument) is a musical tradition which parallels Hasidic and Ashkenazic Judaism. ... Latin American music, or the music of Latin America, is sometimes called Latin music. ...


The Native Americans played the first folk music in what is now the United States, using a wide variety of styles and techniques. Some commonalities are near universal among Native American traditional music, however, especially the lack of harmony and polyphony, and the use of vocables and descending melodic figures. Traditional instrumentations uses the flute and many kinds of percussion instruments, like drums, rattles and shakers.[13] Since European and African contact was established, Native American folk music has grown in new directions, into fusions with disparate styles like European folk dances and Tejano music. Modern Native American music may be best known for powwow gatherings, pan-tribal gatherings at which traditionally styled dances and music are performed.[14] Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... A vocable is a word used without meaning. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Percussion may refer to: A family of musical instruments – see percussion instrument; A method of clinical examination – see percussion (medicine). ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... A rattle is a percussion musical instrument. ... The word Shaker describes a large number of percussive musical instruments used for creating rhythm in music. ... Tejano[1] (Spanish for Texan) or Tex-Mex[2] music is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic-descended Tejanos of Central and South Texas. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ...

Audio samples of American folk music

The Thirteen Colonies of the original United States were all former English possessions, and Anglo culture became a major foundation for American folk and popular music. Many American folk songs are identical to British songs in arrangements, but with new lyrics, often as parodies of the original material. American-Anglo songs are also characterized as having fewer pentatonic tunes, less prominent accompaniment (but with heavier use of drones) and more melodies in major.[15] Anglo-American traditional music also includes a variety of broadside ballads, humorous stories and tall tales, and disaster songs regarding mining, shipwrecks and murder. Legendary heroes like Joe Magarac, John Henry and Jesse James are part of many songs. Folk dances of British origin include the square dance, descended from the quadrille, combined with the American innovation of a caller instructing the dancers.[16] The religious communal society known as the Shakers emigrated from England during the 18th century and developed their own folk dance patterns such as: the square order shuffle and the quick step manner. Their early songs harken back to British folk song models. The best known Shaker song is Simple Gifts, written as dance song in 1848. Bicewaan Song. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... OntheOldKissimmeePrairie. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... TheOldGreyMare. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... DollarMamie. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Mississippi State Penitentiary, also known as Parchman Farm, is the oldest prison and the only maximum security prison in the state of Mississippi, USA. It is located on 18,000 acres (73 km²) in Parchman, Mississippi, and was built in 1901. ... Crossroads. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... CaminodeSanAntonio. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Brownsville is a city in Cameron County, Texas, United States. ... Image File history File links Cotton-EyedJoe. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Cotton-Eyed Joe is a popular American folk song known at various times throughout the United States and Canada although today it is most commonly associated with the American South. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the people. ... A line dance is a formation dance in which a group of people dance in one or more lines (British English, rows), executing the same movements. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... In contemporary usage, a parody is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. ... In music, a drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout much or all of a piece, sustained or repeated, and most often establishing a tonality upon which the rest of the piece is built. ... Printed lyrics of folk songs were extremely popular from the 16th century until the early 20th century. ... Tall Tale, also known as Tall Tale: The Unbelievable Adventures of Pecos Bill is a 1995 family Western movie starring Patrick Swayze, Nick Stahl, Oliver Platt, Roger Aaron Brown, Scott Glenn, Catherine OHara, and Jared Harris. ... Joe Magarac is a legendary American folk hero who was a steelworker in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Statue of John Henry outside the town of Talcott in Summers County, WV. John Henry is an African-American folk hero, who has been the subject of numerous songs, stories, plays, and novels. ... The historical figure of Jesse James became the basis of a hero of folklore even before he died in 1882. ... Square dance is often used as a general term for modern Western square dance. ... for the equestrian form of quadrille, see Quadrille (dressage) Quadrille is a historic dance performed by four couples in a square formation, a precursor to traditional square dancing. ... Caller is a person that calls dance figures in round dances, line dances, square dances, contra dances, etc. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Simple Gifts is an 1848 Shaker song by Elder Joseph Brackett. ...


The ancestors of today's African American population were brought to the United States as slaves, working primarily in the plantations of the South. They were from hundreds of tribes across West Africa, and they brought with them certain traits of West African music including call and response vocals and complexly rhythmic music,[17] as well as syncopated beats and shifting accents.[18] The African musical focus on rhythmic singing and dancing was brought to the New World, and where it became part of a distinct folk culture that helped Africans "retain continuity with their past through music". The first slaves in the United States sang work songs, field hollers[19] and, following Christianization, hymns. In the 19th century, a Great Awakening of religious fervor gripped people across the country, especially in the South. Protestant hymns written mostly by New England preachers became a feature of camp meetings held among devout Christians across the South. When blacks began singing adapted versions of these hymns, they were called Negro spirituals. It was from these roots, of spiritual songs, work songs and field hollers, that blues, jazz and gospel developed. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The term Call and response may refer to Call and response -- a type of musical phrasing Call-and-response -- a type of communication Call and Response is a Californian pop band. ... In music, syncopation is when a stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or failure to sound a tone on an accented beat occurs. ... Hand drumming has a significant role in African music]] African music is as vast and varied as the continents many nations and ethnic groups, so a general description of African music is not possible. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Field Hollers as well as work songs were African American styles of music from before the Civil War, this style of music is close related to Spirituals in the sense that it expressed religious feelings and included subtle hints about ways of escaping slavery, among other things. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Revivalism. ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ...


Blues and spirituals

Main articles: Blues and spiritual (music)

Spirituals were primarily expressions of religious faith, sung by slaves on southern plantations.[20] In the mid to late 19th century, spirituals spread out of the U.S. South. In 1871 Fisk University became home to the Jubilee Singers, a pioneering group that popularized spirituals across the country. In imitation of this group, gospel quartets arose, followed by increasing diversification with the early 20th-century rise of jackleg and singing preachers, from whence came the popular style of gospel music. Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that most often follows a twelve-bar structure. ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ... Fisk University is a historically black university in Nashville, Tennessee, U.S. It was established by John Ogden, Reverend Erastus Milo Cravath and Reverend Edward P. Smith and named in honor of General Clinton B. Fisk of the Tennessee Freedmens Bureau. ... The Fisk Jubilee Singers were a group of African American singers in the 1870s. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ...


Blues is a combination of African work songs, field hollers and shouts.[21] It developed in the rural South in the first decade of the 20th century. The most important characteristics of the blues is its use of the blue scale, with a flatted or indeterminate third, as well as the typically lamenting lyrics; though both of these elements had existed in African American folk music prior to the 20th century, the codified form of modern blues (such as with the AAB structure) did not exist until the early 20th century.[22] In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. ...


Other immigrant communities

The United States is a melting pot consisting of numerous ethnic groups. Many of these peoples have kept alive the folk traditions of their homeland, often producing distinctively American styles of foreign music. Some nationalities have produced local scenes in regions of the country where they have clustered, like Cape Verdean music in New England,[23] Armenian music in California,[24] and Italian and Ukrainian music in New York City.[25] The vast majority of the inhabitants of the United States are immigrants or descendents of immigrants. ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ... Cape Verde is known internationally for morna, a form of folk music usually sung in creole-Portuguese, accompanied by clarinet, accordion, violin, guitar and cavaquinho. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Armenia is situated close to the Caucasus Mountains, and its music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyans well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music, due to Armenias status as the oldest Christian nation in the... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Ukraine is an Eastern European country, formerly part of the Soviet Union. ... “New York, NY” redirects here. ...


The Creoles are a community with varied non-Anglo ancestry, mostly descendant of people who lived in Louisiana before its purchase by the U.S. The Cajuns are a group of Francophones who arrived in Louisiana after leaving Acadia in Canada.[26] The city of New Orleans, Louisiana, being a major port, has acted as a melting pot for people from all over the Caribbean basin. The result is a diverse and syncretic set of styles of Cajun and Creole music. The term Louisiana Creole refers to people of any race or mixture thereof who are descended from settlers in colonial Louisiana before it became part of the USA in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase, or to the culture and Creole cuisine typical of these people. ... This article is about an ethnic culture. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area  - City  350. ... Cajun music, an emblematic music of Louisiana, is rooted in the ballads of the French-speaking Catholics of Canada. ... The music of Louisiana, like other cultural aspects of the state, can be divided in to three general regions. ...


Mexico controlled much of what is now the western United States until the Mexican-American War, including the entire state of Texas. After Texas joined the United States, the Mexicans living in the state (Tejanos) began culturally developing separately from their neighbors to the south, and remained culturally distinct from other Texans. Central to the evolution of early Tejano music was the blend of traditional Mexican forms such as the corrido, and Continental European styles introduced by German and Czech settlers in the late 19th century.[27] In particular, the accordion was adopted by Tejano folk musicians at the turn of the 20th century, and it became a popular instrument for amateur musicians in Texas and Northern Mexico. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 18,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded... The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry form, a ballad, of the mestizo Mexican cultural area (which includes the Southwestern states of the United States, taken from Mexican sovereignty in the mid 19th Century). ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ...


Classical music

The European classical music tradition was brought to the United States with some of the first colonists. European classical music is rooted in the traditions of European art, ecclesiastical and concert music. The central norms of this tradition developed between 1550 and 1825, centering on what is known as the common practice period. Most American classical composers attempted to work entirely within European models until the 19th century. When Antonín Dvořák, a prominent Czech composer, visited the United States from 1892 to 1895, he iterated the idea that American classical music needed its own models instead of imitating European composers; he helped to inspire subsequent composers to make a distinctly American style of classical music.[28] By the beginning of 20th century, many American composers were incorporating disparate elements into their work, ranging from jazz and blues to Native American music. American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... In music the common practice period is a long period in western musical history spanning from before the classical era proper to today, dated, on the outside, as 1600-1900. ... Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( ; September 8, 1841–May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia in symphonic and chamber music. ...


Early classical music

During the colonial era, there were two distinct fields of what is now considered classical music. One was associated with amateur composers and pedagogues, whose style was based around simple hymns that were performed with increasing sophistication over time. The other colonial tradition was that of the mid-Atlantic cities like Philadelphia and Baltimore, which produced a number of prominent composers who worked almost entirely within the European model; these composers were mostly English in origin, and worked specifically in the style of prominent English composers of the day.[29] A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ...


European classical music was brought to the United States during the colonial era. Many American composers of this period worked exclusively with European models, while others, such as William Billings, Supply Belcher and Justin Morgan, also known as the First New England School, developed a style almost entirely independent of European models.[30] Of these composers, Billings is the most well-remembered; he was also influential "as the founder of the American church choir, as the first musician to use a pitch-pipe, and as the first to introduce a violoncello into church service".[31] Many of these composers were amateur singers who developed new forms of sacred music suitable for performance by amateurs, and often using harmonic methods which would have been considered bizarre by contemporary European standards.[32] These composers' styles were untouched by "the influence of their sophisticated European contemporaries", using modal or pentatonic scales or melodies and eschewing the European rules of harmony.[33] Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... William Billings (October 7, 1746 - September 26, 1800), American choral composer, is regarded as the father of American choral music and hymnody. ... Supply Belcher (March 29, 1751 – June 9, 1836) was an American composer, singer, and compiler of tune books. ... Justin Morgan (1747 - 1798) was a U.S. horse breeder and composer. ... A pitchpipe is a small device which may be described as a musical instrument, although it is not actually used to play music as such. ... Alternate meaning: Cello web browser A cropped image to show the relative size of a cello to a human (Uncropped Version) The cello (also violoncello or cello) is a stringed instrument and part of the violin family. ...


In the early 19th century, America produced diverse composers like Anthony Philip Heinrich, who created a unique American style and was the first American composer to write for a symphony. Many other composers, most famously William Henry Fry and George Frederick Bristow, supported the idea of an American classical style, though their works were very European in orientation. It was John Knowles Paine, however, who became the first American composer to be accepted in Europe. Paine's example inspired the composers of the Second New England School, which included such figures as Amy Beach, Edward MacDowell, and Horatio Parker.[34] Anthony Philip Heinrich was an immigrant American composer. ... William Henry Fry (August 10, 1813 – 1864) was an American composer, said to be the first American to compose a grand opera that was publicly performed. ... George Frederick Bristow (1825 - 1898) was an American composer. ... John Knowles Paine (January 9, 1839 - April 25, 1906), was the first American-born composer to achieve fame for his large-scale orchestral music. ... Amy Beach Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (September 5, 1867 – December 27, 1944) was an American composer and pianist. ... Edward and Marian MacDowell. ... Horatio Parker (September 15, 1863–December 18, 1919) was an American composer and teacher. ...


Louis Moreau Gottschalk is perhaps the best-remembered American composer of the 19th century, said by music historian Richard Crawford to be known for "bringing indigenous or folk, themes and rhythms into music for the concert hall". Gottschalk's music reflected the cultural mix of his home city, New Orleans, Louisiana, which was home to a variety of Latin, Caribbean, African American, Cajun and Creole musics. He was well acknowledged as a talented pianist in his lifetime, and was also a known composer who remains admired though little performed.[35] Louis Moreau Gottschalk pictured on a 1864 Publication of The Dying Poet for piano Louis Moreau Gottschalk (May 8, 1829 – December 18, 1869) was an American composer and pianist, best known as a virtuoso performer of his own romantic piano pieces. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area  - City  350. ...


20th century

The New York classical music scene included Charles Griffes, originally from Elmira, New York, who began publishing his most innovative material in 1914. His early collaborations were attempts to use non-Western musical themes. The best-known New York composer, indeed, the best-known American classical composer of any kind, was George Gershwin. Gershwin was a songwriter with Tin Pan Alley and the Broadway theatres, and his works were strongly influenced by jazz, or rather the precursors to jazz that were extant during his time. Gershwin's work made American classical music more focused, and attracted an unheard of amount of international attention. Following Gershwin, the first major composer was Aaron Copland from Brooklyn, who used elements of American folk music, though it remained European in technique and form. Later, he turned to the ballet and then serial music.[36] Charles Ives was one of the earliest American classical composers of enduring international significance, producing music in a uniquely American style, though his music was mostly unknown until after his death in 1954. Charles Tomlinson Griffes (Elmira, New York September 17, 1884 – April 8, 1920 in New York City} was an American composer. ... Location in Chemung County in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York County Chemung County Government  - Mayor John S. Tonello (D) Area  - City  7. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Tin Pan Alley was the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... Broadway theatre[1] is the most prestigious form of professional theatre in the U.S., as well as the most well known to the general public and most lucrative for the performers, technicians and others involved in putting on the shows. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music. ... Serialism is a rigorous system of composing music in which various elements of the piece are ordered according to a pre-determined ordered set or sets, and variations on them. ... Charles Edward Ives (October 20, 1874 – May 19, 1954) was an American composer of classical music. ...


Many of the later 20th-century composers, such as John Cage, John Corigliano, John Adams and Steve Reich, used modernist and minimalist techniques. Reich discovered a technique known as phasing, in which two musical activities begin simultaneously and are repeated, gradually drifting out of sync, creating a natural sense of development. Reich was also very interested in non-Western music, incorporating African rhythmic techniques in his compositions.[36] Recent composers and performers are strongly influenced by the minimalist works of Philip Glass, a Baltimore native based out of New York, Meredith Monk, the collective Bang on a Can and others.[37] For Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... John Corigliano (born February 16, 1938) is an American composer of classical music. ... For the Alaska-based postminimalist composer, see John Luther Adams. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... In music the compositional technique phasing, popularized by composer Steve Reich, is that while the same part is played on two musical instruments, one instrumentalist keeps playing in steady tempo, while the other gradually moves ahead of the first until it becomes out of and then back in phase (the... Hand drumming has a significant role in African music]] African music is as vast and varied as the continents many nations and ethnic groups, so a general description of African music is not possible. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Meredith Monk (born November 20, 1942, in Lima, Peru[1]) is an American composer, performer, director, vocalist, film-maker, and choreographer. ... Bang on a Can is a musical organization based in New York City which was founded in 1987 by three American composers who remain its artistic directors: Julia Wolfe, David Lang, and Michael Gordon. ...


With the rise of the American film industry, film scores also became a notable area of symphonic composition, and maintained an increasing position in popular recognition of orchestral works; selections from motion picture soundtracks would eventually become part of the programming in popular concert series. Much like American popular music, American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... For the record label, see Film Score Monthly. ...


Popular music

The United States has produced many of the most popular musicians and composers in the modern world. Beginning with the birth of recorded music, American performers have continued to lead the field of popular music, which out of "all the contributions made by Americans to world culture... has been taken to heart by the entire world".[38] Most histories of popular music start with American ragtime or Tin Pan Alley; others, however, trace popular music back to the European Renaissance and through broadsheets, ballads and other popular traditions.[39] Other authors typically look at popular sheet music, tracing American popular music to spirituals, minstrel shows and vaudeville, or the patriotic songs of the Civil War. The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tin Pan Alley was the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Newspaper sizes in August 2005. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham of the ballad The Twa Corbies A ballad is a story, usually a narrative or poem, in a song. ... A spiritual is a African-American song, usually with a religious text. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Early popular song

Audio samples of American patriotic music

The patriotic lay songs of the American Revolution constituted the first kind of mainstream popular music. These included "The Liberty Tree", by Thomas Paine. Cheaply printed as broadsheets, early patriotic songs spread across the colonies and were performed at home and at public meetings.[40] Fife songs were especially celebrated, and were performed on fields of battle during the American Revolution. The longest lasting of these fife songs is "Yankee Doodle", still well known today. The melody dates back to 1755 and was sung by both American and British troops.[41] Patriotic songs were mostly based on English melodies, with new lyrics added to denounce British colonialism; others, however, used tunes from Ireland, Scotland or elsewhere, or did not utilize a familiar melody. The song "Hail Columbia" was a major work[42] that remained an unofficial national anthem until the adoption of "The Star-Spangled Banner". Much of this early American music still survives in Sacred Harp. Star-spangled banner. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... The Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the U.S.A., with lyrics written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key. ... Fredrick Malcolm Waring (born June 9, 1900 in Tyrone, Pennsylvania, died July 29, 1984, State College, Pennsylvania) was a popular musician, bandleader, and radio and TV personality of the 20th century, sometimes referred to as the man who taught America how to sing. ... Image File history File links USMC_stars_stripes_forever. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... John Philip Sousa John Philip Sousa (November 6, 1854 - March 6, 1932), is probably the most famous marching band conductor (although his band rarely marched) and composer in history. ... The Stars and Stripes Forever is a patriotic American march. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Image File history File links Dixie_(1916). ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Sheet music cover, c. ... Ada Jones (June 1, 1873 – May 22, 1922) was a popular singer whose recordings ranged from 1905 to the early 1920s. ... Billy Murray (25 May 1877 - 17 August 1954) was one of the most popular singers in the United States in the early decades of the 20th century. ... The bombardment of Fort McHenry that inspired Francis Scott Key to write the lyrics for the national anthem. ... Thomas Paine (Thetford, England, 29 January 1737 – 8 June 1809, New York City, USA) was a pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical intellectual, and deist. ... Newspaper sizes in August 2005. ... Fife from the American Civil War A fife is a small, high-pitched, transverse flute that is similar to the piccolo, but louder and shriller due to its narrower bore. ... Yankee Doodle is a well-known American song, often sung patriotically today . ... Hail, Columbia was the unofficial national anthem of the United States until its replacement in 1931 by the officially mandated Star-Spangled Banner. It was originally composed by Joseph Hopkinson in the late 18th century. ... The Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the U.S.A., with lyrics written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key. ... Sacred Harp singing is a tradition of sacred choral music that took root in the Southern region of the United States. ...

Sheet music for "Dixie"
Sheet music for "Dixie"

During the Civil War, when soldiers from across the country commingled, the multifarious strands of American music began to cross-fertilize each other, a process that was aided by the burgeoning railroad industry and other technological developments that made travel and communication easier. Army units included individuals from across the country, and they rapidly traded tunes, instruments and techniques. The war was an impetus for the creation of distinctly American songs that became and remained wildly popular.[43] The most popular songs of the Civil War era included "Dixie", written by Daniel Decatur Emmett. The song, originally titled "Dixie's Land", was made for the closing of a minstrel show; it spread to New Orleans first, where it was published and became "one of the great song successes of the pre-Civil War period".[44] In addition to popular patriotic songs, the Civil War era also produced a great body of brass band pieces.[45] Image File history File links Sheet music from the 1900s for Dixie, showing four singers in blackface. ... Image File history File links Sheet music from the 1900s for Dixie, showing four singers in blackface. ... Sheet music cover, c. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Sheet music cover, c. ... Daniel Decatur Dan Emmett (1815-1904), was born at Mount Vernon, Ohio. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... A brass band a musical group consisting mostly or entirely of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ...

19th-century song composer Stephen Foster

Following the Civil War, minstrel shows became the first distinctively American form of music expression. The minstrel show was an indigenous form of American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, usually performed by white people in blackface. Minstrel shows used African American elements in musical performances, but only in simplified ways; storylines in the shows depicted blacks as natural-born slaves and fools, before eventually becoming associated with abolitionism.[46] The minstrel show was invented by Dan Emmett and the Virginia Minstrels.[47] Minstrel shows produced the first well-remembered popular songwriters in American music history: Thomas D. Rice, Dan Emmett, and, most famously, Stephen Foster. After minstrel shows' popularity faded, coon songs, a similar phenomenon, became popular. Stephen Foster (19th century photo) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stephen Foster (19th century photo) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stephen Foster Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826 – January 13, 1864), known as the father of American music, was the pre-eminent songwriter in the United States of the 19th century. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... Daniel Decatur Dan Emmett (October 29, 1815 – June 28, 1904), was born at Mount Vernon, Ohio. ... The Virginia Minstrels was a group of 19th Century American entertainers known for helping to invent the entertainment form known as the Minstrel show. ... Thomas Dartmouth (T.D.) Daddy Rice (May, 1808 - September 16, 1860), was a comedian and the creator of the blackface form of comedy of the 19th century and early 20th century. ... Stephen Foster Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826 – January 13, 1864), known as the father of American music, was the pre-eminent songwriter in the United States of the 19th century. ... Sheet music to Coon Coon Coon, which bills itself as The Most Successful Song Hit of 1901. ...


The composer John Philip Sousa is closely associated with the most popular trend in American popular music just before the turn of the century. Formerly the bandmaster of the United States Marine Band, Sousa wrote military marches like "The Stars and Stripes Forever" that reflected his "nostalgia for [his] home and country", giving the melody a "stirring virile character".[48] Portrait of John Philip Sousa taken in 1900 John Philip Sousa (November 6, 1854 – March 6, 1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era known particularly for American military marches. ... The United States Marine Band, colloquially known as The Presidents Own, was established by an Act of Congress on July 11, 1798, and is America’s oldest professional musical organization. ... The Stars and Stripes Forever is a patriotic American march. ...


In the early 20th century, American musical theater was a major source for popular songs, many of which influenced blues, jazz, country, and other extant styles of popular music. The center of development for this style was in New York City, where the Broadway theatres became among the most renowned venues in the city. Theatrical composers and lyricists like the brothers George and Ira Gershwin created a uniquely American theatrical style that used American vernacular speech and music. Musicals featured popular songs and fast-paced plots that often revolved around love and romance.[49] Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Broadway theatre[1] is the most prestigious form of professional theatre in the U.S., as well as the most well known to the general public and most lucrative for the performers, technicians and others involved in putting on the shows. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Ira Gershwin (6 December 1896 – 17 August 1983) was an American lyricist who collaborated with his younger brother, composer George Gershwin, to create some of the most memorable songs of the 20th century. ...


Blues and gospel

Audio samples of blues-derived early popular music
Main articles: Blues and gospel music

The blues is a genre of African American folk music that is the basis for much of modern American popular music. Blues can be seen as part of a continuum of musical styles like country, jazz, ragtime, and gospel; though each genre evolved into distinct forms, their origins were often indistinct. Early forms of the blues evolved in and around the Mississippi Delta in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The earliest blues-like music was primarily call-and-response vocal music, without harmony or accompaniment and without any formal musical structure. Slaves and their descendants created the blues by adapting the field shouts and hollers, turning them into passionate solo songs.[50] When mixed with the Christian spiritual songs of African American churches and revival meetings, blues became the basis of gospel music. Modern gospel began in African American churches in the 1920s, in the form of worshipers proclaiming their faith in an improvised, often musical manner (testifying). Composers like Thomas A. Dorsey composed gospel works that used elements of blues and jazz in traditional hymns and spiritual songs.[51] Crossroads. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Image File history File links Maple leaf rag. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Image File history File links DownbytheRiverside. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that most often follows a twelve-bar structure. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ... In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually played by different musicians, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or response to the first. ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ... Come on Mama, Do That Dance Georgia Tom Dorsey Yazoo 1041 For the big band trombonist and bandleader, see Tommy Dorsey. ...


Ragtime was a style of music based around the piano, using syncopated rhythms and chromaticisms.[52] It is primarily a form of dance music utilizing the walking bass, and is generally composed in sonata form. Ragtime is a refined and evolved form of the African American cakewalk dance, mixed with styles ranging from European marches[53] and popular songs to jigs and other dances played by large African American bands in northern cities during the end of the 19th century. The most famous ragtime performer and composer was Scott Joplin, known for works such as "Maple Leaf Rag".[54] In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ... In music a walking bass is a bass accompaniment generally consisting of unsyncopated notes of equal value, usually quarter notes (known in jazz as a four feel). Walking bass lines are used in rock, blues, rock-a-billy, ska, r&b, gospel, latin, country, and many other genres (Friedland 1995... Sonata form is a musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. ... Cakewalk is a traditional African American form of music and dance which originated among slaves in the US South. ... The jig (sometimes seen in its French language or Italian language forms gigue or giga) is a folk dance type as well as the accompanying dance tune type, popular in Ireland and Scotland. ... Scott Joplin (born between June 1867 – January 1868[1]; died April 1, 1917) was an American musician and composer of ragtime music. ...

Blues singer Bessie Smith
Blues singer Bessie Smith

Blues became a part of American popular music in the 1920s, when classic female blues singers like Bessie Smith grew popular. At the same time, record companies launched the field of race music, which was mostly blues targeted at African American audiences. The most famous of these acts went on to inspire much of the later popular development of the blues and blues-derived genres, including the legendary Robert Johnson. By the end of the 1940s, however, pure blues was only a minor part of popular music, having been subsumed by offshoots like rhythm & blues and the nascent rock and roll style. Some styles of electric, piano-driven blues, like the boogie-woogie, retained a large audience. A bluesy style of gospel also became popular in mainstream America in the 1950s, led by singer Mahalia Jackson.[55] public domain photo from the library of congress From Library of Congress This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... public domain photo from the library of congress From Library of Congress This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Classic female blues spanned from 1920 to 1929 with its peak from 1923 to 1925. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Boogie-woogie is a style of piano-based blues that became very popular in the late 1930s and early 1940s, and was extended from piano, to three pianos at once, guitar, big band, and country and western music, and even gospel. ... Mahalia Jackson (October 26, 1911[1] – January 27, 1972) was an American gospel singer, widely regarded as the best in the history of the genre. ...


Jazz

Audio samples of jazz
  • [[Media:|"Ain't Misbehavin'"]] ([[:Image:|file info]]) — play in browser (beta)
    • Jazz song by early star Louis Armstrong
  • "Bird of Paradise" ( file info) — play in browser (beta)
    • By one of the early innovators of bebop, Charlie Parker
  • [[Media:|"How High the Moon"]] ([[:Image:|file info]]) — play in browser (beta)
    • By acclaimed jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.
Main article: Jazz

Jazz is a kind of music characterized by swung and blue notes, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation. Though originally a kind of dance music, jazz has been a major part of popular music, and has also become a major element of Western classical music. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music.[56] Early jazz was closely related to ragtime, with which it could be distinguished by the use of more intricate rhythmic improvisation. The earliest jazz bands adopted much of the vocabulary of the blues, including bent and blue notes and instrumental "growls" and smears otherwise not used on European instruments. Jazz's roots come from the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, populated by Cajuns and black Creoles, who combined the French-Canadian culture of the Cajuns with their own styles of music in the 19th century. Large Creole bands that played for funerals and parades became a major basis for early jazz, which spread from New Orleans to Chicago and other northern urban centers. Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Bird Of Paradise. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... In music, a swung note or shuffle note is the rhythmic device in which the duration of the initial note in a pair is augmented and that of the second is diminished. ... In jazz and blues notes added to the major scale for expressive quality, loosely defined by musicians to be an alteration to a scale or chord that makes it sound like the blues. ... Polyrhythm is the simultaneous sounding of two or more independent rhythms. ... Improvisation is the practice of acting and reacting, of making and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of ones immediate environment. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area  - City  350. ...


Though jazz had long since achieved some limited popularity, it was Louis Armstrong who became one of the first popular stars and a major force in the development of jazz. Armstrong was an improviser, capable of creating numerous variations on a single melody; he also popularized scat singing, an improvisational vocal technique in which nonsensical syllables (vocables) are sung. He was influential in the rise of a kind of pop big band jazz called swing. Swing is characterized by a strong rhythm section, usually consisting of double bass and drums, medium to fast tempo, and rhythmic devices like the swung note, which is common to most jazz. Swing is primarily a fusion of 1930s jazz fused with elements of the blues and Tin Pan Alley.[57] Swing used bigger bands than other kinds of jazz, leading to bandleaders tightly arranging the material which discouraged improvisation, previously an integral part of jazz. Swing became a major part of African American dance, and came to be accompanied by a popular dance called the swing dance. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Scat singing is vocalizing either wordlessly or with nonsense words and syllables (e. ... A vocable is a word used without meaning. ... Swing music, also known as swing jazz, is a form of jazz music that developed during the 1920s and had solidified as a distinctive style by 1935 in the United States. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Swing is a group of related street dances, that evolved from Lindy Hop. ...

Bebop pioneer Dizzy Gillespie
Bebop pioneer Dizzy Gillespie

Jazz influenced many performers of all the major styles of later popular music, though jazz itself never again became such a major part of American popular music as during the swing era. The later 20th century American jazz scene did, however, produce some popular crossover stars, such as Miles Davis. In the middle of the 20th century, jazz evolved into a variety of subgenres, beginning with bebop. Bebop is a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos, improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody, and use of the flatted fifth. Bebop was developed in the early and mid-1940s, later evolving into styles like hard bop and free jazz. Innovators of the style included Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie, who arose from small jazz clubs in New York City.[58] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (818x1024, 83 KB) This image (or all images in this article or category) needs to have its border removed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (818x1024, 83 KB) This image (or all images in this article or category) needs to have its border removed. ... John Birks Dizzy Gillespie (October 21, 1917 – January 6, 1993) was born in Cheraw, South Carolina. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (26 May 1926 – 28 September 1991) was one of the most influential musicians of the latter half of the 20th century. ... Bebop is a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody. ... This article is about the musical interval. ... Hard bop is an extension of bebop (bop) music which incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Charles Bird Parker, Jr. ... John Birks Dizzy Gillespie (October 21, 1917 – January 6, 1993) was born in Cheraw, South Carolina. ...


Country music

Audio samples of country music
  • "I Walk the Line" ( file info) — play in browser (beta)
    • Song by popular country performer Johnny Cash
  • "Killin' Time" ( file info) — play in browser (beta)
    • Pop-country song by Clint Black
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Main article: Country music

Country music is primarily a fusion of African American blues and spirituals with Appalachian folk music, adapted for pop audiences and popularized beginning in the 1920s. The origins of country are in rural Southern folk music, which was primarily Irish and British, with African and continental European musics.[59] Anglo-Celtic tunes, dance music, and balladry were the earliest predecessors of modern country, then known as hillbilly music. Early hillbilly also borrowed elements of the blues and drew upon more aspects of 19th-century pop songs as hillbilly music evolved into a commercial genre eventually known as country and western and then simply country.[60] The earliest country instrumentation revolved around the European-derived fiddle and the African-derived banjo, with the guitar later added.[61] String instruments like the ukulele and steel guitar became commonplace due to the popularity of Hawaiian musical groups in the early 20th century.[62] Image File history File links WalktheLine. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... KillinTime. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Appalachian folk music is a distinctive genre of folk music originating in the Appalachia region of the United States of America. ... The term fiddle refers to a violin when used in folk music. ... For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) A modern 5-string banjo The banjo is a stringed instrument of African American origin adapted from several African instruments. ... The ukulele (Hawaiian: , IPA pronunciation: ; Anglicised pronunciation usually IPA: ), sometimes spelled ukelele (particularly in the UK) or uke, is a chordophone classified as a plucked lute; it is a subset of the guitar family of instruments, generally with four strings or four courses of strings. ... A Dobro style resonator guitar Steel guitar, strictly speaking, refers to a method of playing using a metal slide (or steel) on a guitar played horizontally, with the strings uppermost. ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ...


The roots of commercial country music are generally traced to 1927, when music talent scout Ralph Peer recorded Jimmie Rodgers and The Carter Family.[63] Popular success was very limited, though a small demand spurred some commercial recording. After World War II, there was increased interest in specialty styles like country music, producing a few major pop stars.[64] The most influential country musician of the era was Hank Williams, a bluesy country singer from Alabama.[65] He remains renowned as one of country music's greatest songwriters and performers, viewed as a "folk poet" with a "honky-tonk swagger" and "working-class sympathies".[66] Throughout the decade the roughness of honky tonk gradually eroded as the Nashville sound grew more pop-oriented. Producers like Chet Atkins created the Nashville sound by stripping the hillbilly elements of the instrumentation and using smooth instrumentation and advanced production techniques. Eventually, most records from Nashville were in this style, which began to incorporate strings and vocal choirs.[67] Ralph Peer (May 22, 1892 - January 19, 1960) was born Ralph Sylvester Peer in Independence, Missouri. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Maybelle, A.P. and Sara The Carter Family was a rural country music group that performed between 1927 and 1943. ... It has been suggested that Audrey Williams be merged into this article or section. ... Honky tonk was originally the name of a type of bar common throughout the southern United States, also Honkatonk or Honkey-tonk. ... The Nashville sound in country music arose during the 1950s in the United States. ... Chet Atkins Chester Burton Chet Atkins (June 20, 1924 – June 30, 2001) was an influential guitarist and record producer. ...

Country singer Randy Travis, a new traditionalist singer
Country singer Randy Travis, a new traditionalist singer

By the early part of the 1960s, however, the Nashville sound had become perceived as too watered-down by many more traditionalist performers and fans, resulting in a number of local scenes like the Lubbock sound and the Bakersfield sound. A few performers retained popularity, however, such as the long-standing cultural icon Johnny Cash.[68] The Bakersfield sound began in the mid to late 1950s when performers like Wynn Stewart and Buck Owens began using elements of Western swing and rock, such as the breakbeat, in their music.[69] In the '60s performers like Merle Haggard popularized the sound. In the early 1970s, Haggard was also part of outlaw country, alongside singer-songwriters such as Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings.[70] Outlaw country was rock-oriented and lyrically focused on the criminal antics of the performers, in contrast to the clean-cut country singers of the Nashville sound.[71] By the middle of the 1980s, the country music charts were dominated by pop singers, alongside a nascent revival of honky-tonk-style country with the rise of performers like Dwight Yoakam. The 1980s also saw the development of alternative country performers like Uncle Tupelo, who were opposed to the more pop-oriented style of mainstream country. At the beginning of the 2000s, pop-oriented country acts remained among the best-selling performers in the United States, especially Garth Brooks.[72] Image File history File links Country singer Randy Travis sings his chart-topping song Three Wooden Crosses, July 26 at the DoD-sponsored salute to Korean War veterans at the MCI Center in Washington. ... Image File history File links Country singer Randy Travis sings his chart-topping song Three Wooden Crosses, July 26 at the DoD-sponsored salute to Korean War veterans at the MCI Center in Washington. ... Randy Travis sings his chart-topping song Three Wooden Crosses, at the DoD-sponsored salute to Korean War veterans at the MCI Center in Washington, July 26, 2003. ... Neotraditional country, also known as new traditional country, is a country music style that rejects most elements of modern Top 40 country music. ... Lubbock sound is a genre of American music that began with the popularity of Lubbock, Texas native Buddy Holly. ... The Bakersfield sound was a genre of country music developed in the mid- to late 1950s in and around Bakersfield, California, at bars such as The Blackboard. ... Johnny Cash (born J. R. Cash, February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) was an American, multi Grammy Award-winning influential American country and rock and roll singer and songwriter. ... Winford Lindsey Stewart (born June 7, 1934 in Morrisville, Missouri, died July 17, 1985 in Hendersonville, Tennessee) was an American country music performer. ... Alvis Edgar Buck Owens, Jr. ... Western swing is, first and foremost, a fusion of country music, several styles of jazz, pop music and blues aimed at dancers. ... Breakbeat (sometimes breakbeats or breaks) is a term used to describe a collection of sub-genres of electronic music, usually characterized by the use of a non-straighted 4/4 drum pattern (as opposed to the steady beat of house or trance). ... Merle Ronald Haggard (born April 6, 1937) is an American country music singer, guitarist and songwriter. ... Willie Nelson Outlaw country was a significant trend in country music during the late 1960s and the 1970s (and even into the 1980s in some cases), commonly referred to as The Outlaw Movement (both by fans and by people in the music industry) or simply Outlaw music [1]. The focus... Willie Nelson (born William Hugh Nelson, 30 April 1933) is an American entertainer and songwriter, born and raised in Abbott, Texas. ... Waylon Jennings in the 1960s. ... Dwight David Yoakam (born October 23, 1956) is an American musician, songwriter, and actor. ... Matt Hillyer of Texas-based Eleven Hundred Springs Alternative country is a term applied to various subgenres of country music. ... Uncle Tupelo Uncle Tupelo was a popular music group formed in 1987 in Belleville, Illinois. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


R&B and soul

Audio samples of R&B, soul and funk
Main articles: rhythm and blues and soul music

R&B, an abbreviation for rhythm and blues, is a style that arose in the 1930s and 1940s. Early R&B consisted of large rhythm units "smashing away behind screaming blues singers (who) had to shout to be heard above the clanging and strumming of the various electrified instruments and the churning rhythm sections".[73] R&B was not extensively recorded and promoted because record companies felt that it was not suited for most audiences, especially middle-class whites, because of the suggestive lyrics and driving rhythms.[74] Bandleaders like Louis Jordan innovated the sound of early R&B, using a band with a small horn section and prominent rhythm instrumentation. By the end of the 1940s, he had had several hits, and helped pave the way for contemporaries like Wynonie Harris and John Lee Hooker. Many of the most popular R&B songs were not performed in the rollicking style of Jordan and his contemporaries; instead they were performed by white musicians like Pat Boone in a more palatable mainstream style, which turned into pop hits.[75] By the end of the 1950s, however, there was a wave of popular black blues-rock and country-influenced R&B performers like Chuck Berry gaining unprecedented fame among white listeners.[76] Image File history File links Papa'sGotaBrandNewBag. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933[2] – December 25, 2006), commonly referred to as The Godfather of Soul and The Hardest Working Man in Show Business, was an American entertainer recognized as one of the most influential figures in 20th century popular music. ... Image File history File links ChainofFools. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Aretha Louise Franklin (born March 25, 1942) is an American soul, R&B, and gospel singer, songwriter, and pianist born in Memphis, Tennessee, but raised in Detroit, Michigan, USA. She has been called for many years The Queen Of Soul, but many also call her Lady Soul, as well as... Image File history File links ReadyorNot. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... The Delfonics were a quintessential Philadelphia soul singing group, most popular in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... Image File history File links WhatsGoingOn. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Image File history File links Michael_jackson_billie_jean. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958), commonly known as MJ as well as the King of Pop, is an American musician, entertainer, and pop icon whose successful career and controversial personal life have been a part of pop culture for the last three decades. ... Rhythm and blues (also known as R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences — first performed by African American artists. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... Louis Jordan swinging on sax, Paramount Theatre, NYC, 1946 (Photo: William P. Gottlieb) Louis Jordan (July 8, 1908 – February 4, 1975) was a pioneering African-American blues, jazz and rhythm & blues musician and songwriter who enjoyed his greatest popularity from the late 1930s to the early 1950s. ... Wynonie Mr. ... John Lee Hooker (August 22, 1917 – June 21, 2001) was an influential American post-war blues singer, guitarist, and songwriter born in Coahoma County near Clarksdale, Mississippi. ... Charles Eugene Patrick Boone (known as Pat Boone, born June 1, 1934) is a singer whose smooth style made him a popular performer of the 1950s. ... Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry (born October 18, 1926 in St. ...


Soul music is a combination of rhythm and blues and gospel which began in the late 1950s in the United States. It is characterized by its use of gospel-music devices, with a greater emphasis on vocalists and the use of secular themes. The 1950s recordings of Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, and James Brown are commonly considered the beginnings of soul. The Motown Record Corporation of Detroit, Michigan became highly successful during the early and mid 1960s by releasing soul recordings with heavy pop influences to make them palatable to white audiences, allowing black artists to more easily crossover to white audiences.[77] Ray Charles was the stage name of Ray Charles Robinson (September 23, 1930 – June 10, 2004). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... James Brown, known variously as: Soul Brother Number One, the Godfather of Soul, Mr. ... Motown Records, also known as Tamla-Motown outside of the United States, is a record label originally based out of Detroit, Michigan (Motor City), where it achieved widespread international success. ... Nickname: Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Settled 1701 Incorporation 1806 Government  - Type Strong Mayor-Council  - Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Area  - City  143. ...


Pure soul was popularized by Otis Redding and the other artists of Stax Records in Memphis, Tennessee. By the late 1960s, Atlantic recording artist Aretha Franklin had emerged as the most popular female soul star in the country[78]. Also by this time, soul had splintered into several genres,[79] influenced by psychedelic rock and other styles. The social and political ferment of the 1960s inspired artists like Marvin Gaye and Curtis Mayfield to release albums with hard-hitting social commentary, while another variety became more dance-oriented music, evolving into funk. During the '70s some highly slick and commercial bands like The O'Jays and Hall & Oates achieved mainstream success with styles like Philly soul and blue-eyed soul. By the end of the '70s, soul, funk, rock and most other genres were dominated by tracks influenced by disco, a kind of popular dance music. With the introduction of influences from electro music and funk in the late 1970s and early 1980s, soul music became less raw and more slickly produced, resulting in a genre of music that was once again called R&B, usually distinguished from the earlier rhythm and blues by identifying it as contemporary R&B. Otis Ray Redding, Jr. ... Stax Records is an American record label, originally based out of Memphis, Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Atlantic Records (Atlantic Recording Corporation) is an American record label, and operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Music Group. ... Aretha Louise Franklin (born March 25, 1942) is an American soul, R&B, and gospel singer, songwriter, and pianist born in Memphis, Tennessee, but raised in Detroit, Michigan, USA. She has been called for many years The Queen Of Soul, but many also call her Lady Soul, as well as... Marvin Gaye (born Marvin Pentz Gay, Jr. ... Curtis Mayfield (June 3, 1942 – December 26, 1999) was an American soul, funk and R&B singer, songwriter and guitarist best known for his anthemic music with The Impressions and composing the soundtrack to the blaxploitation film Superfly. ... Funk is an African American musical style. ... The OJays are a popular Philadelphia soul group, originally consisting of Walter Williams, Bill Isles, Bobby Massey, William Powell and Eddie Levert. ... Hall & Oates is a popular music duo made up of Daryl Hall & John Oates. ... For the American indoor football team, see Philadelphia Soul. ... Blue-eyed soul is a term used to describe R&B or soul music performed by white people. ... Disco is a genre of dance-oriented pop music that blends elements of funk and soul music that was first popularized in dance clubs (discothèques) in the mid-1970s. ... Electro (also known as electro funk) is an electronic style of hip hop directly influenced by Kraftwerk and funk records (unlike earlier rap records that were closer to disco). ...

R&B singer Mariah Carey.
R&B singer Mariah Carey.

The first contemporary R&B stars arose in the 1980s, with the funk-influenced singer Prince, dance-pop star Michael Jackson, and a wave of female vocalists like Tina Turner and Whitney Houston.[80] Hip hop came to influence contemporary R&B later in the '80s, first in a style called new jack swing and then in a related series of subgenres called hip hop soul and neo soul. New jack swing was a kind of vocal music, often featuring rapped verses and drum machines.[81] Hip hop soul and neo soul developed later, in the '90s, the former being a mixture of R&B with hip hop beats and the images and themes of gangsta rap, while the latter is a more experimental, edgier and generally less mainstream combination of '60s and '70s-style soul vocals with hip hop beats and occasional rapped verses. In the 2000s contemporary R&B has produced many of the country's biggest pop stars, including Mariah Carey, Usher, and Beyoncé. R&B has lost it's original meaning, and now simply serves as a variation of the 'pop' marketing label. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2076x1343, 191 KB) Uncropped version of Image:Mariah Carey11 Edwards Dec 1998. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2076x1343, 191 KB) Uncropped version of Image:Mariah Carey11 Edwards Dec 1998. ... Mariah Carey (born March 27, 1970) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, music video director and actress. ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958), commonly known as MJ as well as the King of Pop, is an American musician, entertainer, and pop icon whose successful career and controversial personal life have been a part of pop culture for the last three decades. ... Tina Turner (born Anna Mae Bullock on November 26, 1939) is a seven-time Grammy Award-winning African-American rock (one grammy win with ex-husband Ike, six as a solo artist, and one win by Whats Love Got to Do With It songwriters Graham Lyle and Terry Britten... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... New jack swing is a hybrid style of R&B combined with hip hop, popular from the late 80s to early/mid-90s. ... Hip hop soul is the second major subgenre of contemporary R&B. The term generally describes a style of music that blends soulful R&B singing and raw hip hop production. ... Neo soul (also known as nu soul) is a musical genre of the late 1990s and early 2000s that fuses contemporary R&B, 1970s style soul, classical music, jazz, and elements of alternative-hip hop. ... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mariah Carey (born March 27, 1970) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, music video director and actress. ... Usher Raymond IV (born October 14, 1978), is an American R&B/pop singer and actor who rose to fame in the mid-late 1990s. ... Beyoncé Chantelle Knowles (born September 4, 1981) is an R&B singer, songwriter, record producer, actress, fashion designer and model. ...


Rock, metal and punk

Audio samples of rock, metal and punk
Main articles: Rock music, heavy metal music, and punk rock

Rock and roll is a kind of popular music, developed out of country, blues and R&B. Rock's exact origins and early influences have been hotly debated, and are the subjects of much scholarship. Though squarely in the blues tradition, rock took elements from Afro-Caribbean and Latin musical techniques.[82] Rock was an urban style, formed in the areas where diverse populations resulted in the mixtures of African American, Latin and European genres ranging from the blues and country to polka and zydeco.[83] Rock and roll first entered popular music through a style called rockabilly, which fused the nascent sound with elements of country music. Black-performed rock and roll had previously had limited mainstream success, but it was the white performer Elvis Presley who first appealed to mainstream audiences with a black style of music, becoming one of the best-selling musicians in history, and brought rock and roll to audiences across the world.[84] GoodRockinTonight. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Image File history File links BreakonThrough. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Image File history File links BoxofRain. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Image File history File links Debaser. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Image File history File links EnterSandman. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... ComeAsYouAre. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... Heavy metal (sometimes referred to simply as metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Afro-American music is a broad array of musical genres that arose from the synthesis of African, European and Native American music. ... Latin American music, or the music of Latin America, is sometimes called Latin music. ... Street musicians in Prague playing a polka Polka is a type of dance, and also a genre of dance music. ... Early Creole musicians playing an accordion and a washboard in front of a store, near New Iberia, Louisiana (1938). ... Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock n’ roll music to emerge during the 1950s. ... Elvis Aron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), often known simply as Elvis and also called The King of Rock n Roll or simply The King, was an American singer, musician and actor. ...

Folk singer Pete Seeger

The 1960s saw several important changes in popular music, especially rock. Many of these changes took place through the British Invasion where bands such as The Who, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, and later Led Zeppelin Black Sabbath and were and still are immensely popular and had a profound effect on American culture and music. These changes included the move from professionally composed songs to the singer-songwriter, and the understanding of popular music as an art, rather than a form of commerce or pure entertainment.[85] These changes led to the rise of musical movements connected to political goals, such as civil rights and the opposition to the Vietnam War. Rock was at the forefront of this change. In the early 60s, rock spawned several subgenres, beginning with surf. Surf was an instrumental guitar genre characterized by a distorted sound, associated with the Southern California surfing youth culture.[86] Inspired by the lyrical focus of surf, The Beach Boys began recording in 1961 with an elaborate, pop-friendly and harmonic sound.[87] As their fame grew, The Beach Boys' songwriter Brian Wilson experimented with new studio techniques and became associated with the counterculture. The counterculture was a movement that embraced political activism, was closely connected to the hippie subculture. The hippies were associated with folk rock, country rock, and psychedelic rock. Folk and country rock were associated with the rise of politicized folk music, led by Pete Seeger and others, especially at the Greenwich Village music scene in New York. Folk rock entered the mainstream in the middle of the 1960s, when the singer-songwriter Bob Dylan began his career. He was followed by a number of country-rock bands and soft, folky singer-songwriters. Psychedelic rock was a hard-driving kind of guitar-based rock, closely associated with the city of San Francisco. Though Jefferson Airplane was the only local band to have a major national hit, the Grateful Dead, a country and bluegrass-flavored jam band, became an iconic part of the psychedelic counterculture, associated with hippies, LSD and other symbols of that era.[88] Image File history File links “Washington, D.C. Pete Seeger, noted folk singer entertaining at the opening of the Washington labor canteen, sponsored by the United Federal Labor Canteen, sponsored by the Federal Workers of American, Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). ... Image File history File links “Washington, D.C. Pete Seeger, noted folk singer entertaining at the opening of the Washington labor canteen, sponsored by the United Federal Labor Canteen, sponsored by the Federal Workers of American, Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), almost universally known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and author. ... The appearance of The Beatles on The Ed Sullivan Show, February 9, 1964, was the breakthrough moment of the burgeoning British Invasion. ... It has been suggested that Bob Pridden be merged into this article or section. ... The Beatles were an English rock band from Liverpool whose members were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. ... “Rolling Stones” redirects here. ... Led Zeppelin were an English rock band who formed in 1968. ... For other uses, see Black Sabbath (disambiguation). ... The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. ... Surf music is a genre of popular music associated with surf culture. ... Hein Cooper at Banzai Pipeline, December 1981 Surfing is a surface water sport in which the participant is carried along the face of a breaking wave as it approaches shore, usually on a surfboard. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Brian Douglas Wilson (born June 20, 1942 in Hawthorne, California), is an American pop musician, best known as the lead songwriter, bassist, and lead singer of the American rock band The Beach Boys. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Singer at a modern Hippie movement in Russia A hippie or hippy is a member of a specific subgroup of the counterculture that began in the United States during the early 1960s, spread to other countries, and declined in the mid-1970s. ... Bob Dylans folk-rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... Country rock is a musical genre formed from the fusion of rock and roll with country music. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), almost universally known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and author. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is a Grammy, Golden Globe and Academy Award-winning American singer-songwriter, author, musician, and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... Nickname: Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Government  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area  - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ... The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in San Francisco, California. ... The term jam band is commonly used to describe psychedelic rock-influenced bands whose concerts largely consist of bands reinterpreting their songs as springboards into extended improvisational pieces of music. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ...

Folk rock singer-songwriters Joan Baez and Bob Dylan
Folk rock singer-songwriters Joan Baez and Bob Dylan

Following the turbulent political, social and musical changes of the 1960s and early 1970s, rock music diversified. What was formerly a discrete genre known as rock and roll evolved into a catchall category called simply rock music, which came to include diverse styles like heavy metal and [[punk rock]. During the '70s most of these styles were evolving in the underground music scene, while mainstream audiences began the decade with a wave of singer-songwriters who drew on the deeply emotional and personal lyrics of 1960s folk rock. The same period saw the rise of bombastic arena rock bands, bluesy Southern rock groups and mellow soft rock stars. Beginning in the later 1970s, the rock singer and songwriter Bruce Springsteen became a major star, with anthemic songs and dense, inscrutable lyrics that celebrated the poor and working class.[89] Image File history File links Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Entertainment: closeup view of vocalists Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, 08/28/1963 Source: NARA - ARC Identifier: 542021 File links The following pages link to this file: Joan Baez ... Image File history File links Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Entertainment: closeup view of vocalists Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, 08/28/1963 Source: NARA - ARC Identifier: 542021 File links The following pages link to this file: Joan Baez ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is a Grammy, Golden Globe and Academy Award-winning American singer-songwriter, author, musician, and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ... Heavy metal (sometimes referred to simply as metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... Arena rock is a loosely defined style of rock music, often also called anthem rock or stadium rock, and the style of music is closely associated with corporate rock and album-oriented rock. ... Southern rock is a sub genre of rock music. ... Soft rock, also referred to as light rock or easy rock, is a style of music which uses the techniques of rock and roll to compose a softer, supposedly more ear-pleasing sound for listening, often at work or when driving. ... Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen (born September 23, 1949) is an American rock singer-songwriter and guitarist. ...


Punk was a form of rebellious rock that began in the 1970s, and was loud, aggressive and often very simple. Punk began as a reaction against the popular music of the period, especially disco and arena rock. American bands in the field included, most famously, The Ramones and Talking Heads, the latter playing a more avant-garde style that was closely associated with punk before evolving into mainstream New Wave.[90] In the 1980s some punk fans and bands became disillusioned with the growing popularity of the style, resulting in an even more aggressive style called hardcore punk. Hardcore was a form of sparse punk, consisting of short, fast, and intense songs that spoke to disaffected youth, with such influential bands as Bad Brains, and the Dead Kennedys. Hardcore began in metropolises like Washington, D.C., though most major American cities had their own local scenes in the 1980s.[91] Hardcore, punk, and garage rock were the roots of alternative rock, a diverse grouping of rock subgenres that were explicitly opposed to mainstream music, and that arose from the punk and post-punk styles. In the United States, many cities developed local alternative rock scenes, including Minneapolis and Seattle.[92] Seattle's local scene produced grunge music, a dark and brooding style inspired by hardcore, psychedelia, and alternative rock.[93] With the addition of a more melodic element to the sound of bands like Nirvana and Pearl Jam, grunge became wildly popular across the United States[94] in 1991 and paved way for alternative rock. Disco is a genre of dance-oriented pop music that blends elements of funk and soul music that was first popularized in dance clubs (discothèques) in the mid-1970s. ... Arena rock is a loosely defined style of rock music, often also called anthem rock or stadium rock, and the style of music is closely associated with corporate rock and album-oriented rock. ... The Ramones (L-R, Johnny, Tommy, Joey, Dee Dee) on the cover of their debut self-titled album (1976), cementing their place at the dawn of the punk movement. ... Talking Heads were an American rock band existing between 1974 and 1991, composed of David Byrne, Chris Frantz, Tina Weymouth and Jerry Harrison. ... New Wave is a term that has been used to describe many developments in music, but is most commonly associated with a movement in Western popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s inspired by the punk rock movement. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Bad Brains are an American punk rock band, originally formed in Washington, D.C. in 1979 . ... (GREATEST BAND) The Dead Kennedys (often known by their initials DK, as in decay) are a hardcore punk band from San Francisco, California. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... Alternative rock (also called alternative music or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of rock music that emerged in the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s. ... Grunge (sometimes referred to as the Seattle Sound) is a genre of alternative rock inspired by hardcore punk, heavy metal, and indie rock. ... Psychedelia is a term describing a category of music, visual art, fashion, and culture that is associated originally with the high 1960s, hippies, and the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco, California. ... Nirvana was an American rock band originating from Aberdeen, Washington. ... Pearl Jam is an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1990. ...

Aerosmith performing in 2003
Aerosmith performing in 2003

Heavy metal is characterized by aggressive, driving rhythms, amplified and distorted guitars, grandiose lyrics and virtuosic instrumentation. Heavy metal's origins lie in the hard rock bands who took blues and rock and created a heavy sound centered around the guitar and drums. Most of the pioneers in the field were British; the first major American bands came in the early 1970s, like Blue Öyster Cult and Aerosmith. Heavy metal remained, however, a largely underground phenomenon. During the 1980s the first major pop-metal style arose and dominated the charts for several years; this was hair metal, a hard rock and pop fusion with a raucous spirit and a glam-influenced visual aesthetic. Some of these bands, like Bon Jovi, became international stars. The band Guns N' Roses rose to fame near the end of the decade with an image that was a reaction against the hair metal aesthetic. By the mid-1980s heavy metal had branched in so many different directions that fans, record companies, and fanzines created numerous subgenres. The United States was especially known for one of these subgenres, thrash metal, which was innovated by bands like Anthrax, Megadeth, Metallica and Slayer. Aerosmith performs on the National Mall, public domain image from navy. ... Aerosmith performs on the National Mall, public domain image from navy. ... Aerosmith is a prominent American rock band, regarded by some as Americas Greatest Rock and Roll Band. [1][2] Although they are known as the bad boys from Boston[3], none of the bands members are actually from that city. ... Blue Öyster Cult is an American rock band formed in 1967 and still active in 2007. ... Aerosmith is a prominent American rock band, regarded by some as Americas Greatest Rock and Roll Band. [1][2] Although they are known as the bad boys from Boston[3], none of the bands members are actually from that city. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Classic Metal. ... The acronym LAMP (or L.A.M.P.) refers to a set of free software programs commonly used together to run dynamic Web sites or servers: Linux, the operating system; Apache, the Web server; MySQL, the database management system (or database server); Perl, PHP, Python, and/or Primate (mod mono... Bon Jovi is a hard rock band originating from New Jersey. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Thrash metal is a subgenre of heavy metal music, one of the extreme metal subgenres that is characterised by its high speed and aggression. ... Megadeth is an American thrash metal band led by founder, frontman, and songwriter Dave Mustaine. ... Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... Slayer is an American thrash metal band, formed in 1981 by guitarists Jeff Hanneman and Kerry King. ...


Alternative Era, 1991-Present

In the early 1990s glam metal bands and metal bands were the biggest bands in the United States, with bands like Guns N Roses, and Van Halen and others scoring huge chart-topping hits. However by late 1991 people began to grow tired of the image oriented genre in metal, which was a genre the working class families of America could not relate to very well. Guns N Roses (GNR) is an American hard rock band whose dangerous reputation, controversial front man, and technical prowess have made them one of the most popular and acclaimed rock n roll bands ever. ... Van Halen is an American rock band formed in the 1970s. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ...


During the 80s there had been few alternative rock success stories, the most notable ones being R.E.M., and Sonic Youth. R.E.M. had much commercial possibility with top 20 records on an indie label, and Sonic Youth's Daydream Nation was the biggest album in the underground since Zen Arcade. By 1990 R.E.M. and Sonic Youth had both signed onto major labels, and scored some of their biggest hits, R.E.M. hit huge with the number 1 album Out of Time in 1991 and the chart toppers "Orange Crush," "Stand," "Losing My Religion" and several others, while Sonic Youth scored more underground smashes with songs like "Dirty Boots," "Kool Thing," and "Teen Age Riot." The two bands inspired some other underground bands to sign onto major labels, bands like Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, and Red Hot Chili Peppers began to see massive commercial success. Alternative rock (also called alternative music or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of rock music that emerged in the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s. ... R.E.M. is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia, in early 1980 by drummer Bill Berry, guitarist Peter Buck, bassist Mike Mills, and vocalist Michael Stipe. ... Sonic Youth is a seminal American alternative rock group formed in New York City in 1981. ... Daydream Nation is an album by alternative rock band Sonic Youth, released in 1988. ... The title Out of Time has been used for: A highly-regarded song by the Rolling Stones from the albums Aftermath (UK) and Flowers (US). ... Orange Crush was the second single from R.E.M.s sixth studio album Green in 1989. ... Losing My Religion is a song recorded by the rock band R.E.M. from their 1991 album Out of Time. ... Sonic Youth is a seminal American alternative rock group formed in New York City in 1981. ... Buddhist concept. ... Pearl Jam is an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1990. ... Soundgarden was an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1984. ... The Red Hot Chili Peppers are a multiple Grammy Award-winning American rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1983. ...


The Grunge Explosion

Nirvana's 1991 album Nevermind, the album that popularized alternative rock.
Nirvana's 1991 album Nevermind, the album that popularized alternative rock.

In the late 80s and early 90s Seattle began to see many extremely promising bands. In 1990 Nirvana had a top 100 hit in the UK with "Sliver," but did not make a dent in the states. However Nirvana signed to Sonic Youth's label DGC Records and began working on the follow up to their debut Bleach, the result would be Nevermind. Nirvana released the first of 4 commercial singles to the album, "Smells Like Teen Spirit" and Nirvana quickly found that they had found a spot in the mainstream's eye. By early 1992 Nevermind topped the charts in many countries including the US, and "Smells Like Teen Spirit" hit number 1 around the world and number 6 in the United States. After the success of Nirvana bands like Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Soundgarden, and L7 found themselves hit songs and albums, and major labels quickly cought onto the trend, signing grunge bands like Bush, and Stone Temple Pilots, hoping they would be as big as the major grunge bands of 1991. Cover of the Nirvana album Nevermind. ... Cover of the Nirvana album Nevermind. ... Nirvana was an American rock band originating from Aberdeen, Washington. ... Nevermind is the seminal second studio album from the American rock band Nirvana. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Buddhist concept. ... Promotional movie poster for Sliver This article is for the novel and film. ... Sonic Youth is a seminal American alternative rock group formed in New York City in 1981. ... Bleach was the debut album by Nirvana, released in June 1989 through Sub Pop. ... Nevermind is the seminal second studio album from the American rock band Nirvana. ... Smells Like Teen Spirit is a song by the American rock band Nirvana, and the opening track and lead single from the bands 1991 breakthrough album Nevermind. ... Pearl Jam is an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1990. ... Alice in Chains is a popular and influential rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1987. ... Soundgarden was an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1984. ... L7 (sometimes spelled L-7) has several meanings: L7 is 1950s slang for square, based on the shape made when putting together an L made with the left thumb and index finger and a 7 made with the right thumb and index finger. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


By late 1992, traditional metal and glam rock had almost completely disappeared from rock radio and Nirvana, Pearl Jam, and R.E.M. had become the best selling rock acts. Nirvana released the rest of the singles off of Nevermind and it propelled the album to reach Diamond status before the end of the decade, and Pearl Jam also achieved Diamond status with their album Ten. Alice in Chains and Soundgarden's new albums both charted extremely well also and the 1990s were rapidly becoming the most influential decade in music since the 1960s, with Rolling Stone magazine calling Seattle the new Liverpool. In 1993 grunge continued with its success and it seemed nothing could stop it. Buddhist concept. ... Pearl Jam is an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1990. ... R.E.M. is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia, in early 1980 by drummer Bill Berry, guitarist Peter Buck, bassist Mike Mills, and vocalist Michael Stipe. ... Pearl Jam is an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1990. ... Ten is Pearl Jams first album, released on August 27, 1991 through Epic Records. ...


The Fall of Kurt Cobain and Grunge

In late 1993 Nirvana released their new album In Utero which was far more abrasive then Nevermind, but it did feature the smash hits "Heart-Shaped Box," and "All Apologies," and the minor hits "Pennyroyal Tea," "Rape Me," and "Dumb." But with the rest album being far more abrasive as a result selling 5 million copies at 1999, as opposed to Neverminds 10 million. Pearl Jam however hit big again with Vs. with the smash hit "Daughter." However grunge's credibility in the mainstream lessened with the suicide of Nirvana's Kurt Cobain, after this Pearl Jam's albums sold less, though they still reached platinum or multi-platinum status, two of which gained greater sales than Nirvana's In Utero, until the year 2000. In 1997 Soundgarden broke up after achieving huge success with their album 1994 Superunknown and it's smash hits "Black Hole Sun," "Spoonman," "Fell on Black Days," "My Wave," and "Superunknown," as well as releasing the less successful Down on the Upside in 1996. The genre barely survived with bands like Foo Fighters, Hole, Bush, and Candlebox all achieving a level of popularity but none on the level of Nirvana and Pearl Jam. In Utero is the third and final studio album by the American grunge band Nirvana, released in September 1993 by Geffen Records. ... Heart-Shaped Box is a song by the American rock band Nirvana. ... All Apologies is a song by the American rock band Nirvana. ... This article is about the Nirvana song; for the herb, see Pennyroyal. ... Rape Me is a song by the American grunge band Nirvana. ... Dumb is a song by the American rock band Nirvana. ... Kurt Donald Cobain (February 20, 1967 – c. ... Pearl Jam is an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1990. ... Superunknown is the fourth album by the Seattle grunge band Soundgarden. ... Black Hole Sun is a song by 1990s grunge band Soundgarden. ... For the subject of the song, see Artis the Spoonman. ... Fell on Black Days is a song on Superunknown, the 1994 album by Soundgarden. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Down on the Upside is the final studio album by Soundgarden, released on May 21, 1996. ... This article is about the band. ... Hole was an alternative rock band that formed in Los Angeles in 1989 and disbanded in 2002. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Candlebox is a Post-Grunge band from Seattle, Washington. ...


Continuance of Alternative

Although grunge's popularity waned alternative continued with bands such as Foo Fighters, Third Eye Blind, KoRn, gaining in popularity by the end of the 90s. And the new millennium brought bands such as Nickelback, Lifehouse, Linkin Park, and Three Days Grace. Red Hot Chili Peppers also reached the commercial peaks around this time with the albums Californication, By the Way, Stadium Arcadium. Since Nirvana, alternative rock has been the dominant rock genre in the world. This article is about the band. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... Korn (sometimes typeset as KoЯn to fit their official logo) is a Grammy Award winning, influential rock[3] band from Bakersfield, California, and are often credited with creating and popularizing the nu metal genre. ... Nickelback is a Canadian rock band formed in Hanna, Alberta by Chad Kroeger, Mike Kroeger and Ryan Peake. ... Lifehouse has two ambiguous entries: Lifehouse unreleased album by The Who Lifehouse the US band. ... Linkin Park is a rock band from Agoura Hills, California. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Red Hot Chili Peppers are a multiple Grammy Award-winning American rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1983. ... Californication is a portmanteau word derived from bumper stickers frequently seen on cars in the state of Oregon during the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... By the Way is the eighth studio album by funk rock quartet Red Hot Chili Peppers, released on July 9, 2002. ... For the song with the same name, see Stadium Arcadium (song). ...


Hip hop/rap music

Audio samples of hip hop
Main article: Hip hop music

Hip hop is a cultural movement, of which music is a part. Hip hop music is itself composed of two parts: rapping, the delivery of swift, highly rhythmic and lyrical vocals; and DJing, the production of instrumentation either through sampling, instrumentation, turntablism or beatboxing.[95] Hip hop arose in the early 1970s in The Bronx, New York City. Jamaican immigrant DJ Kool Herc is widely regarded as the progenitor of hip hop; he brought with him from Jamaica the practice of toasting over the rhythms of popular songs. Emcees originally arose to introduce the soul, funk and R&B songs that the DJs played, and to keep the crowd excited and dancing; over time, the DJs began isolating the percussion break of songs (when the rhythm climaxes), producing a repeated beat that the emcees rapped over. By the beginning of the 1980s, there were popular hip hop songs, and the celebrities of the scene, like LL Cool J, gained mainstream renown. Other performers experimented with politicized lyrics and social awareness, or fused hip hop with jazz, heavy metal, techno, funk and soul. New styles appeared in the latter part of the 1980s, like alternative hip hop and the closely related jazz rap fusion, pioneered by rappers like De La Soul. Image File history File links The_Message. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... Joseph Saddler (born January 1, 1958 in Bridgetown, Barbados), better known as Grandmaster Flash, is a hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... MyBrothersaBasehead. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Alternative hip hop (also known as alternative rap) is a genre that is defined in greatly varying ways. ... De La Soul is a Grammy-award winning hip hop group from Long Island, New York. ... Image File history File links StreetsIsWatching. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Street B-boying in San Francisco, CA Hip hop is a cultural movement that began among African-American and Puerto Rican communities in the South Bronx in the late 1970s. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... West Coast rapper Snoop Dogg performing for the US Navy For information on rap music, see hip hop music. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Turntablism is the art ofSubscript text manipulating sounds and creating music using phonograph turntables and an audio mixer. ... Beatboxing is the art of vocal percussion. ... The Bronx is New York Citys northernmost borough. ... “New York, NY” redirects here. ... Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ... Alternative hip hop (also known as alternative rap) is a genre that is defined in greatly varying ways. ... Jazz rap is a fusion of alternative hip hop music and jazz, developed in the very late 1980s and early 1990s. ... De La Soul is a Grammy-award winning hip hop group from Long Island, New York. ...

The crews Public Enemy and N.W.A. did the most to bring hip hop to national attention, beginning in the late 1980s; the former did so with incendiary and politically charged lyrics, while the latter became the first prominent example of gangsta rap. Gangsta rap is a kind of hip hop, most importantly characterized by a lyrical focus on macho sexuality, physicality and a dangerous criminal image.[96] Though the origins of gangsta rap can be traced back to the mid-1980s raps of Philadelphia's Schoolly D and the West Coast's Ice-T, the style branched off to apply to many different regions in the country. The Notorious B.I.G is an example of this, being a New York rapper with a King Pin 1920's gangster mafioso mentality, which is shown in his 1997 album Life After Death which is one of two RIAA certified diamond hip-hop albums, which spawned many other rappers from then on to take on this mentality ( Jay-Z, Big L, Fat Joe, 50 Cent,Nas on occasion, and other various artists ). While Too $hort, N.W.A were a part of a different regional gangster culture. The West Coast rap scene spawned the early 1990s G-funk sound, which paired gangsta rap lyrics with a thick and hazy sound, often from 1970s funk samples; the best-known proponents were the rappers 2Pac, Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. 2Pac of which, has influenced many lives as his album sales total to over 75 million. Gangsta rap continued to exert a major presence in American popular music through the end of the 1990s and into the 21st century, especially after the breakthrough of white rapper Eminem. Hip hop became the dominant sound of popular music, influencing everything from jazz and rock to country and punk, by the mid-2000s. Album cover for The Official Adventures of Grandmaster Flash by Grandmaster Flash This is an album cover. ... Album cover for The Official Adventures of Grandmaster Flash by Grandmaster Flash This is an album cover. ... DJ Grandmaster Flash was one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Background Schoolly D is the moniker of Jesse B. Weaver, Jr. ... Tracy Marrow (born February 16, 1958)[1], better known by stage name Ice-T, is an American rapper, rock musician, author, and actor. ... Christopher Wallace (May 21, 1972 – March 9, 1997), also known as Biggie Smalls (the moniker of a deceased producer who was a friend of his, Stretchs and 2Pacs, and the subject of 2Pac and Stretchs song God Bless the Dead) and Frank White (from the film King... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The RIAA Logo. ... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... Lamont Coleman (May 30, 1974–February 15, 1999), better known as Big L, was an American rapper. ... Jose Antonio Cartagena (born August 19, 1970), better known by his stage name Fat Joe, is an Puerto Rican-American rapper. ... For the currency amount, see 50 cents. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Todd Anthony Shaw (born April 28, 1966 in Los Angeles), known by stage name Too $hort, is a rapper who started his career as a youth in Oakland, California. ... This article is about the rap group. ... In the 1980s, hip hop music began to break into the mainstream of the United States. ... G-funk, an abbreviation of Gangsta-funk, is a type of hip hop music that emerged from West Coast gangsta rap in the early 1990s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Years after his death, Tupac Shakur is still considered one of the most influential hip hop artists of all time. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ...


House Music

Main article: House Music

This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

Other niche styles

See also: Latin music in the United States
Audio samples of Latin Music

The American music industry is dominated by large companies that produce, market and distribute certain kinds of music. Generally, these companies do not produce, or produce in only very limited quantities, recordings in styles that do not appeal to very large audiences. Smaller companies often fill in the void, offering a wide variety of recordings in styles ranging from polka to salsa. Many small music industries are built around a core fanbase who may be based largely in one region, such as Tejano or Hawaiian music, or they may be widely dispersed, such as the audience for Jewish klezmer. Latin music has long influenced American popular music, jazz, rhythm and blues, rock and even country music. ... Image File history File links Selena-ComoLaFlor. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Entre A Mi Mundo is third studio album released by Tejano singer Selena, a month after her marriage to guitarist Chris Perez. ... Selena Quintanilla-Pérez (April 16, 1971 – March 31, 1995), best known as Selena, was a Mexican American singer who has been called the queen of Tejano music.[2] The youngest child of a Mexican-American couple, Selena released her first album at the age of twelve. ... Tejano[1] (Spanish for Texan) or Tex-Mex[2] music is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic-descended Tejanos of Central and South Texas. ... Street musicians in Prague playing a polka Polka is a type of dance, and also a genre of dance music. ... Salsa music is a diverse and predominantly Spanish Caribbean genre that is popular across Latin America and among Latinos. ... Tejano[1] (Spanish for Texan) or Tex-Mex[2] music is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic-descended Tejanos of Central and South Texas. ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ... Klezmer (from Yiddish כּלי־זמיר, etymologically from Hebrew kli zemer כלי זמר, musical instrument) is a musical tradition which parallels Hasidic and Ashkenazic Judaism. ...

Latin music in the United States
Latin music in the United States

The single largest niche industry is based on Latin music. Latin music has long influenced American popular music, and was an especially crucial part of the development of jazz. Modern pop Latin styles include a wide array of genres imported from across Latin America, including Colombian cumbia, Puerto Rican reggaeton and the Mexican corrido. Latin popular music in the United States began with a wave of dance bands in the 1930s and '50s. The most popular styles included the conga, rumba, and mambo. In the '50s Perez Prado made the cha-cha-cha famous, and the rise of Afro-Cuban jazz opened many ears to the harmonic, melodic, and rhythmic possibilities of Latin music. The most famous American form of Latin music, however, is salsa. Salsa incorporates many styles and variations; the term can be used to describe most forms of popular Cuban-derived genres. Most specifically, however, salsa refers to a particular style that was developed by mid-1970s groups of New York City-area Cuban and Puerto Rican immigrants, and stylistic descendants like 1980s salsa romantica.[97] Salsa rhythms are complicated, with several patterns played simultaneously. The clave rhythm forms the basis of salsa songs and is used by the performers as a common rhythmic ground for their own phrases.[98] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (820x578, 103 KB) Summary Colored-in areas represent a large, historic connection to Latin music Light yellow states: large Latino populations of any kind red: Tejano dark blue area: California mission (approximate area of greatest cultural influence) light green: Cuban music... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (820x578, 103 KB) Summary Colored-in areas represent a large, historic connection to Latin music Light yellow states: large Latino populations of any kind red: Tejano dark blue area: California mission (approximate area of greatest cultural influence) light green: Cuban music... Cumbia is originally a Colombian folk dance and dance music and is Colombias representative national dance and music along with vallenato. ... Reggaeton (spelled also with the acute diacritic in English and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of dance music which became popular with Latin American (or Latino) youth during the early 1990s and spread to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences during the... The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry form, a ballad, of the mestizo Mexican cultural area (which includes the Southwestern states of the United States, taken from Mexican sovereignty in the mid 19th Century). ... A pair of congas The conga is a tall, narrow, single-headed Cuban drum of African origin, probably derived from the Congolese Makuta drums. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Mambo is a Cuban musical form and dance style. ... Dámaso Pérez Prado, a Cuban bandleader and composer, was born on December 11, 1916 in Matanzas, Cuba. ... For the dance, see Cha-cha-cha (dance). ... Afro-Cuban jazz is a variety of Latin jazz. ... Salsa music is a diverse and predominantly Spanish Caribbean genre that is popular across Latin America and among Latinos. ... Also known as Salsa Monga (Limp Salsa) is a commercialized toned down version of salsa music that emerged in the mid 80s. ... Clave (pronounced clah-vay) is a rhythmic pattern or timeline which has its roots in West African music and was developed in Cuba. ... In music a phrase is a section of music that is relatively self contained and coherent over a medium time scale. ...


Government, politics and law

The government of the United States regulates the music industry, enforces intellectual property laws and promotes and collects certain kinds of music. Under American copyright law, musical works, including recordings and compositions, are protected as intellectual property as soon as they are fixed in a tangible form. Copyright holders often register their work with the Library of Congress, which maintains a collection of the material. In addition, the Library of Congress has actively sought out culturally and musicologically significant materials since the early 20th century, such as by sending researchers to record folk music. These researchers include the pioneering American folk song collector Alan Lomax, whose work helped inspire the roots revival of the mid-20th century. The federal government also funds the National Endowments for the Arts and Humanities, which allocate grants to musicians and other artists, the Smithsonian Institution, which conducts research and educational programs, and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, which funds non-profit and television broadcasters.[99] ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... United States copyright law governs the legally enforceable rights of creative and artistic works in the United States. ... The Library of Congress is the de facto national library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress. ... Lomax playing guitar on stage at the Mountain Music Festival, Asheville, North Carolina, sometime between 1939 and 1950. ... A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. ... The National Endowment for the Arts is a United States federally funded program that offers support and funding for projects that exhibit artistic excellence. ... The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the United States established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965 (Pub. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... The Corporation for Public Broadcasting logo, used from 1969 to 2002. ...


Music has long affected the politics of the United States. Political parties and movements frequently use music and song to communicate their ideals and values, and to provide entertainment at political functions. The presidential campaign of William Henry Harrison was the first to greatly benefit from music, after which it became standard practice for major candidates to use songs to create public enthusiasm. In more recent decades, politicians often chose theme songs, some of which have become iconic; the song "Happy Days Are Here Again", for example, has been associated with the Democratic Party since the 1932 campaign of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Since the 1950s, however, music has declined in importance in politics, replaced by televised campaigning with little or no music. Certain forms of music became more closely associated with political protest, especially in the 1960s. Gospel stars like Mahalia Jackson became important figures in the Civil Rights Movement, while the American folk revival helped spread the counterculture of the 1960s and opposition to the Vietnam War.[100] Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... The theme music of a radio or television program is a melody closely associated with the show, and usually played during the title sequence and/or end credits. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... FDR redirects here. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ... Mahalia Jackson (October 26, 1911[1] – January 27, 1972) was an American gospel singer, widely regarded as the best in the history of the genre. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. ...


Music industry

Further information: Music industry

The American music industry includes a number of fields, ranging from record companies to radio stations and community orchestras. Total industry revenue is about $40 billion worldwide, and about $12 billion in the United States [101]. Most of the world's major record companies are based in the United States; they are represented by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). The major record companies produce material by artists that have signed to one of their record labels, a brand name often associated with a particular genre or record producer. Record companies may also promote and market their artists, through advertising, public performances and concerts, and television appearances. Record companies may be affiliated with other music media companies, which produce a product related to popular recorded music. These include television channels like MTV, magazines like Rolling Stone and radio stations. In recent years the music industry has been embroiled in turmoil over the rise of the Internet downloading of copyrighted music; many musicians and the RIAA have sought to punish fans who illegally download copyrighted music.[102] The music industry is the industry that creates, performs, promotes, and preserves music. ... The beginning of regular commercially licensed sound broadcasting in the United States in 1920 ended the print monopoly over the media and opened the doors to the more immediate and pervasive electronic media. ... The following is a partial list of record labels, both past and present. ... The RIAA Logo. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about brands in marketing. ... In the music industry, a record producer (or music producer) has many roles, among them controlling the recording sessions, coaching and guiding the musicians, organizing and scheduling production budget and resources, and supervising the recording, mixing and mastering processes. ... MTV (Music Television) is an American cable television network headquartered in New York City. ... This article is about the magazine. ... Copyright symbol Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. ...


Radio stations in the United States often broadcast popular music. Each music station has a format, or a category of songs to be played; these are generally similar to but not the same as ordinary generic classification. Many radio stations in the United States are locally owned and operated, and may offer an eclectic assortment of recordings; many other stations are owned by large companies like Clear Channel, and are generally based around a small, repetitive playlist. Commercial sales of recordings are tracked by Billboard magazine, which compiles a number of music charts for various fields of recorded music sales. The Billboard Hot 100 is the top pop music chart for singles, a recording consisting of a handful of songs; longer pop recordings are albums, and are tracked by the Billboard 200[103]. Though recorded music is commonplace in American homes, many of the music industry's revenue comes from a small number of devotees; for example, 62% of album sales come from less than 25% of the music-buying audience.[104] Total CD sales in the United States topped 705 million units sold in 2005, and singles sales just under three million [105]. A radio format or programming format describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station. ... Clear channel stations are AM radio stations that are designated as such so that only one or two 50,000 watt powerhouses operate at night on each designated frequency, covering a wide area via sky wave propagation. ... In its most general form, a playlist is simply a list of songs. ... It has been suggested that Billboard be merged into this article or section. ... Music charts are a method of ranking music according to popularity during a given period of time. ... The Billboard Hot 100 is the United States music industry standard singles popularity chart issued weekly by Billboard magazine. ... For popular forms of music in general, see Popular music. ... A collection of various CD singles In music, a single is a short recording of one or more separate tracks. ... An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. ... The Billboard 200 is a ranking of the 200 highest-selling music albums and EPs in the United States, published weekly by Billboard magazine. ...


Though the major record companies dominate the American music industry, an independent music industry (indie music) does exist. Indie music is mostly based around local record labels with limited, if any, retail distribution outside a small region. Artists sometimes record for an indie label and gain enough acclaim to be signed to a major label; others choose to remain at an indie label for their entire careers. Indie music may be in styles generally similar to mainstream music, but is often inaccessible, unusual or otherwise unappealing to many people. Indie musicians often release some or all of their songs over the Internet for fans and others to download and listen.[106] In addition to recording artists of many kinds, there are numerous fields of professional musicianship in the United States, many of whom rarely record, including community orchestras, wedding singers and bands, lounge singers and nightclub DJs. The American Federation of Musicians is the largest American labor union for professional musicians. However, only 15% of the Federation's members have steady music employment.[107] In popular music, indie music, often abbreviated as indie (from independent) is a term originally used to describe genres, scenes, subcultures, styles and other cultural attributes in music, characterized by their independence from major commercial record labels and their autonomous, do-it-yourself approach to recording, publishing and live performing. ... The American Federation of Musicians (AFM) is a labor union of professional musicians in the United States and Canada. ... A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ...


Music education

Further information: Music education in the United States

Music is an important part of education in the United States, and is a part of most or all school systems in the country. Music education is generally mandatory in public elementary schools, and is an elective in later years.[108] High schools generally offer classes in singing, mostly choral, and instrumentation in the form of a large school band. Music may also be a part of theatrical productions put on by a school's drama department. Many public and private schools have sponsored music clubs and groups, most commonly including the marching band that performs at high school sports games, a trend that began with the wide popularity of Sousa's bands in the 1880s and 1890s. Music education in the United States can be traced through historical documentation to the colonial era. ... Educational oversight Secretary Deputy Secretary U.S. Department of Education Margaret Spellings Raymond Simon National education budget $1. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An American college marching band on the field (University of Texas) A marching band is a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement â€“ usually some type of marching â€“ with their musical performance. ...


Higher education in the field of music in the United States is mostly based around large universities, though there are important small music academies and conservatories. University music departments may sponsor bands ranging from marching bands that are an important part of collegiate sporting events, prominently featuring fight songs, to barbershop groups, glee clubs, and symphonies, and may additionally sponsor musical outreach programs, such as by bringing foreign performers to the area for concerts. Universities may also have a musicology department, and do research on many styles of music. In the United States, the term university refers to institutions of higher learning that offer a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees and conduct research in those fields. ... Raphaels fresco The School of Athens An academy is an institution of higher learning, research, or honorary membership. ... A music school or conservatoire (British English) — also known as a conservatory (American English) or a conservatorium (Australian English) — is an institution dedicated to teaching the art of music, including the playing of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship, music history, and music theory. ... A university school of music or college of music, or academy of music or conservatoire (British English) — also known as a conservatory (American English) or a conservatorium (Australian English) — is a higher education institution dedicated to teaching the art of music, including the playing of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship... A fight song is primarily a sports term, referring to a song associated with a team. ... The Dapper Dans, a barbershop quartet at Disneyworld Barbershop harmony, as codified during the barbershop revival era (1940s-present), is a style of a cappella, or unaccompanied vocal music characterized by consonant four-part chords for every melody note in a predominantly homophonic texture. ... A Glee Club is a chorus, historically of men but also of just women or mixed voices, which traditionally specializes in singing short songs. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Musicology is reasoned discourse concerning music (Greek: μουσικη = music and λογος = word or reason). In other words: the whole body of systematized knowledge about music which results from the application of a scientific method of investigation or research, or of philosophical speculation and rational systematization to the facts, the processes and the...


Musical scholarship

The scholarly study of music in the United States includes work relating music to social class, racial, ethnic and religious identity, gender and sexuality, as well as studies of music history, musicology and other topics. The academic study of American music can be traced back to the late 19th century, when researchers like Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche studied the music of the Omaha peoples, working for the Bureau of American Ethnology and the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. In the 1890s and into the early 20th century, musicological recordings were made among indigenous, Hispanic, African-American and Anglo-American peoples of the United States. Many worked for the Library of Congress, first under the leadership of Oscar Sonneck, chief of the Library's Music Divisions.[109] These researchers included Robert W. Gordon, founder of the Archive of American Folk Song, and John and Alan Lomax; Alan Lomax was the most prominent of several folk song collectors who helped to inspire the 20th century roots revival of American folk culture.[110] Alice Cunningham Fletcher Alice Cunningham Fletcher (March 15, 1838, Havana, Cuba - April 6, 1923, Washington, D.C.) was an American ethnologist. ... Francis La Flesche was the student and adopted son of anthropologist Alice Fletcher. ... The Omaha tribe is a Native American tribe that currently reside in northeastern Nebraska and western Iowa, United States. ... The Bureau of American Ethnology was founded in 1879 and produced a series of annual reports on Ethnology and Linguistics. ... The Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology is a museum affiliated with Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The Library of Congress is the de facto national library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress. ... Oscar George Theodore Sonneck (born October 6, 1873 in Jersey City; died October 30, 1928 in New York) was a U.S. librarian, editor, and musicologist. ... The American Folklife Center includes the Archive of Folk Culture, which was founded at the U.S.s Library of Congress in 1928 (originally as the Archive of American Folk Song) as a repository for American folk music. ... John Avery Lomax (September 23, 1867 - January 26, 1948) was a pioneering musicologist and folklorist. ... Lomax playing guitar on stage at the Mountain Music Festival, Asheville, North Carolina, sometime between 1939 and 1950. ... A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. ...


Early 20th scholarly analysis of American music tended to interpret European-derived classical traditions as the most worthy of study, with the folk, religious and traditional musics of the common people denigrated as low-class and of little artistic or social worth. American music history was compared to the much longer historical record of European nations, and was found wanting, leading writers like the composer Arthur Farwell to ponder what sorts of musical traditions might arise from American culture, in his 1915 Music in America. In 1930, John Tasker Howard's Our American Music became a standard analysis, focusing on largely on concert music composed in the United States.[111] Since the analysis of musicologist Charles Seeger in the mid-20th century, American music history has often been described as intimately related to perceptions of race and ancestry. Under this view, the diverse racial and ethnic background of the United States has both promoted a sense of musical separation between the races, while still fostering constant acculturation, as elements of European, African and indigenous musics have shifted between fields.[112] Gilbert Chase's America's Music, from the Pilgrims to the Present, was the first major work to examine the music of the entire United States, and recognize folk traditions as more culturally significant than music for the concert hall. Chase's analysis of a diverse American musical identity has remained the dominant view among the academic establishment.[113] Until the 1960s and 70s, however, most musical scholars in the United States continued to study European music, limiting themselves only to certain fields of American music, especially European-derived classical and operatic styles, and sometimes African American jazz. More modern musicologists and ethnomusicologists have studied subjects ranging from the national musical identity to the individual styles and techniques of specific communities in a particular time of American history.[114] Prominent recent studies of American music include Charles Hamm's Music in the New World from 1983, and Richard Crawford's America's Musical Life from 2001.[115] Arthur Farwell Arthur Farwell (23 March 1872 - 20 January 1952) was an American composer, conductor, educationalist, lithographer, esoteric savant and music publisher. ... Charles Seeger (Mexico City, Mexico, 1886 - 1979) was musicologist, composer, and teacher. ...


Holidays and festivals

Audio samples of Christmas music

Music is an important part of several American holidays, especially playing a major part in the wintertime celebration of Christmas. Music of the holiday includes both religious songs like "O Holy Night" and secular songs like "Jingle Bells". Patriotic songs like the national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner", are a major part of Independence Day celebrations. Music also plays a role at many regional holidays that are not celebrated nationwide, most famously Mardi Gras, a music and dance parade and festival in New Orleans, Louisiana. Image File history File links Jingle_Bells. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Image File history File links Oh_holy_night. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... O Holy Night (Cantique de Noël) is a well-known Christmas carol composed by Adolphe Adam in 1847 to the French poem Minuit, chrétiens by Placide Cappeau (1808-1877), an accomplished amateur. ... Jingle Bells, originally One Horse Open Sleigh, is one of the best known and commonly sung secular Christmas songs in the world. ... The Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the U.S.A., with lyrics written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key. ... In the United States, Independence Day (commonly known as the Fourth of July or July Fourth) is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from Great Britain. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area  - City  350. ...


The United States is home to numerous music festivals, which showcase styles ranging from the blues and jazz to indie rock and heavy metal. Some music festivals are strictly local in scope, including few or no performers with a national reputation, and are generally operated by local promoters. The large recording companies operate their own music festivals, such as Lollapalooza and Ozzfest, which draw huge crowds. A music festival is a festival oriented towards music that is sometimes presented with a theme such as; musical genre, nationality or locality of musicians, or holiday. ... Lollapalooza is an American music festival featuring alternative rock, hip hop, and punk rock bands, dance and comedy performances, and craft booths. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


References

  • Baraka, Amiri (Leroi Jones) (1963). Blues People: Negro Music in White America. William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-18474-X. 
  • Blush, Steven (2001). American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Feral House. ISBN 0-92291-571-7. 
  • Chase, Gilbert (2000). America's Music: From the Pilgrims to the Present. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-00454-X. 
  • Clarke, Donald (1995). The Rise and Fall of Popular Music. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-11573-3. 
  • Collins, Ace (1996). The Stories Behind Country Music's All-Time Greatest 100 Songs. Boulevard Books. ISBN 1-57297-072-3. 
  • Crawford, Richard (2001). America's Musical Life: A History. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04810-1. 
  • Ewen, David (1957). Panorama of American Popular Music. Prentice Hall. 
  • Ferris, Jean (1993). America's Musical Landscape. Brown & Benchmark. ISBN 0-697-12516-5. 
  • (2000) in Koskoff, Ellen (ed.): Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 3: The United States and Canada. Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8240-4944-6. 
  • Garofalo, Reebee (1997). Rockin' Out: Popular Music in the USA. Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0-205-13703-2. 
  • Gillett, Charlie (1970). The Sound of the City: The Rise of Rock and Roll. Outerbridge and Dienstfrey. ISBN 0-285-62619-1.  cited in Garofalo
  • Kempton, Arthur (2003). Boogaloo: The Quintessence of American Popular Music. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-375-42172-6. 
  • Lipsitz, George (1982). Class and Culture in Cold War America. J. F. Bergin. ISBN 0-03-059207-0. 
  • Malone, Bill C. (1985). Country Music USA: Revised Edition. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71096-8.  cited in Garofalo
  • Nettl, Bruno (1965). Folk and Traditional Music of the Western Continents. Prentice-Hall. 
  • Palmer, Robert (April 19, 1990). "The Fifties". Rolling Stone: 48.  cited in Garofalo
  • Ward, Ed, Geoffrey Stokes and Ken Tucker (1986). Rock of Ages: The Rolling Stone History of Rock and Roll. Rolling Stone Press. ISBN 0-671-54438-1. 
  • Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.) (2000). Rough Guide to World Music. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0. 
  • Sawyers, June Skinner (2000). Celtic Music: A Complete Guide. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81007-7. 
  • Schuller, Gunther (1968). Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504043-0. 
  • Struble, John Warthen (1995). The History of American Classical Music. Facts on File. ISBN 0-816-02927-X. 
  • Szatmary, David P (2000). Rockin' in Time: A Social History of Rock-And-Roll. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-022636-X. 
  • Werner, Craig (1998). A Change Is Gonna Come: Music, Race and the Soul of America. Plume. ISBN 0-452-28065-6. 

Amiri Baraka was born Everett LeRoi Jones on October 7, 1934 in Newark, New Jersey. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Provine, Rob with Okon Hwang and Andy Kershaw. "Our Life Is Precisely a Song" in the Rough Guide to World Music, Volume 2, pg. 167
  2. ^ Ferris, pg. 11
  3. ^ Struble, pg. xvii
  4. ^ Rolling Stone, pg. 18
  5. ^ Radano, Ronald with Michael Daley, "Race, Ethnicity and Nationhood" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  6. ^ Wolfe, Charles K. with Jacqueline Cogdell DjeDje, "Two Views of Music, Race, Ethnicity and Nationhood" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  7. ^ McLucas, Anne Dhu, Jon Dueck and Regula Burckhardt Qureshi, pp 42 - 54
  8. ^ Peterson, Richard (1992). ""Class Unconsciousness in Country Music", in Melton A. McLaurin and Richard A. Peterson: You Wrote My Life: Lyrical Themes in Country Music. Philadelphia: Gordon and Breach, 35-62.  cited in McLucas, Anne Dhu, Jon Dueck and Regula Burckhardt Qureshi, pp 42 - 54
  9. ^ Smith, Gordon E., "Place" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, pp 142-152
  10. ^ Cook, Susan C, "Gender and Sexuality" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, pg. 88
  11. ^ Cowdery, James R. with Anne Lederman, "Blurring the Boundaries of Social and Musical Identities" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, pp 322-333
  12. ^ Cowdery, James R. with Anne Lederman, "Blurring the Boundaries of Social and Musical Identities" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, pp 322-333
  13. ^ Ferris, pgs. 18-20
  14. ^ Means, Andrew. "Hey-Ya, Weya Ha-Ya-Ya!" in the Rough Guide to World Music, Volume 2, pg. 594
  15. ^ Nettl, pg. 201
  16. ^ Nettl, pgs. 201-202
  17. ^ Nettl, pg. 171
  18. ^ Ewen, pg. 53
  19. ^ Ferris, pg. 50
  20. ^ Garofalo, pg. 19
  21. ^ Garofolo, pg. 44
  22. ^ Rolling Stone, pg. 20
  23. ^ Máximo, Susana and David Peterson. “Music of Sweet Sorrow" in the Rough Guide to World Music, Volume 1, pgs. 454-455
  24. ^ Hagopian, Harold. "The Sorrowful Sound" in the Rough Guide to World Music, Volume 1, pg. 337
  25. ^ Kochan, Alexis and Julian Kytasty. "The Bandura Played On" in the Rough Guide to World Music, Volume 1, pg. 308
  26. ^ Broughton, Simon and Jeff Kaliss, "Music Is the Glue", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 552 - 567
  27. ^ Burr, Ramiro. "Accordion Enchilada" in the Rough Guide to World Music, Volume 2, pg. 604
  28. ^ Struble, pg. xiv - xv
  29. ^ Struble, pg. 4-5
  30. ^ Struble, pg. 2
  31. ^ Ewen, pg. 7
  32. ^ Crawford, pg. 17
  33. ^ Ferris, pg. 66
  34. ^ Struble, pgs. 28 - 39
  35. ^ Crawford, pgs. 331 - 350
  36. ^ a b Struble, pg. 122
  37. ^ Unterberger, pgs. 1-65
  38. ^ Ewen, pg. 3
  39. ^ Clarke, pgs. 1-19
  40. ^ Ewen, pg. 9
  41. ^ Ewen, pg. 11
  42. ^ Ewen, pg. 17
  43. ^ Struble, pg. xvii
  44. ^ Ewen, pg. 21
  45. ^ Library of Congress: Band Music from the Civil War Era
  46. ^ Clarke, pg. 21
  47. ^ Clarke, pg. 23
  48. ^ Ewen, pg. 29
  49. ^ Crawford, pgs. 664 - 688
  50. ^ Garofalo, pg. 36
  51. ^ Kempton, pg. 9 - 18
  52. ^ Rolling Stone, pg. 20
  53. ^ Schuller, Gunther, pg. 24, cited in Garofalo, pg. 26
  54. ^ Garofalo, pg. 26
  55. ^ Werner
  56. ^ Ferris, pgs. 228, 233
  57. ^ Garofalo, pg. 26
  58. ^ Clarke
  59. ^ Malone, pg. 77
  60. ^ Sawyers, pg. 112
  61. ^ Barraclough, Nick and Kurt Wolff. "High an' Lonesome" in the Rough Guide to World Music, Volume 2, pg. 537
  62. ^ Garofalo, pg. 45
  63. ^ Collins, pg. 11
  64. ^ Gillett, pg. 9, cited in Garofalo, pg. 74
  65. ^ Werner
  66. ^ Garofalo, pg. 75
  67. ^ Nashville sound/Countrypolitan. Allmusic. Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  68. ^ Garofalo, pg. 140
  69. ^ Collins
  70. ^ Clarke
  71. ^ Hank Williams. PBS' American Masters. Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  72. ^ Garofalo
  73. ^ Baraka, pg. 168, cited in Garofalo, pg. 76
  74. ^ Garofalo, pg. 76, 78
  75. ^ Rolling Stone, pgs. 99-100
  76. ^ Rolling Stone, pgs. 101-102
  77. ^ Jones, Quincy (1985). Foreword to Where Did Our Love Go. New York: St. Martin's Press. Pg. xi.
  78. ^ Unterberger, Richie . "Aretha Franklin". All Music Guide. Retrieved from http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:yt6uak3k5m3l~T00 on August 5, 2006.
  79. ^ Guralnick
  80. ^ Garofalo
  81. ^ Werner
  82. ^ Palmer, pg. 48; cited in Garofalo, pg. 95
  83. ^ Lipsitz, pg. 214; cited in Garofalo, pg. 95
  84. ^ Garofalo, pg. 131
  85. ^ Garofalo, pg. 185
  86. ^ Szatmary, pgs. 69-70
  87. ^ Rolling Stone, pg. 251
  88. ^ Garofalo, pgs. 196, 218
  89. ^ Garofalo
  90. ^ Garofalo
  91. ^ Blush, pgs. 12-13
  92. ^ Garofalo, pgs. 446-447
  93. ^ Garofalo, pg. 448
  94. ^ Szatmary, pg. 285
  95. ^ Garofalo, pgs. 408-409
  96. ^ Werner, pg. 290
  97. ^ Morales
  98. ^ Rough Guide
  99. ^ Bergey, Berry, "Government and Politics" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  100. ^ Cornelius, Steven, "Campaign Music in the United States" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  101. ^ The worldwide figure is from The Music Industry and Its Digital Future: Introducing MP3 Technology. PTC Research Foundation of Franklin Pierce (pdf) (2006). Retrieved on April 12.
  102. ^ Garofalo, pgs. 445 - 446
  103. ^ Billboard History. Billboard. Retrieved on April 8, 2006.
  104. ^ Music Industry Responding (slowly) to Pricing Issues. Handleman Company, cited by Big Picture. Retrieved on April 12.
  105. ^ 2005 Yearend Market Report on U.S. Recorded Music Shipments (pdf). Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved on April 12, 2006.
  106. ^ Garofalo, pgs. 445 - 446
  107. ^ Courtney Love does the math. Salon. Retrieved on April 12, 2006.
  108. ^ 2005-2006 State Arts Education Policy Database. Arts Education Partnership. Retrieved on March 25, 2006.
  109. ^ Blum, Stephen, "Sources, Scholarship and Historiography" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  110. ^ Unterberger, Richie with Tony Seeger, "Filling the Map With Music" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 531 - 535
  111. ^ Crawford, pg. x
  112. ^ Blum, Stephen, "Sources, Scholarship and Historiography" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  113. ^ Crawford, pg. x
  114. ^ Blum, Stephen, "Sources, Scholarship and Historiography" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  115. ^ Crawford, pgs. x - xi

June 6 is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Further reading

  • Claghorn, Charles Eugene (1973). Biographical Dictionary of American Music. Parker Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 0-13-076331-4. 
  • Elson, Charles Louis (2005). The History of American Music. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-5961-4. 
  • Gann, Kyle (1997). American Music in the 20th Century. Schirmer. ISBN 002864655X. 
  • Hamm, Charles (1983). Music in the New World. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-95193-6. 
  • Hitchcock, H. Wiley (1999). Music in the United States: A Historical Introduction. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-907643-3. 
  • Kingman, Daniel (1990). American Music: A Panorama, 2nd ed, New York: Schirmer Books. 
  • Nicholls, David (ed.) (1998). The Cambridge History of American Music. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45429-8. 
  • Seeger, Ruth Crawford (2003). The Music of American Folk Song and Selected Other Writings on American Folk Music. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 1-58046-136-0. 
  • Performing Arts, Music. Library of Congress collections. Retrieved on June 13, 2005.

June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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