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Encyclopedia > Music of Scotland
Celtic music Music of the United Kingdom
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Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. In spite of emigration and a well-developed connection to music imported from the rest of Europe and the United States, the music of Scotland has kept many of its traditional aspects; indeed, it has itself influenced many forms of music. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x360, 69 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The Tannahill Weavers Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x360, 69 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The Tannahill Weavers Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... The Tannahill Weavers are a popular band who perform traditional Scottish music. ... Celtic music is a term utilized by artists, record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples of Northern Europe. ... Music from the United Kingdom has achieved great international popularity since the 1960s, when a wave of British musicians helped to popularise rock and roll. ... Brittany is a Celtic country rich in its cultural heritage. ... traditional Asturian dancers The traditional music of Galicia and Asturias has some similarities with the neighbouring areas of Cantabria, León, Castile and northern Portugal. ... The Music of England has a long history. ... Cornwall has been historically Celtic, though Celtic-derived traditions had been moribund for some time before being revived during a late 20th century roots revival. ... The Isle of Man is a small island nation in the Irish Sea, between Great Britain and Ireland. ... Wales is a part of the United Kingdom, but is a culturally and politically separate Celtic country. ... Irish music is a folk music which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many other traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. ... Celtic music is primarily associated with the folk traditions of Ireland, Scotland and Wales, as well as the popular styles derived from folk culture. ... Irish and Scottish music have long been a major part of American music, at least as far back as the 19th century. ... Jamaican music in the United Kingdom // White Reggae White reggae has very low artistic credibility, but it laid a path for genuine reggae in Britain. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Pop music (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... The music of Europe includes the music of Western Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe. ...


Scottish traditional music, although influencing and being influenced by both Irish traditional music is very much a creature unto itself, and, despite the popularity of various international pop music forms, remains a vital and living tradition. There are several Scottish record labels, music festival and a roots magazine, Living Tradition. Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic politically divided between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... In the music industry, a record label is a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. ... A music festival is a festival oriented towards music that is sometimes presented with a theme such as musical genre, nationality or locality of musicians, or holiday. ...


Many outsiders associate Scottish folk music almost entirely with the Great Highland Bagpipe, which has indeed long played an important part of Scottish music. Although this particular form of bagpipe developed exclusively in Scotland, it is not the only Scottish bagpipe, and other bagpiping traditions remain across Europe. The earliest mention of bagpipes in Scotland date to the 1400s [1], but they could have been introduced to Scotland as early as the sixth century. The pìob mór, or Great Highland Bagpipe, was originally associated with both hereditary piping families and professional pipers to various clan chiefs; later, pipes were adopted for use in other venues, including military marching. Piping clans included the MacArthurs, MacDonalds, McKays and, especially, the MacCrimmon, who were hereditary pipers to the Clan MacLeod. Pipe Major The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. ... Pipe Major The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. ... Clan Arthur crest Clan Arthur is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Donald crest: Per mare per terras (By sea and by land) Map of Dál Riata at its height, c. ... Clan MacKay crest: Manu Forti The Clan Mackay is an ancient and once powerful Scottish clan from the countrys far north in the Scottish Highlands, but with roots in the old province of Moray. ... Clan MacLeod Crest. ...

Contents

Folk music

Folk music takes many forms in a broad musical tradition, although the dividing lines are not rigid, and many artists work across the boundaries. Culturally, there is a split between the Gaelic tradition and the Scots tradition.[citation needed]


The oldest forms of music in Scotland are theorized to be Gaelic singing and harp playing. Although much of the harp tradition was lost through extinction, the harp is being revived by contemporary players. Later, the Great Highland Bagpipe appeared on the scene. Initially, pipers played traditional pieces called 'piobeareachd,' meaning 'piping' in Gaelic, which consist of a theme and a series of developments. Later, the style of 'light music,' including marches, strathspeys, reels, jigs, and hornpipes, became more popular. The British army adopted piping and spread the idea of pipe bands throughout the British Empire. Presently, piping is closely tied to band and individual competitions, although pipers are also experimenting with new possibilities for the instrument. Other forms of bagpipes also exist in the Scottish tradition; they are detailed in the piping section below. For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... Pipe Major The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to a border region, e. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A reel may also refer to a type of dance and its accompanying music. ... This article is about the folk dance jig, for other meanings, see Jig (disambiguation). ... The term hornpipe refers to one of several dance forms played and danced in Britain and elsewhere from the late 17th century until the present day. ... A pipe band is a group of pipers and drummers. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


The piping tradition is strongly connected to Gaelic singing (some piping ornaments mimic the Gaelic consonants of the songs), stepdance (the traditional dance meters determine the rhythm of the tunes), and fiddle, which appeared in Scotland in the 17th century. These components are part of the dance music which is played across Scotland at country dances, ceilidhs, Highland balls and frequently at weddings. Group dances are performed to music provided typically by an ensemble, or dance band, which may include fiddle, bagpipe, accordion, tin whistle, cello, keyboard and percussion. Many modern Scottish dance bands are becoming more lively and innovative, with influences from other types of music (most notably jazz chord structures) becoming noticeable. “Fiddler” redirects here. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Céilí (Irish reformed spelling), or Ceilidh (Scottish and older Gaelic spelling), pronounced Kay-Lee in either case, is the traditional Gaelic social dance in Ireland and Scotland. ... This article is about the marriage ceremony. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Fiddler” redirects here. ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ... The tin whistle, also called the tinwhistle, whistle, pennywhistle, or Irish whistle, is a simple six-holed woodwind instrument. ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... Look up keyboard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... This article is intended to describe and explain some of the chords and chord symbols which are commonly found in Jazz music. ...


Vocal music is also popular in the Scottish musical tradition. There are ballads and laments, generally sung by a lone singer with backing, or played on traditional instruments such as harp, fiddle, accordion or bagpipes. There are many traditional folk songs, which are generally melodic, haunting or rousing. These are often very specific to certain regions, and are performed today by a burgeoning variety of folk groups. Popular songs were originally produced by music hall performers such as Harry Lauder and Will Fyffe for the stage. More modern exponents of the style have included Andy Stewart, Glen Daly, Moira Anderson, Kenneth McKellar, Calum Kennedy and the Alexander Brothers. Illustration by Arthur Rackham of the ballad The Twa Corbies A ballad is a story, usually a narrative or poem, in a song. ... A lament or lamentation is a song or poem expressing grief, regret or mourning. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... “Fiddler” redirects here. ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ... A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... Sir Harry Lauder, KBE (4 August 1870 - 26 February 1950) was a very famous Scottish entertainer, described by Sir Winston Churchill as Scotlands greatest ever ambassador! // Early Years Born Henry Lauder at 4 Bridge Street Portobello, the residence of his mother’s father, he was the eldest son of... Will Fyffe (1885, Dundee, Scotland – 1947) was a popular music-hall entertainer in the United Kingdom in the early years of the 20th Century,best known for his song I Belong To Glasgow, even though the east coast city of Dundee was his hometown. ... Andy Stewart (1933 - 1993) was a Scottish singer and entertainer. ... Moira Anderson (born 5 June 1938 in Kirkintilloch, East Dunbartonshire) is a Scottish singer. ... Kenneth McKellar (1927 - ) is a Scottish singer (tenor). ... Calum Kennedy (1928–15 April 2006) was a Scottish singer. ... The Alexander Brothers are an easy-listening folk-music duo from Scotland, who have been performing since the 1950s. ...


Folk song collecting

The earliest printed collection of secular music in Scotland was by publisher John Forbes in Aberdeen in 1662. Songs and Fancies: to Thre, Foure, or Five Partes, both Apt for Voices and Viols, printed three times in the next twenty years, contained 77 songs, of which 25 were of Scottish origin. Most are anonymous. The other songs in the book are mostly in English, and include works by John Dowland. For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... John Dowland (1563 – February 20, 1626) was an English composer, singer, and lutenist. ...


While ballads had been written for centuries, and had begun to be printed in the seventeenth century, the 18th century brought a number of collections of Scots songs and tunes. Examples include Playford's Original Scotch Tunes 1700, Sinkler's MS. 1710, James Watson's Choice Collection of Comic and Serious Scots Poems both Ancient and Modern 1711, William Thomson's Orpheus caledonius: or, A collection of Scots songs 1733, James Oswald's The Caledonian Pocket Companion 1751, and David Herd's Ancient and modern Scottish songs, heroic ballads, etc.: collected from memory, tradition and ancient authors 1776. These were drawn on for the most influential collection, The Scots Musical Museum published in six volumes from 1787 to 1803 by James Johnson and Robert Burns, which also included new words by Burns. The Select Scottish Airs collected by George Thomson and published between 1799 and 1818 included contributions from Burns and Walter Scott. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... James Oswald (1711-1769) was a Scots composer and music publisher. ... David Herd (1732 - 1810) was a Scottish anthologist. ... The Scots Musical Museum was a major publication that had a pivotal role in the collecting and tradition of Music of Scotland. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... George Thomson (1757–1821), born at Limekilns, Fife, Scotland, was a noted collector of the Music of Scotland and a friend of Robert Burns. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ...


Instruments

Accordion

Main article: Accordion

Though often derided as Scottish kitsch, the accordion has long been a part of Scottish music. Country dance bands, such as that led by the renowned Jimmy Shand, have helped to dispel this image. In the early twentieth century, the melodeon (a variety of accordion) was popular among rural folk, and was part of the bothy band tradition. More recently, performers like Phil Cunningham (of Silly Wizard) have helped popularize the accordion in Scottish music. This article is about the instrument as a whole. ... Scottish country dancing at the 2005 Skagit Valley Highland Games in Mount Vernon, Washington Scottish country dancing, SCD or reeling is a form of social dance involving groups of mixed couples of dancers tracing progressive patterns according to a predetermined choreography. ... The terms melodeon and melodion can refer to any of several related musical instruments of the free reed aerophone family: A type of 19th century reed organ with a foot-operated vacuum bellows, and a piano keyboard. ... The Bothy Band was an Irish traditional band from the 1970s, one of the most prominent and best-loved from the roots revival of that era. ... Phil Cunningham, MBE (born 1960, Edinburgh, Scotland) is a Scottish folk musician and composer. ... Silly Wizard was a Scottish folk band, formed in about 1971 in Edinburgh by Johnny Cunningham (fiddle, viola, mandola, vocals), Bob Thomas (guitar, mandolin, mandola, banjo, concertina) and Gordon Jones (guitar, bodhran, vocals, bouzouki, mandola). ...


Bagpipes

Main article: Bagpipe

Though bagpipes are closely associated with Scotland by many outsiders, the instrument (or, more precisely, family of instruments) is found throughout large swathes of Europe, North Africa and South Asia. The most common bagpipe heard in modern Scottish music is the Great Highland Bagpipe, which was spread by the Highland regiments of the British Army. Historically, numerous other bagpipes existed, and many of them have been recreated in the last half-century. A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... Pipe Major The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. ...

Bagpipe band performing in a parade in the U.S.
Bagpipe band performing in a parade in the U.S.

The classical music of the Great Highland Bagpipe is called Pìobaireachd, which consists of a theme (urlar) which is repeated, growing increasingly complex each time. After variations on the urlar, other movements follow, often including a ("taorluath") movement and variation and the (crunluath) movement continuing with the underlying theme. This is usually followed by the ("crunluath a mach"), and the last section is a repeat of part of the ("urlar"). Image File history File linksMetadata Bagpipeband. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bagpipeband. ... Pipe Major The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. ... A pibroch (IPA: [ˈpiːˌbrÉ”x]) is a type of music native to the Scottish Highlands and performed on the Great Highland Bagpipe. ...


Bagpipe competitions are common in Scotland, for both solo pipers and pipe bands. Competitive solo piping is currently popular among many aspiring pipers, some of whom travel from as far as Australia to attend Scottish competitions. Other pipers have chosen to explore more creative usages of the instrument. Different types of bagpipes have also seen a resurgence since the 70s, as the historical border pipes and Scottish smallpipes have been resuscitated and now attract a thriving alternative piping community.[2] This article is about the year 70. ... The border pipes are a musical instrument that is a close cousin of the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... The Scottish smallpipe is a bellows-blown bagpipe developed from the Northumbrian smallpipes by Colin Ross and others, to be playable according to the Great Highland Bagpipe fingering system. ...


The pipe band is another common format for highland piping, with top competitive bands including the Victoria Police Pipe Band from Australia, Northern Ireland's Field Marshal Montgomery, Canada's 78th Fraser Highlanders Pipe Band and Simon Fraser University Pipe Band, and Scottish bands like Shotts and Dykehead Pipe Band and Strathclyde Police Pipe Band. These bands, as well as many others, compete in numerous pipe band competitions, often the World Pipe Band Championships, and sometimes perform in public concerts. The Simon Fraser University Pipe Band, winner of 4 World Pipe Band Championships in the past decade, in competition at the 2005 Bellingham Highland Games A pipe band is a musical ensemble consisting of pipers and drummers. ... The Victoria Police Pipe Band was a past grade one pipe band champion based in Melbourne, Australia. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal The Right Honourable Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO (17 November 1887–24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, most noted for his involvement in World War II and often referred to as Monty. // Early life and World War... The 78th Fraser Highlanders Pipe Band, also known as The Scottish Lion - 78th Fraser Highlanders Pipe Band, is a pipe band from Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The SFU pipe band in competition at the 2005 Bellingham Highland Games The Simon Fraser University Pipe Band is a grade one pipe band affiliated with Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada (a suburb located just east of Vancouver, BC). ... The House of Edgar Shotts and Dykehead Pipe Band, also known as Shotts and Dykehead or simply Shotts, is a grade one pipe band from Shotts and Dykehead, in the North Lanarkshire region of Scotland. ... The Strathclyde Police Pipe Band is a grade one pipe band from Glasgow, Scotland. ... The Clan Gregor Society Pipe Band marches onto the field during the 2005 World Championships The World Pipe Band Championships is a pipe band competition held in Glasgow, Scotland every August. ...


Fiddle

Main article: Fiddle
Main article: Scottish fiddling

Scottish traditional fiddling encompasses a number of regional styles, including the bagpipe-inflected west Highlands, the upbeat and lively style of Norse-influenced Shetland Islands and the Strathspey and slow airs of the North-East. The instrument arrived late in the 17th century, and is first mentioned in 1680 in a document from Newbattle Abbey in Midlothian, Lessones For Ye Violin. “Fiddler” redirects here. ... Category: ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Newbattle Abbey was a Cistercian monastic community founded in 1140 by monks from Melrose Abbey. ... The central portions of the old province of Lothian in Scotland, centred around Edinburgh, became known as Midlothian, Scotland. ...


In the 18th century, Scottish fiddling is said to have reached new heights. Fiddlers like William Marshall and Niel Gow were legends across Scotland, and the first collections of fiddle tunes were published in mid-century. The most famous and useful of these collections was a series published by Nathaniel Gow, one of Niel's sons, and a fine fiddler and composer in his own right. Classical composers such as Charles McLean, James Oswald and William McGibbon used Scottish fiddling traditions in their Baroque compositions. William Marshall was born on December 27, 1748 at Fochabers, Scotland. ... Nathaniel Gow (1766-1831) was the fourth son of Niel Gow, and a celebrated composer of songs and other pieces on his own right. ... James Oswald (1711-1769) was a Scots composer and music publisher. ... William McGibbon (born 1690, died 1756) was a Scottish composer and violinist. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...


Scottish fiddling is the root of much American folk music, such as Appalachian fiddling, but is most directly represented in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, an island on the east coast of Canada, which received some 25,000 emigrants from the Scottish Highlands during the Highland Clearances of 1780-1850. Cape Breton musicians such as Natalie MacMaster, Ashley MacIsaac, and Jerry Holland have brought their music to a worldwide audience, building on the traditions of master fiddlers such as Buddy MacMaster and Winston Scotty Fitzgerald. Natalie MacMaster (born 1973) is an award-winning fiddler from the rural community of Troy in Inverness County, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Ashley Dwayne MacIsaac (born February 24, 1975) is a professional fiddler born in Creignish, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Jerry Holland Jerry Holland (born February 23, 1955) is a noted fiddler who lives on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Hugh Alan Buddy MacMaster, CM , ONS , LL.D (born October 18, 1924) is one of the most renowned artists in the tradition of Cape Breton fiddle music. ... Winston Scotty Fitzgerald (1914-1987) was a renowned Cape Breton fiddler. ...


Among native Scots, Alasdair Fraser and Aly Bain are two of the most accomplished, following in the footsteps of influential twentieth century players such as James Scott Skinner, John McCusker, Hector MacAndrew, Angus Grant and Tom Anderson. The growing number of young professional Scottish fiddlers makes a complete list impossible. Alasdair Fraser is a Scottish fiddler who spends much of his time in the USA. One of the leading artists featured by Culburnie Records, he also teaches at the Valley of the Moon fiddle camp in California. ... Aly Bain (born 1946 in Lerwick, Shetland) is a Scottish fiddler who learned his instrument from the old-time master Tom Anderson. ... James Scott Skinner was born in Banchory, near Aberdeen on August 5, 1843. ... John McCusker is a Scottish folk musician. ... Tom Anderson (1910-1991) was a renowned Shetland fiddler and teacher. ...


Guitar

Main article: Guitar

The history of the guitar in traditional music is recent, as is that of the cittern and bouzouki, which in the forms used in Scottish and Irish music only date to the late 1960s. The guitar featured prominently in the folk revival of the early 1960s with the likes of Archie Fisher, the Corries, Hamish Imlach, Robin Hall and Jimmie MacGregor. The virtuoso playing of Bert Jansch was widely influential, and the range of instruments was widened by the Incredible String Band. Notable artists include Tony McManus, Dave MacIsaac, and Dick Gaughan. Other notable guitarists in Scottish music scene include Kris Drever of Fine Friday and Lau, and Ross Martin of Cliar, Daimh and Harem Scarem. For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... A woodcut of a Cittern The cittern is a stringed instrument dating from the Renaissance, having evolved considerably since that time. ... For bouzoukia, see nightclubs in Greece. ... Archie Fisher is a Scottish folk singer. ... The Corries were a Scottish folk group which emerged from the Scottish folk revival of the early 1960s. ... Hamish Imlach (1940-1996) was a folksinger from Glasgow, Scotland. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Jimmie MacGregor (born March 10, 1930) is a Scottish folksinger and broadcaster. ... Herbert Jansch (born 3 November 1943[1]), known as Bert Jansch, is a Scottish folk musician and founding member of the band Pentangle. ... Bold text The Incredible String Band (or ISB) is a Scottish acoustic band which, (in the words of one of their early songs [1] ) way back in the 1960s built a popular following within British counter culture, and the members of the group are considered psych folk musical pioneers. ... Tony McManus (born 1965, Paisley, Scotland) is an acoustic Celtic folk guitarist. ... Dave MacIsaac (born 1955) is a Canadian musician from Nova Scotia who plays the fiddle and guitar, specialising in the Celtic music style. ... Dick Gaughan is a Scottish singer-songwriter. ...


Harp

Main article: Harp

The harp, or clarsach, has a long and ancient history in Scotland, and was regarded as the national instrument until it was replaced with the Highland bagpipes in the 15th century. [3] Stone carvings in the East of Scotland support the theory that the harp was present in Pictish Scotland well before the 9th century and may have been the original ancestor of the modern European harp and even formed the basis for Scottish pibroch, the folk bagpipe tradition. For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... A clàrsach, now in the Museum of Scotland. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ...


Only thirteen depictions exist in Europe of any triangular chordophone harp pre-11th century, and all thirteen of them come from Scotland. Pictish harps were strung from horsehair. The instruments apparently spread south to the Anglo-Saxons, who commonly used gut strings, and then west to the Gaels of the Highlands and to Ireland. The earliest Irish word for a harp is in fact Cruit, a word which strongly suggests a Pictish provenance for the instrument. The surname MacWhirter, mac a' chruiteir, means son of the harpist, and is common throughout Scotland, but particularly in Carrick and Galloway. For the asteroid, see 3753 Cruithne. ... The Picts inhabited Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth. ... The ex-comital district of Carrick today forms part of South Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-Ghàidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern Scotland. ...

The harper on the Monifeith Pictish stone, Scotland, 700 - 900 AD
The harper on the Monifeith Pictish stone, Scotland, 700 - 900 AD
This Scottish clàrsach, known as the Clàrsach Lumanach or Lamont Harp made in the western Highlands (c.1400) now in the Museum of Scotland, is a one of only three surviving medieval Gaelic harps.
This Scottish clàrsach, known as the Clàrsach Lumanach or Lamont Harp made in the western Highlands (c.1400) [4] now in the Museum of Scotland, is a one of only three surviving medieval Gaelic harps.

The Clàrsach (Gd.) or Cláirseach (Ga.) is the name given to the wire-strung harp of either Scotland or Ireland. The word begins to appear by the end of the 14th century. Until the end of the Middle Ages it was the most popular musical instrument in Scotland, and harpers were among the most prestigious cultural figures in the courts of Irish/Scottish chieftains and Scottish kings and earls. In both countries, harpers enjoyed special rights and played a crucial part in ceremonial occasions such as coronations and poetic bardic recitals. The Kings of Scotland employed harpers until the end of the Middle Ages, and they feature prominently in royal iconography. Several Clarsach players were noted at the Battle of the Standard (1138), and when Alexander III (d. 1286) visited London in 1278, his court minstrels were with him, payments were made to Elyas the "King of Scotland's harper." Image File history File links Monifeithpictishharper. ... Image File history File links Monifeithpictishharper. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2035 KB) A celtic harp Photo taken at the Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Harp ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2035 KB) A celtic harp Photo taken at the Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Harp ... The Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, is a museum dedicated to the history, people and culture of Scotland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Bard (ca. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Three medieval Gaelic harps survived into the modern period, two from Scotland (the Queen Mary Harp and the Lamont Harp) and one in Ireland (the Brian Boru harp), although artistic evidence suggests that all three were probably made in the western Highlands.


The playing of this Gaelic harp with wire strings died out in Scotland in the 18th century and in Ireland in the early 19th century. As part of the late 19th century Gaelic revival, the instruments used differed greatly from the old wire-strung harps. The new instruments had gut strings, and their construction and playing style was based on the larger orchestral pedal harp. Nonetheless the name "clàrsach" was and is still used in Scotland today to describe these new instruments. The modern gut-strung clàrsach has thousands of players, both in Scotland and Ireland, as well as North America and elsewhere. The 1931 formation of the Clarsach Society kickstarted the modern harp renaissance. Recent harp players include Savourna Stevenson, Maggie MacInnis, and the band Sileas. Notable events include the Edinburgh International Harp Festival, which recently staged the world record for the largest number of harpists to play at the same time. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Sileas is a Scottish harp duo. ...


Tin whistle

Main article: Tin whistle

One of the oldest tin whistles still in existence is the Tusculum whistle, found with pottery dating to the 14th and 15th centuries; it is currently in the collection of the Museum of Scotland. Today the whistle is a very common instrument in recorded Scottish music. Although few well-known performers choose the tin whistle as their principal instrument, it is quite common for pipers, flute players, and other musicians to play the whistle as well. The tin whistle, also called the tinwhistle, whistle, pennywhistle, or Irish whistle, is a simple six-holed woodwind instrument. ... The Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, is a museum dedicated to the history, people and culture of Scotland. ...

Tin whistles in a variety of makes and keys.
Tin whistles in a variety of makes and keys.

Tinwhistles: Overton aluminum D by Colin Goldie, Tony Dixon PVC D, Feadog brass D, all cylindrical; Clarke Sweetone D, conical; Generation nickel low Bb and high G; Howard low D. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tinwhistles: Overton aluminum D by Colin Goldie, Tony Dixon PVC D, Feadog brass D, all cylindrical; Clarke Sweetone D, conical; Generation nickel low Bb and high G; Howard low D. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Modern Scottish music

In the twentieth century, collections like Last Leaves of Traditional Ballads and Ballad Airs, collected by Reverend James Duncan and Gavin Greig, helped inspire the ensuing folk revival. These were followed by collectors like Hamish Henderson and Calum McLean, both of whom worked with American musicologist Alan Lomax. Earlier, the first Celtic music international star, James Scott Skinner, a fiddler known as the "Strathspey King", had gained fame with some very early recordings. Gavin Greig (1856-1914) was a folksong collector and teacher. ... Hamish Henderson, (11 November 1919 - 2002) was a Scottish poet, songwriter, atheist, socialist, humanist, soldier, intellectual, and living contradiction. ... Lomax playing guitar on stage at the Mountain Music Festival, Asheville, North Carolina, sometime between 1939 and 1950. ...


Among the folk performers discovered by Henderson, McLean and Lomax was Jeannie Robertson, who was brought to sing at the People's Festival in Edinburgh in 1953. Across the Atlantic, in the United States, pop-folk groups like The Weavers, Pete Seeger and Woody Guthrie were leading a folk revival; the singers at the 1951 People's Festival, John Strachan (singer), Flora Macneill, Jimmy MacBeath and others, began the Scottish revival. Jeannie Robertson (1908 - 13 March 1975) was a Scottish folk singer. ... The Edinburgh Folk Festival has had a shadowy existance since about 1951. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... The Weavers were an immensely popular and influential folk music quartet from Greenwich Village, New York, United States. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), almost universally known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and author. ... Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (July 14, 1912–October 3, 1967) was a prolific American songwriter and folk musician. ... John Strachan (1875 - 1958) was a Scottish farmer and singer of Bothy Ballads. ... Jimmy MacBeath (1894- 1972) was an itinerant worker and singer of Bothy Ballads. ...


Revival

Like many countries, Scotland underwent a roots revival in the 1960s. Folk music had declined somewhat in popularity during the preceding generation, although performers like Jimmy Shand, Kenneth McKellar, and Moira Anderson still maintained an international following and mass market record sales, but numerous young Scots thought themselves separated from their country's culture. This new wave of Scottish folk performers were inspired by American traditionalists like Pete Seeger, but soon found their own heroes, including young singers Ray and Archie Fisher and Hamish Imlach, and from the tradition Jeannie Robertson and Jimmy MacBeath. A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. ...


1960s

Scottish folk singing was revived by artists including Ewan MacColl, who founded one of the first folk clubs in Britain, singers Alex Campbell, Jean Redpath, Hamish Imlach, and Dick Gaughan and groups like The Gaugers, The Corries, The McCalmans and the Ian Campbell Folk Group. Folk clubs boomed, with a strong Irish influence from The Dubliners. With Irish folk bands like The Chieftains finding widespread popularity, 60s Scottish musicians played in pipe bands and Strathspey and Reel Societies. Musicologist Frances Collinson published The Traditional and National Music of Scotland in 1778 to surprising popular acclaim, as part of the burgeoning Scottish folk revival. Still though, until the end of the 60s, Scottish music was rarely heard in pubs or on the radio, though Irish traditional music was widespread. The Corries had established a fan-base, while the English band Fairport Convention has created a British folk rock scene that spread north in the form of The JSD Band and Contraband. Ewan MacColl (25 January 1915 - 22 October 1989) was a British folk singer, songwriter, socialist, actor, poet, playwright, and record producer. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Jean Redpath, MBE (born on 28 April 1937) is a singer of folk songs and Scottish music. ... Hamish Imlach (1940-1996) was a folksinger from Glasgow, Scotland. ... The Corries were a Scottish folk group which emerged from the Scottish folk revival of the early 1960s. ... The McCalmans are Scotlands foremost folk song trio. ... The Dubliners are an Irish folk band founded in 1962, making them one of the older bands still playing music today. ... The Chieftains are a Grammy-winning Irish musical group founded in 1963, known for performing and popularizing Irish traditional music. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Bob Dylans folk-rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... Album cover of Contrabands album. ...


1970s

Music had long been primarily a solo affair, until The Clutha, a Glasgow-based group, began solidifying the idea of a Celtic band, which eventually consisted of fiddle or pipes leading the melody, and bouzouki and guitar along with the vocals. Though The Clutha were the first modern band, earlier groups like The Exiles (with Bobby Campbell) had forged in that direction, adding instruments like the fiddle to vocal groups. Alongside The Clutha were other pioneering Glasgow bands, including The Whistlebinkies and Aly Bain's The Boys of the Lough, both largely instrumental. The Whistlebinkies were notable, along with Alba and The Clutha, for experimenting with different varieties of bagpipies; Alba used Highland pipes, The Whistlebinkies used reconstructed Border pipes and The Clutha used Scottish smallpipes alongside Highlands. The Clutha were a traditional Scottish band // Early years In 1957 Norman Buchan was a teacher at Rutherglen Academy. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... “Fiddler” redirects here. ... A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Bobby Campbell is the name of several notable figures, including: Bobby Campbell (footballer), a former Association Football player and manager. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Boys of the Lough are one of the longest-surviving Celtic bands. ... This article is about a name for Scotland. ... Pipe Major The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. ... The border pipes are a musical instrument that is a close cousin of the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... The Scottish smallpipe is a bellows-blown bagpipe developed from the Northumbrian smallpipes by Colin Ross and others, to be playable according to the Great Highland Bagpipe fingering system. ...


Bert Jansch and Davy Graham took blues guitar and eastern influences into their music, and in the mid-1960s, the most popular group of the Scottish folk scene, the Incredible String Band, began their career in Clive's Incredible Folk Club in Glasgow taking these influences a stage further. Herbert Jansch (born 3 November 1943[1]), known as Bert Jansch, is a Scottish folk musician and founding member of the band Pentangle. ... Davey Graham (originally Davy Graham, b. ... Blues music redirects here. ...


The next wave of bands, including Silly Wizard, The Tannahill Weavers, Battlefield Band, Ossian and Alba, featured prominent bagpipers, a trend which climaxed in the 1980s, when Robin Morton's A Controversy of Pipers was released to great acclaim. By the end of the 1970s, lyrics in the Scottish Gaelic language were appearing in songs by Nah-Oganaich and Ossian, with Runrig's Play Gaelic in 1978 being the first major success for Gaelic-language Scottish folk. Silly Wizard was a Scottish folk band, formed in about 1971 in Edinburgh by Johnny Cunningham (fiddle, viola, mandola, vocals), Bob Thomas (guitar, mandolin, mandola, banjo, concertina) and Gordon Jones (guitar, bodhran, vocals, bouzouki, mandola). ... The Tannahill Weavers are a popular band who perform traditional Scottish music. ... For 30 years the Battlefield Band has been a training ground for some of the greatest Scottish musicians. ... Ossian is a Scottish traditional music group founded in 1976. ... A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... Robin Morton was a successful advertising executive in the City of London and he was Mayor of Tunbridge Wells in 1999/2000. ... Runrig playing live link title Runrig are a Scottish folk rock band founded by brothers Rory and Calum MacDonald and their friend Blair Douglas in 1973 in the rural Western Isles of Scotland. ... Play Gaelic is the first release by folk band Runrig. ...


Pop and rock were slow to get started in Scotland and produced few bands of note in the 1950s or 1960s. However, by the 1970s bands such as the Average White Band, Nazareth, and the Sensational Alex Harvey Band began to have international success. The biggest Scottish pop act of the 1970s however (at least in terms of sales) were undoubtedly the Bay City Rollers. The Average White Band (also AWB) is a Scottish funk and R&B band. ... For other uses, see Nazareth (disambiguation). ... Alex Harvey (February 5, 1935 - February 4, 1982) was a Scottish rock and roll performer. ... The Bay City Rollers were a Scottish Pop/rock band of the 1970s. ...


1980s, 1990s and 2000s

Scotland produced a few punk bands of note, such as The Exploited, The Vaselines, The Rezillos, The Skids, The Fire Engines, and the Scars. However, it was not until the post-punk era of the early 1980s, that Scotland really came into its own, with bands like Orange Juice, The Associates, Simple Minds, Maggie Reilly, Annie Lennox (Eurythmics) and Josef K achieved critical acclaim. Since the 1980s Scotland has produced a more or less constant stream of important rock and alternative rock acts. The Exploited is a punk rock band from the second wave of UK punk, formed in late 1979 or early 1980. ... The Vaselines were a rock band from Bellshill, Scotland. ... The Rezillos were a Scottish Punk/New Wave band, who formed in Edinburgh in 1976. ... The Skids The Skids were an art-punk/punk rock and new wave band from Dunfermline, Scotland, founded in 1977 by Stuart Adamson (1958 - 2001, guitars / vocals / keyboards), Richard Jobson (vocals / guitar), Thomas Kellichan (drums) and William Simpson (bass guitar / vocals). ... The Fire Engines are a post punk band from Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Scars (originally known as The Scars) were a post-punk/New Wave band that hailed from Edinburgh, Scotland, and were a part of that citys bustling music scene of the late 70s - early 80s. ... Post punk generally refers to the particularly fertile and creative period following the initial punk rock explosion. During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1976-1983, bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones and The Damned began to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock... For other uses, see Orange juice (disambiguation). ... The Associates were a Scottish pop band of the early 1980s. ... Simple Minds is a rock band from Scotland, which had its greatest worldwide popularity from the mid-1980s to the early-1990s. ... Maggie Reilly (born in Glasgow on 15 September 1956) is a Scottish vocalist best known for her collaborations with the composer Mike Oldfield between 1980 and 1984, especially by performing the vocals on Family Man (1982), Five Miles Out (1982), Moonlight Shadow (1983), Foreign Affair (1983) and To France (1984). ... For the approach to music education, see Eurhythmics. ... Josef K was a Scottish post-punk band active in the early 1980s who released singles on legendary record label Postcard Records. ... Alternative music redirects here. ...


In the 1980s, Edinburgh saw the emergence of Jock Tamson's Bairns with a style called Scots swing. The 1980s also saw the rise of Scottish progressive rock/metal, with bands such as Citizen Cain and Marillion receiving worldwide recognition. Bands such as these have given inspiration to countless hundreds of 21st century Scottish rock bands resulting in the fruitful and diverse underground music culture present in Scotland today. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Marillion is a British Rock group. ...


Most recently, Scottish piping has included a renaissance for cauldwind pipes such as smallpipes and border pipes, which use cold, dry air as opposed to the moist air of mouth-blown pipes. Other pipers such as Gordon Duncan began to explore new musical genres on many kinds of pipes. The accordion also gained in popularity during the 1970s due to the renown of Phil Cunningham, whose distinctive piano accordion style was an integral part of the band Silly Wizard. Gordon Duncan, 1964-2005 was one of a young generation of Scottish pipers who opened up the piping scene to a more innovative approach. ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ... Phil Cunningham is a member of the UK band New Order. ... Silly Wizard was a Scottish folk band, formed in about 1971 in Edinburgh by Johnny Cunningham (fiddle, viola, mandola, vocals), Bob Thomas (guitar, mandolin, mandola, banjo, concertina) and Gordon Jones (guitar, bodhran, vocals, bouzouki, mandola). ...


Numerous musicians continued to follow more traditional styles including Andy Stewart, Glen Daly, and the Alexander Brothers. Andy Stewart is the name of several famous people: Andy Stewart (musician) (1933–1993), Scottish musician and entertainer Andy M. Stewart, Scottish musician and songwriter, best known for fronting the Scottish folk band Silly Wizard Andy Stewart (athlete) (born 1980), Canadian olympic baseball and former major league catcher Andy Stewart...


More modern musicians include Shooglenifty, innovators of the house fusion acid croft, The Easy Club, a jazz fusion band, Talitha MacKenzie and Martin Swan, mouth musicians, pioneering singers Savourna Stevenson, Heather Heywood and Christine Primrose. Other modern musicians include the late techno-piper Martyn Bennett (who used hip hop beats and sampling), Hamish Moore and Gordon Mooney. Shooglenifty are an Edinburgh-based six-piece band with a wide international fan base. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Talitha MacKenzie (born in the 1950s in New York) is a Celtic folk/world musician who became known in association with Mouth Music. ... Voice instrumental music is the term used for compositions and improvisations for the human voice. ... Martyn Bennett (February 17, 1971 – January 30, 2005) was a Scottish musician who was born in St. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... This article is about reusing existing sound recordings in creating new works. ...


Scotland produced many indie bands in the 1980s, Primal Scream, The Jesus and Mary Chain, Teenage Fanclub, 18 Wheeler, The Pastels and BMX Bandits being some of the best examples. The following decade also saw a burgeoning scene in Glasgow, with the likes of Belle & Sebastian, The Delgados and Mogwai . The late 1990s and 2000s has also seen Scottish guitar bands continue to achieve critical or commercial success, examples include Franz Ferdinand, Biffy Clyro, Travis, The View, El Presidente, Idlewild, Snow Patrol, Northern Irish and The Fratellis. For other uses, see Primal Scream (disambiguation). ... The Jesus and Mary Chain are a Scottish alternative rock band that revolves around the songwriting partnership of brothers Jim and William Reid. ... Teenage Fanclub are a Scottish alternative rock band from Bellshill, near Glasgow, formed in 1989. ... Look up 18-wheeler in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Pastels are a group from Glasgow, Scotland, UK. They have been described as an almost pop group. ... BMX Bandits is a Scottish 1960s-influenced guitar pop band who have been making music from 1986 to the present day. ... This article is about the band. ... The Delgados were a Scottish indie rock band who formed in Glasgow in 1994 after friends Alun Woodward (vocals/guitar), Stewart Henderson (bass) and Paul Savage (drums) were forcibly ejected from the band Bubblegum. ... For the Swiss progressive house producer who releases under the name Moogwai, see Chab. ... Franz Ferdinand are an award winning rock band, from Glasgow, Scotland. ... Biffy Clyro (often known colloquially as Biffy)[1] are a Scottish rock group from Ayrshire whose members are Simon Neil (lead vocals, guitar), James Johnston (vocals, bass guitar) and Ben Johnston (vocals, drums). ... Travis are a Scotish rock band from Glasgow, comprising Fran Healy (lead vocals, guitar, piano), Dougie Payne (bass, backing vocals, occasional lead vocals), Andy Dunlop (lead guitar, banjo, keyboards, backing vocals) and Neil Primrose (drums, percussion). ... The View are a four piece indie rock band from Dryburgh, a district in Dundee, Scotland. ... El Presidente are a Scottish Pop-Rock band from Glasgow. ... Idlewild are a Scottish rock band formed in December 1995, by Roddy Woomble (vocals), Rod Jones (guitar), Phil Scanlon (bass), and Colin Newton (drums). ... Snow Patrol are a Grammy Award-nominated alternative rock band which formed in Scotland, with the majority of their members being from Bangor and Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... The Fratellis are an award-winning indie rock band from Glasgow, Scotland. ...


Classical music

Pre 20th Century

Perhaps the first notable Scottish composer was Robert Carver. However, despite this promising start, few Scottish composers since then have achieved international renown. Thomas Erskine, 6th Earl of Kellie was well known in the 18th century, but his work was quickly forgotten (although there are now signs of a revival). Scotland produced little of note in the 19th century, although the violin concerto of Alexander Mackenzie was much prized by Sarasate). Robert Carver (ca. ... Thomas Alexander Erskine, 6th Earl of Kellie (1 September 1732–9 October 1781), styled Viscount Fentoun and Lord Pittenweem until 1756, was a British musician and composer whose considerable talent brought him international fame and his rakish habits notoriety, but nowadays is little known. ... Sir Alexander Campell Mackenzie was a British composer, son of an eminent Edinburgh violinist and conductor, was born on the 22nd of August 1847. ... Pablo Martín Melitón de Sarasate y Navascuéz (March 10, 1844 - September 20, 1908) was a Spanish violinist and composer. ...


20th and 21st Century

At the beginning of the 20th century there were signs of a revival, with composers such as Hamish MacCunn and William Wallace. However it is notable that many of these modernist composers (such as Francis George Scott or J. Murdoch Henderson) tended to concentrate on shorter forms (such as songs) rather than the more conventional fields of symphonies or operas. Since World War II, however, there has been something of a renaissance in Scottish music, with Robin Orr, Thomas Wilson, Thea Musgrave, Edward McGuire, James MacMillan, James Dillon, John McLeod, James Douglas and Judith Weir attracting international attention. In the field of movie soundtracks Craig Armstrong has achieved international renown. The English composer Sir Peter Maxwell Davies currently lives in Orkney and runs a music festival there. The Edinburgh Festival each year brings some of the best musicians in the world to Scotland. Hamish MacCunn (March 22, 1868 – August 2, 1916), Scottish romantic composer, was born in Greenock, the son of a shipowner, and was educated at the Royal College of Music, where his teachers included Parry and Stanford. ... Sir William Wallace (1860-1940) was a Scottish classical composer. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... Francis George Scott (1880-1958) was a Scottish composer, born in Hawick, Roxburghshire, son of a supplier of mill-engineering parts. ... J. Murdoch Henderson (1902-1970) was a Scottish fiddler, composer, and music critic. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Robert Kelmsley (Robin) Orr CBE (2 June 1909 - 9 April 2006) was a Scottish composer. ... Thomas Wilson (1927-2001) was a Scottish composer. ... Thea Musgrave (b. ... Born in 1961, Edward McGuire is an non-partisan strategic economist and national security consultant – often on the side of controversy. ... Dr James MacMillan (born on July 16, 1959) is a Scottish classical composer. ... James Dillon (born 1950 in Glasgow) is a British composer often regarded as belonging to the New Complexity school. ... John Mcleod (second left) John McLeod (b. ... James Douglas (b. ... Judith Weir (born 1954) is a British composer. ... Craig Armstrong (b. ... Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CBE (b. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... There is no one Edinburgh Festival but those using the term are usually referring to the collection of various festivals in August and early September of each year in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Scotland has provided the inspiration for international composers, most notably Mendelssohn, Benjamin Britten and Sir Malcolm Arnold. Britten in particular arranged several Scottish folk songs for voice and piano as well as the orchestral Scottish Ballad, a reworking of the old hymn tune Dundee. Mendelssohn (or Mendelsohn) can refer to several subjects. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ...


Classical Performers

Scotland has produced several notable performers of classical music, including the percussionist Evelyn Glennie, the pianist Murray McLachlan, the violinist Nicola Benedetti, the violist William Primrose, singers Isobel Baillie, Henry Herford and Margaret Marshall and conductors Bryden Thomson, Donald Runnicles and Sir Alexander Gibson. Evelyn Glennie on the cover of her greatest hits album. ... Murray Mclachlan is currently head of keyboard at Chethams School of Music, having studied their some decades earlier. ... Nicola Benedetti (born July 1987 West Kilbride, North Ayrshire) is a Scottish violinist. ... William Primrose (August 23, 1903 - May 1, 1982) was a Scottish violist and teacher, probably the best known viola player of his time. ... Isobel Baillie (9 March 1895, Hawick, Roxburghshire, Scotland - 24 September 1983 – Manchester, England) was a Scottish soprano, popular in opera, oratorio and lieder. ... Henry Herford (born 24 February 1947, Edinburgh, Scotland) is a Scottish baritone singer. ... Margaret Anne Marshall OBE (born January 4, 1949, Stirling) is a Scottish soprano who has appeared in a number of operatic performances. ... Bryden Thomson (Born 16 July 1928 in Ayr, Scotland, died 14 November 1991, Dublin, Ireland) was a Scottish conductor. ... Donald Runnicles (born November 6, 1954 in Edinburgh, Scotland) is a Scottish conductor. ... Alexander Gibson was the name of more than one notable person: Alexander Gibson (conductor) (1926-1995) was a Scottish composer and music director. ...


Scotland has three international standard orchestras: Royal Scottish National Orchestra, BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and the Scottish Chamber Orchestra. Scottish Opera is the national opera company whose home venue is the Theatre Royal, Glasgow. The Royal Scottish National Orchestra is Scotlands national symphony orchestra. ... The BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra is the BBCs classical music ensemble in Scotland. ... The Scottish Chamber Orchestra is a professional chamber orchestra based in Edinburgh, United Kingdom. ... Scottish Opera was founded in 1962 and is based in Glasgow. ... The Theatre Royal in located in Glasgow, Scotland. ...


The independent classical record label Linn Records is based in Glasgow. Linn Records is a Glasgow-based company which specialises in classical, jazz and Scottish music. ...


Jazz

Scotland has a strong jazz tradition and has produced many world class musicians since the 1950s, notably Jimmy Deuchar, Bobby Wellins and Joe Temperley. A long-standing problem was the lack of opportunities within Scotland to play with international musicians. Since the 1970s this has been addressed by enthusiast-run organisations such as Platform and then Assembly Direct, which have provided improved performance opportunities. Jimmy Deuchar (b. ... Bobby Wellins (born Glasgow on January 24, 1936) is a Scottish tenor saxophonist. ... Joe Temperley (born Lochgelly on September 20, 1929) is a Scottish saxophonist. ...


Perhaps the best known contemporary Scottish jazz musician is Tommy Smith. Again, the Edinburgh Jazz and Blues Festival brings some of the best jazz musicians in the world to Scotland every year, although, increasingly, other cities (such as Glasgow and Dundee) also run international jazz festivals. Tommy Smith (b. ... Glasgow International Jazz Festival is a jazz festival in Glasgow, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ...


Samples

Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ...

References

  1. ^ [http://www.sca.org/ti/articles/1996/issue119/bagpipe.html "Pre-Seventeen Century Highland Bagpipe"]
  2. ^ http://www.hamishmoore.musicscotland.com/essay.htm
  3. ^ Henry George Farmer (1947): A History of Music in Scotland London, 1947 p. 202.
  4. ^ Caldwell, D.H. (ed). Angels Nobles and Unicorns: Art and Patronage in Medieval Scotland. Edinburgh: NMS, 1982
  • Emmerson, George S. Rantin' Pipe and Tremblin' String - history of Scottish dance music. Second edition 1988. Galt House, London, Ontario, Canada. ISBN 0-9690653-3-7
  • Eydmann, Stuart "The concertina as an emblem of the folk music revival in the British Isles." 1995. British Journal of Ethnomusicology 4: 41-49.
  • Eydmann, Stuart "As Common as Blackberries: The First Hundred Years of the Accordion in Scotland." 1999. Folk Music Journal 7 No. 5 pp.565-608.
  • Eydmann, Stuart "From the "Wee Melodeon" to the "Big Box": The Accordion in Scotland since 1945." The Accordion in all its Guises, 2001. Musical Performance Volume 3 Parts 2 - 4 pp.107-125.
  • Eydmann, Stuart The Life and Times of the Concertina: the adoption and usage of a novel musical instrument with particular reference to Scotland. PhD Thesis, The Open University 1995 published online at www.concertina.com/eydmann [1]
  • Hardie, Alastair J. The Caledonian Companion - A Collection of Scottish Fiddle Music and Guide to its Performance. 1992. The Hardie Press, Edinburgh. ISBN 0-946868-08-5
  • Heywood, Pete and Colin Irwin. "From Strathspeys to Acid Croft". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, pp 261-272. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0
  • Gilchrist, Jim. "Scotland". 2001. In Mathieson, Kenny (Ed.), Celtic music, pp. 54-87. Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-623-8

See also

RSAMD The Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama (RSAMD), founded in 1845 by the Glasgow Educational Association, is a university of music and drama in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Hector the Hero is a classic lament penned by Scottish composer and fiddler James Scott Skinner in 1903. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Temple Records is a record label founded in 1978 by Robin Morton, previously a member of The Boys of the Lough. ... Scottish Baroque music is a style of music that combines features of traditional Scottish music and European classical music. ...

External links

  • Five Centuries of Scottish Music a high-quality, free digital resource hosted by AHDS Performing Arts.
  • BBC Radio Scotland online radio: folk music on Travelling Folk, bagpipe music on Pipeline, country dance music on Reel Blend and Take the Floor. (Realplayer plugin required)
  • Scottish Music Centre music archive and information resource.
  • Scottish Music blog.
  • Scottish Music - Music In Scotland A Gateway to Scotland's music - Artist information, sound clips, downloads, CD information, DVDs
  • Sound clips, tracklistings and information on Scottish CDs
  • Temple Records Traditional Scottish record company established in 1978
  • CCUSA-Northeast Region The listing for Scottish, Irish,and Celtic concerts and tours for the Northeast United States and Eastern Canada

  Results from FactBites:
 
Music of Scotland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2289 words)
Scottish traditional music, although influencing and being influenced by both Irish traditional music and English traditional music, is very much a creature unto itself, and, despite the popularity of various international pop music forms, remains a vital and living tradition.
The history of the guitar in traditional music is recent; equally so is that of the cittern and bouzouki, which in the forms used in Scottish and Irish music only date to the late 1960s.
Music had long been primarily a solo affair, until The Clutha, a Glasgow-based group, began solidifying the idea of a Celtic band, which eventually consisted of fiddle or pipes leading the melody, and bouzouki and guitar along with the vocals.
Early and traditional music in Scotland (362 words)
There's more documentation on music in Scotland back through the centuries than there is in Ireland.
Politically, Scotland maintained "the Auld Alliance" with France against England, which resulted in a strong French influence at the Scottish court.
Scotland remained nominally independent for about another century, when it was absorbed into the United Kingdom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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