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Encyclopedia > Music of Jamaica
Music of Jamaica

Kumina - Niyabinghi - Mento - Ska - Rocksteady - Reggae - Sound systems - Lovers Rock - Dub - Dancehall - Dub poetry - Toasting - Raggamuffin - Roots reggae Kumina is both the religion and the music practiced by the people of eastern Jamaica. ... Niyabinghi chanting typically includes recitation of the Psalms, but may also include variations of well-known Christian hymns. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... For other uses, see SKA (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... In the context of Jamaican popular culture, a sound system is a group of disc jockeys, engineers and MCs playing ska, rocksteady or reggae music. ... Lovers Rock is the United Kingdoms main contribution to reggae. ... For other uses, see Dub. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Roots reggae is a spiritual Rastafari subgenre of reggae music with lyrics that often include praise for Jah Ras Tafari Makonnen, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia; the Emperor of Ethiopia. ...

Anglophone Caribbean music
Anguilla - Antigua and Barbuda - Bahamas - Barbados - Bermuda - Caymans - Grenada - Jamaica - Montserrat - St. Kitts and Nevis - St. Vincent and the Grenadines - Trinidad and Tobago - Turks and Caicos - Virgin Islands
Sound samples
Other Caribbean music
Aruba and the Dutch Antilles - Cuba - Dominica - Dominican Republic - Haiti - Hawaii - Martinique and Guadeloupe - Puerto Rico - St. Lucia - United States - United Kingdom

Jamaica is the birthplace of many popular musical genres, the most well known of which is reggae but also including raggamuffin, ska and dub music. Jamaica's music culture is a fusion of elements from the United States of America with its R&B, rock and roll, soul, Africa and neighbouring Caribbean islands such as Trinidad with its calypso. Jamaica's music has become popular across much of the world. Reggae is especially popular through the international fame of Bob Marley. Jamaican music has also had an effect on the musical development of other countries, such as the practice of toasting, which was brought to New York City and became rapping, one of the four elements of hip hop culture. British styles as Lovers rock and jungle music also originate in Jamaican music. The Cayman Islands are a Caribbean island chain, currently a territory of the United Kingdom. ... Timeline and Samples Pop genres Calypso - Chutney - Dancehall - Dub - Junkanoo - Ragga - Rapso - Reggae - Ripsaw - Rocksteady - Scratch - Ska - Soca - Spouge - Steelpan Other islands Aruba and the Dutch Antilles - Cuba - Dominica - Dominican Republic - Haiti - Martinique and Guadeloupe - Puerto Rico - Saint Lucia The Turks and Caicos Islands are an overseas dependency of the... 1966 in music Download sample of Alton Ellis rocksteady track Girl Youve Got a Date. Download sample of Cincinatti Kid by Prince Buster, a legendary ska artist. ... Aruba and the five main islands of the Netherlands Antilles are part of the Lesser Antilles island chain. ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ... The former French colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe are small islands in the Caribbean. ... Musical genres are categories which contain music which share a certain style or which have certain elements in common. ... Raggamuffin (or ragga) is a kind of reggae that includes digitized backing instrumentation. ... For other uses, see SKA (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dub. ... Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad at about the start of the 20th century. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Rap redirects here. ... Hip hop is a subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa. ... Lovers Rock is the United Kingdoms main contribution to reggae. ... Ragga jungle is the name given to a substyle of Jungle that emerged circa 1991-1992, with artists such as the Ragga Twins, Rebel MC and Genaside II, and has heavy influences from ragga, roots reggae and dancehall. ...

Contents

Early 20th century

Junkanoo, (a type of folk music now more closely associated with The Bahamas) and work songs were the primary forms of Jamaican music at the beginning of the 20th century. These were synthesized into mento music, which spread across the island. Mento was the first style of Jamaican music to be recorded. Jamaicans love their music Junkanoo is a street parade with music, which occurs in many towns across the Bahamas every Boxing Day (December 26) and New Years Day. ... Folk song redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ...


Mento

Mento was recorded in the 1960s due to the efforts of Stanley Motta, who noted the similarities between Jamaican folk and Trinidadian calypso, which was currently finding international audiences. While mento never found a large international audience as calypso had, some of these recordings, such as by Count Lasher, Lord Composer and George Moxey, are now widely-respected legends of Jamaican music. Though it has largely been supplanted by successors like reggae and dub, mento is still performed, recorded, and released internationally by traditionalist performers like the Jolly Boys. Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad at about the start of the 20th century. ... The Jolly Boys are a musical ensemble from Jamaica. ...


Sound systems

In Kingston mobile sound systems began to grow up in the late forties who would play American hits. Some of the major figures of the Jamaican music scene came to the fore in association with sound systems during this period, including Duke Reid, Prince Buster and Sir Coxsone. In 1958 due to a shortage of new material the first local R&B bands, most influentially the duo Higgs and Wilson (with Joe Higgs and Delroy Wilson), began recording to fulfil the local demand for new music. The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... A reggae sound system is a group of disc jockeys, engineers and MCs playing reggae music. ... Duke Reid was a Jamaican record producer, DJ and label owner. ... Cecil Bustamente Campbell (born May 28, 1938), better known as Prince Buster, is a musician from Kingston, Jamaica and regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of ska and rocksteady music. ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (January 26, 1932 - May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ... Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... Higgs and Wilson were a Jamaican singing duo consisting of Joe Higgs and Delroy Wilson (aka Roy Wilson). ... Joe Higgs singing Theres a reward Joe Higgs (June 3, 1940 – December 18, 1999) was a reggae musician from Jamaica. ... Delroy Wilson (5 October 1948-6 March 1995) was a Jamaican ska, rock steady and reggae singer. ...


Rupert E. Brown was the original owner of the "King Attarney" Sound System. His sound was number 1 from 1975 to 1976. His exclusive album was "Dubbing to the King In A Higher Rank" The DJ Sound crew that worked for King Attarney was Danny Dread, U-Roy, and Ranking Trevor.


Ska

Main article: ska

By 1964, a distinctive Jamaican music had sprung up based around the sound systems called ska, which was fast and danceable. However, Manny-O" by Joe Higgs (1958), Easy Snapping by Theophilus Beckford (1959), and "Oh! Carolina" by the Folkes Brothers (1960) were some of the first songs identified as ska. Simmer Down, also a huge ska hit, was recorded by the Wailers in 1963. [1] [2] For other uses, see SKA (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see SKA (disambiguation). ... Simmer Down was the second single released by Bob Marley and the Wailers (Peter Tosh & Bunny Livingstone). ...


At first primarily instrumental, ska's rhythms generally didn't lend well to vocal stylings, though some popular artists such as The Maytals and The Wailers Desmond Decker and the Aces, Toots Hibert got their start by singing in this style. Frederick Toots Hibbert and the Maytals are considered legends of reggae and ska music. ... The Wailers was a ska, rocksteady and reggae group formed in Kingston, Jamaica in 1963, consisting of Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, Bunny Livingston (aka Bunny Wailer), Bob Marley, Peter McIntosh (aka Peter Tosh), and Cherry Smith. ...


Some of ska's fans were "Rude Boys", the local name for gangsters and petty thieves. Rude boys were anything from fashionable poseurs to hard-edged, misogynist thugs with nothing to lose in Jamaica's post-independence economic depression. Rude boys brought controversy to the ska scene. Rude boy, rudie, rudi or rudy is a subculture that developed in the early 1960s on Jamaica and has close ties to skinhead culture. ...


1960s

During the 1960s, ska, rocksteady and reggae emerged on the Jamaican musical scene. Perhaps the best-known of the original ska wave were The Skatalites, whose career spanned decades and transcended Jamaican musical genres. Their music launched the careers of Tommy McCook, virtuoso trombonist Don Drummond and tenor saxophonist, and fellow Alpha Boys School graduates Rolando Alphonso, Roland Alphonso, Jackie Mittoo, and Lester Sterling. [3]. The Skatalites is a Jamaican music group that played a major role in popularising ska, the first truly Jamaican music created by fusing boogie-woogie blues, rhythm and blues, jazz, mento, calypso, and African rhythms. ... Tommy McCook (27 March 1927, Havana, Cuba-4 May 1998) was a Jamaican saxophonist. ... Don Drummond (1932-1969) was a famous ska trombonist and composer. ... Cover of the 1973 Studio One compilation Best of Rolando Alphonso Roland Alphonso or Rolando Alphonso aka The Chief Musician (January 12, 1931, Havana, Cuba - November 20, 1998, Los Angeles, California, USA) was a Jamaican tenor saxophonist. ... Cover of the 1973 Studio One compilation Best of Rolando Alphonso Roland Alphonso or Rolando Alphonso aka The Chief Musician (January 12, 1931 in Havana, Cuba-November 20, 1998 in Brooklyn, New York, USA) was Jamaican tenor saxophonist. ... Jackie Mittoo (March 3, 1948–December 16, 1990), born in Browns Town, Saint Ann, Jamaica), was a Jamaican pianist. ... Lester Sterling, a founder memeber of the Skatalies, is commonly overshadowed by fellow band memembers such as Tommy McCook, Jackie Mittoo and Don Drummond. ...


One cannot underestimate the pivotal role that the live bands that toured the hotel circuit played in the evolution of Jamaican music. For decades, mento bands have toured the big hotels in Jamaica. [4] In addition to the sound systems, live touring bands have launched the careers of many ska, rock steady and reggae artists. Tommy McCook had been part of the band of Aubrey Adams based at the Courtleigh Manor hotel in Kingston before becoming one of the founding members of the Skattalites. [5] Drummer Lloyd Knibb, also of Skattalite fame, had done the hotel circuit playing ofr the Val Bennett, Len Hibbert and Cecil Lloyd bands. [6] "According to Jamaican musical pioneers E. T. Webster (known as Errol T.), [7] Allie McNab, [8] and Bob Williams, lead singer for the popular Jamaican 60s duo Bob and Wisdom, [9], drummer Everton Paul, [10] and Cat Coore of the internationally known reggae band Third World (band), [11] during the 1960s, one of the most successful musical groups in Jamaica was Billy Vernon and the Celestials, the resident band at the "Yellow Bird Club" in Montego Bay which toured many of the island's leading hotels. Their work was a blend of ska, mento, jump up and featured hits such as "Ska Suzanna," "Yellow Bird," and "Wings Of A Dove". A number of artists including "Errol "E.T." Webster," also known as "Errol T," [12] got their start in the music business with Billy Vernon and the Celestials." Tommy McCook (27 March 1927, Havana, Cuba-4 May 1998) was a Jamaican saxophonist. ... Llloyd Knibb (born 8 March 1931) is a Jamaican musician who started his career in the Ska era. ... Third World is a Jamaican reggae band formed in 1973. ... For the song Yellow Bird, see Choucoune (song). ... For the country song, see Bob Ferguson Wings of a Dove (also known as Wings of a Dove (A Celebratory Song)) is a song by Madness. ...


In 1963, a young Chris Blackwell brought teenage singing sensation Millie Small to Great Britain. She exploded on the scene with My Boy Lolliop, which climbed the charts to #2 in both Great Britain and the United States. [13] This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Millie Small (born October 4, 1946 Clarendon, Jamaica), is famous for her 1964 hit single, a cover version of Barbie Gayes My Boy Lollipop. Categories: Musician stubs | Jamaican musicians | First-wave ska groups ...


DJs

Along with the meteoric rise of ska came the popularity of DJs like Sir Lord Comic, King Stitt and pioneer Count Matchuki, who began talking stylistically over the rhythms of popular songs at sound systems. In Jamaican music, the DJ is the one who talks (known elsewhere as the MC) and the selector is the person who chooses the records. The popularity of DJs as an essential component of the sound system created a need for instrumental songs, as well as instrumental versions of popular vocal songs. From this arose the dub, originally an instrumental version of a vocal song, with the vocal version on the A-side and the dub on the B-side of a single. This trend began the development of dub music as a distinct genre, popular in its own right. Another DJ name not to be forgotten includes Yellowman. For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... King Stitt compiled by Jamaican Gold King Stitt born Winston Cooper or Winston Sparkes (b. ... Rap redirects here. ... A selector can be: a Reggae DJ (who selects music to play). ... For other uses, see Dub. ... Yellowman (born Winston Foster in Negril, Jamaica in 1959) is a Jamaican ragga and dancehall deejay. ...


Island Records

Chris Blackwell's Island Records became the biggest label promoting Jamaican music to the international market. Due to affiliation with the record industry in the UK and First world funding, Island had the distribution to vastly increase exposure of reggae to the global pop market, especially in the UK where a significant population of Jamaican expatriates had relocated on the invitation of the British government. Essentially, the British economy suffered greatly after the war therefore the support of Jamaican expatriates was essential for the revival of the economy. Blackwell's group of artists included Millie Small, singer of the first major Jamaican music UK radio hit, 1964's "My Boy Lollipop" which settled high in the British music charts. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Island Records is a record label that was founded by British record producers in Jamaica. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... Millie Small (born October 4, 1946 Clarendon, Jamaica), is famous for her 1964 hit single, a cover version of Barbie Gayes My Boy Lollipop. Categories: Musician stubs | Jamaican musicians | First-wave ska groups ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Rastafarian Influences

Ska's popularity grew steadily in Jamaica, alongside Rastafarianism, which spread rapidly in impoverished urban areas and among the often politically radical music scene. The lyrics of ska songs began to focus on Rastafarian themes; slower beats and chants entered the music from religious Rastafarian music, and ska soon evolved into rocksteady. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Rocksteady

Rocksteady was the music of Jamaica's rude boys by the mid-1960s, when The Wailers and The Clarendonians dominated the charts, taking over from pioneers like Alton Ellis (who is believed to have invented rocksteady). Desmond Dekker's "007" brought international attention to the new urban beat. The mix put heavy emphasis on the bass line, as opposed to ska's strong horn section, and the rhythm guitar began playing on the up-beat. Session musicians like Supersonics, Soul Vendors, Jets and, most influentially, Jackie Mittoo (of the Skatalites) became legends during this period. The Wailers was a ska, rocksteady and reggae group formed in Kingston, Jamaica in 1963, consisting of Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, Bunny Livingston (aka Bunny Wailer), Bob Marley, Peter McIntosh (aka Peter Tosh), and Cherry Smith. ... Alton Ellis (born 1944), from Kingston, Jamaica, is a musician best known as the innovator of rocksteady music. ... Desmond Dekker (July 16, 1941 – May 25, 2006) was a Jamaican ska and reggae singer and songwriter. ... Rhythm guitar is a guitar that is primarily used to provide rhythmic and harmonic accompaniment for a singer or for other instruments in an ensemble. ... Jackie Mittoo (March 3, 1948–December 16, 1990), born in Browns Town, Saint Ann, Jamaica), was a Jamaican pianist. ...


Foundations of Dub

In the late 1960s, producers like King Tubby and Lee Perry began stripping the vocals away from tracks recorded for sound system parties. With the bare beats and bass playing and the lead instruments dropping in and out of the mix, DJs began toasting, or delivering humorous and often provoking jabs at fellow DJs and local celebrities. Over time, toasting became an increasingly complex activity, and became as big a draw as the dance beats played behind it. In the early 1970s, DJs such as DJ Kool Herc took the practice of toasting to New York, where it became a part of rapping. King Tubby King Tubby (born Osbourne Ruddock, January 28, 1941 – February 6, 1989) was a Jamaican electronics and sound engineer, known primarily for his influence on the development of dub in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Lee Scratch Perry, The Upsetter in Dub Lee Scratch Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry March 20, 1936) is one of the most influential people in the development of reggae and dub music in Jamaica. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... Rap redirects here. ...


1970s: Dub and reggae

By the early 1970s, rocksteady had evolved into reggae music. The style of music at the time was termed roots reggae. It combines elements from American soul music with the traditional shuffle and one-drop of Jamaican mento. Reggae quickly became popular around the world, due in large part to the international success of artists like Bob Marley & the Wailers, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer. Marley was viewed as a Rastafarian messianic figure by some fans, particularly throughout the Caribbean, Africa, and among Native Americans and Australian Aborigines. His lyrics about love, redemption and natural beauty captivated audiences, and he gained headlines for negotiating truces between the two opposing Jamaican political parties (at the One Love Concert), led by Michael Manley (PNP) and Edward Seaga (JLP). Reggae music was intricately tied to the expansion of the Rastafarian religion, and its principles of pacifism and pan-Africanism. Musicians like Gregory Isaacs, The Congos and Burning Spear — and producers like Lee "Scratch" Perry — solidified the early sound of reggae. Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Roots reggae is a spiritual Rastafari subgenre of reggae music with lyrics that often include praise for Jah Ras Tafari Makonnen, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia; the Emperor of Ethiopia. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... Bob Marley Robert Nesta Marley (February 6, 1945 - May 11, 1981), better known as Bob Marley, was a singer, guitarist, songwriter and Rastafarian from the ghettos of Jamaica. ... Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987[1]) was the guitarist in the original Wailing Wailers, a pioneer reggae musician, and a trailblazer for the Rastafari movement. ... Bunny Wailer, also known as Bunny Livingston (born April 10, 1947), was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement, or Rasta, is a cultural value system that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Australian Aborigines are the main indigenous people of Australia. ... Michael Norman Manley (December 10, 1924 – March 6, 1997) was the fifth Prime Minister of Jamaica (1972 – 1980, 1989 – 1992). ... The Peoples National Party (PNP) is a democratic socialist Jamaican political party, founded by Norman Manley in 1938. ... The Right Honourable Edward Philip George Seaga (born May 28, 1930) was Prime Minister of Jamaica for the Jamaica Labour Party from 1980 to 1989, and served as leader of the opposition 1989 to January 2005. ... The Jamaica Labour Party is a right-wing political party in Jamaica. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Gregory Isaacs is a Reggae singer, born on 15 July 1951 in Denham Town, Kingston, Jamaica. ... Heart of the Congos The Congos were the reggae duo Ashanti Roy Johnson tenor, and Cedric Myton falsetto, both born in 1947. ... Jah man! Winston Rodney (born March 1, 1948) a. ... Lee Scratch Perry Lee Scratch Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry, on March 20, 1936, in Kendal, Jamaica) is a reggae and dub artist, who has been highly influential in the development and acceptance of reggae and dub music in Jamaica and overseas. ...


By 1973, dub music had emerged as a distinct reggae genre, and heralded the dawn of the remix. Developed by record producers such as Lee "Scratch" Perry and King Tubby, dub featured previously-recorded songs remixed with prominence on the bass. Often the lead instruments and vocals would drop in and out of the mix, sometimes processed heavily with studio effects. King Tubby's advantage came from his intimate knowledge with audio gear, and his ability to build his own sound systems and recording studios that were superior to the competition. He became famous for his remixes of recordings made by others, as well as those he recorded in his own studio. Following in Tubby's footsteps came artists such as U-Roy and Big Youth, who used Rasta chants in songs. Until the end of the 1970s, Big Youth-inspired dub music with chanted vocals dominated Jamaican popular music. At the very end of the decade, dancehall artists like Ranking Joe, Lone Ranger and General Echo brought a return to U-Roy's style. For other uses, see Dub. ... A remix is an alternative version of a song, different from the original version. ... Lee Scratch Perry Lee Scratch Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry, on March 20, 1936, in Kendal, Jamaica) is a reggae and dub artist, who has been highly influential in the development and acceptance of reggae and dub music in Jamaica and overseas. ... King Tubby King Tubby (born Osbourne Ruddock, January 28, 1941 – February 6, 1989) was a Jamaican electronics and sound engineer, known primarily for his influence on the development of dub in the 1960s and 1970s. ... U-Roy (born Ewart Beckford September 21, 1942 in Jones Town, Jamaica, also known as The Originator, Hugh Roy) U-Roys musical career began in 1961 (see 1961 in music) when he began DJing at various sound systems, eventually working with King Tubby. ... Big Youth (Manley Augustus Buchanan) is a Jamaican DJ in the toasting tradition, mostly known for his albums during the 1970s. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... The Lone Ranger was an early, long-running radio and television show based on characters created by George W. Trendle of Detroit, Michigan and developed by writer Fran Stryker of Buffalo, New York. ...


Other popular music forms that arose during the period include: Briton Linton Kwesi Johnson's dub poetry; Sly & Robbie's rockers reggae, which drew on Augustus Pablo's melodica, becoming popular with artists such as The Mighty Diamonds and The Gladiators; Joe Gibbs' mellower rockers reggae, including music by Culture and Dennis Brown; Burning Spear's distinctive style, as represented by the albums Marcus Garvey and Man in the Hills; and harmonic, spiritually-oriented Rasta music like that of The Abyssinians, Black Uhuru and Third World. In 1975, Louisa Marks had a hit with "Caught You in a Lie", beginning a trend of British performers making romantic, ballad-oriented reggae called lovers rock. Linton Kwesi Johnson (aka LKJ) (born 24 August 1952, in Chapelton, Jamaica) is a British-based Dub poet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sly and Robbie are probably reggaes most prolific and long lasting production team. ... Reggae is a style of music developed in Jamaica and is closely linked to the Rastafarian religion, though not universally popular among them. ... Horace Swaby (June 21, 1954 – May 18, 1999), better known as Augustus Pablo, was a Jamaican roots reggae and dub record producer and keyboardist, active from the 1970s onwards. ... A Hohner melodica The melodica is a free-reed instrument similar to the accordion and harmonica. ... The Mighty Diamonds are a Jamaican harmony trio, recording roots reggae with a strong Rastafarian influence. ... The Gladiators is Jamaican reggae band. ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia article. ... Culture is a Jamaican roots rock reggae group founded in 1976. ... The Promised Land compiled by Blood and Fire Dennis Emanuel Brown (February 1, 1957 – July 1, 1999) was a Jamaican reggae singer. ... Jah man! Winston Rodney (born March 1, 1948) a. ... Marcus Garvey is an album by Burning Spear, released in 1975. ... Man in the Hills is a dub album by Jamaican musician Burning Spear (Winston Rodney), released in 1976 (see 1976 in music) on Island Records. ... The Abyssinians are a Jamaican reggae group in the roots reggae style, famous for their close harmonies and promotion of Rastafarianism in their lyrics. ... Black Uhuru is a Jamaican reggae band probably best known for their hits Shine Eye Gal, Guess Whos Coming to Dinner, Sinsemilla, Solidarity, and What Is Life?. They were the first group to win a Grammy in the reggae category when it was introduced in 1985. ... Third World is a Jamaican reggae band formed in 1973. ... Lovers Rock is the United Kingdoms main contribution to reggae. ...


1980s: Dancehall and ragga

During the 1980s, the most popular music styles in Jamaica were dancehall and ragga. Dancehall is essentially speechifying with musical accompaniment, including a basic drum beat (most often played on electric drums). Now the lyrics have moved away from the political and spiritual lyrics popular in the 1970s and concentrate more on less serious issues. Ragga is characterized by the use of computerized beats and sequenced melodic tracks. Ragga is usually said to have been invented with the song "Under Mi Sleng Teng" by Wayne Smith. Ragga barely edged out dancehall as the dominant form of Jamaican music in the 1980s. DJ Shabba Ranks and vocalist team Chaka Demus and Pliers proved more enduring than the competition, and helped inspire an updated version of the rude boy culture called raggamuffin. Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sleng Teng is the name given to the first fully computerised riddim(rhythm) in Jamaican music. ... Wayne Smith (born in Waterhouse, Kingston, Jamaica, on December 5, 1965) is a Jamaican reggae musician. ... Shabba Ranks (born Rexton Rawlston Fernando Gordon, 17 January 1966, Sturgetown, St Anns, Jamaica) is a Jamaican dancehall recording artist. ... Chaka Demus is a Reggae musician. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Raggamuffin (or ragga) is a kind of reggae that includes digitized backing instrumentation. ...


Dancehall was sometimes violent in lyrical content, and several rival performers made headlines with their feuds across Jamaica (most notably Beenie Man versus Bounty Killer). Dancehall emerged from pioneering recordings in the late 1970s by Barrington Levy, with Roots Radics backing and Junjo Lawes as producer. The Roots Radics were the pre-eminent backing band for the dancehall style. Yellowman, Ini Kamoze, Charlie Chaplin and General Echo helped popularize the style along with producers like Sugar Minott. Beenie Man (born Anthony Moses Davis August 22, 1973 in Kingston, Jamaica), is among the most popular reggae entertainers and is a well established dancehall artist. ... Bounty Killer (born Rodney Basil Price June 12, 1972 in Kingston, Jamaica) is a Jamaican reggae and dancehall deejay, known for his hard work in combating poverty and helping new artists. ... Barrington Levy (born 30 April 1964, in Clarendon, Jamaica) is a reggae and dancehall recording artist. ... The Roots Radics Band was formed in 1978 when bass player Flabba Holt joined forces with the now late guitarist Bingy Bunny. ... Yellowman (born Winston Foster in Negril, Jamaica in 1959) is a Jamaican ragga and dancehall deejay. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gene Chaplin (unrelated to the creat comedian of the same name) is a Jamaican dancehall and ragga singer. ... Sugar Minnott (born May 25, 1956) is a Jamaican singer. ...


The 1980s saw a rise in reggae music from outside of Jamaica. The UK has long been a hotbed of Jamaican culture. Reggae and ska had a massive influence on British Punk rock bands of the 1970s and 1980s, such as The Clash, Elvis Costello and the Attractions, The Police, The Slits, and The Ruts. Ska copycat bands such as The Specials and Madness helped revive the music. During this time, reggae particularly influenced African popular music, where Sonny Okusuns (Nigeria), John Chibadura (Zimbabwe), Lucky Dube (South Africa) and Alpha Blondy (Ivory Coast) became stars. The 1980s saw the end of the dub era in Jamaica, though dub has remained a popular and influential style in the UK ,and to a lesser extent throughout Europe and the US. Dub in the 1980s and 1990s has merged with electronic music. Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... This article is about the English rock band. ... Elvis Costello (born Declan Patrick McManus August 25, 1954) is an English musician, singer, and songwriter. ... This article is about the rock band. ... The Slits are an all female punk rock band. ... The Ruts The Ruts were a reggae-influenced British punk band notable for the 1979 top 10 hit Babylons Burning (right). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Madness are a British pop/ska band from Camden Town, London, that formed in 1976. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Lucky Philip Dube (pronounced doo-bay)[1] (August 3, 1964 – October 18, 2007) was a South African reggae musician. ... Alpha Blondy (born Seydou Koné on January 1, 1953 in Dimbokoro, Côte dIvoire, West Africa), is an Ivoirian Reggae singer and a major International Recording Artist. ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ...


1990s and 2000s

Variations of dancehall continued in popularity into the mid-1990s. Some of the earlier performers of the previous decade converted to Rastafarianism, and changed their lyrical content. Artists like Buju Banton (Till Shiloh) experienced significant crossover success in foreign markets, while Beenie Man, Bounty Killer and others developed a sizable North American following, due to their frequent guest spots on albums by gangsta rappers like Wu-Tang Clan and Jay-Z. Some ragga musicians, including Beenie Man, Shabba Ranks and Capleton, publicly converted to a new lyrical style. In the hope that his new style of lyrics would not offend any one particular social group. [citation needed] Other trends included minimalist digital tracks, which began with Dave Kelly's "Pepper Seed" in 1995, alongside the return of love balladeers like Beres Hammond. American, British, and European electronic musicians used reggae-oriented beats to create further hybrid electronic music styles. Dub, world music, and electronic music continue to influence and create new subgenres into the 2000s. Boobs Banton (performing at Ilosaarirock, 2006) Boobs Banton (born Mark Anthony Myrie 1972) is a Jamaican dancehall, ragga, and reggae singer & producer. ... Til Shiloh is a dancehall style reggae album by Jamaican dancehall musician Buju Banton, released in 1995 on Loos Cannon Records (see 1995 in music). ... Beenie Man (born Anthony Moses Davis August 22, 1973 in Kingston, Jamaica), is among the most popular reggae entertainers and is a well established dancehall artist. ... Bounty Killer (born Rodney Basil Price June 12, 1972 in Kingston, Jamaica) is a Jamaican reggae and dancehall deejay, known for his hard work in combating poverty and helping new artists. ... For the Ice T album, see Gangsta Rap (album). ... Wu-Tang redirects here. ... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shabba Ranks (born Rexton Rawlston Fernando Gordon, 17 January 1966, Sturgetown, St Anns, Jamaica) is a Jamaican dancehall recording artist. ... | Died = | Origin = [imortal[Image:Flag of Jamaica. ... Dave Kelly is one of the current co-hosts of Citytv Calgarys Breakfast Television. ... Beres Hammond (b. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ...


Non-Rastafarian Jamaican religious music

See also: Religious music

The Bongo Nation is a distinct group of Jamaicans possibly descended from the Congo. They are known for Kumina, which refers to both a religion and a form of music. Kumina’s distinctive drumming style became one of the roots of Rastafarian drumming, itself the source of the distinctive Jamaican rhythm heard in ska, rocksteady and reggae. The modern intertwining of Jamaican religion and music can be traced back to the 1860s, when the Pocomania and Revival Zion churches drew on African traditions, and incorporated music into almost every facet of worship. Later, this trend spread into Hindu communities, resulting in baccra music. The spread of Rastafarianism into urban Jamaica in the 1960s transformed the Jamaican music scene, which incorporated drumming (played at grounation ceremonies) and which has led to todays popular music. Many of the above mentioned music and dance have been stylised by the internationally world famous (NDTC) National dance theatre company of Jamaica Led by Prof. Rex Nettleford artistic director (ret, prof and vice chancellor of The University of the West Indies) and Marjorie Whyle Musical Director (Caribbean Musicologist, pianist, drummer, arranger lecturer at the University of the West Indies). Since 1962 this voluntary company of dancers and musicians have had many of these dances in its core repoitre and have performed world wide to large audiences including The British Royal family. Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. ... Kumina is both the religion and the music practiced by the people of eastern Jamaica. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ...


Footnotes

References

  • Manuel, Peter, with Kenneth Bilby and Michael Largey. Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae (2nd edition). Temple University Press, 2006. ISBN 1-59213-463-7. 
  • Mthembu-Salter, Gregory and Peter Dalton. "The Loudest Island in the World". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 430-456. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0
  • Mthembu-Salter, Gregory and Peter Dalton. "Lovers and Poets -- Babylon Sounds". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 457-462. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0
  • O'Brien Chang, Kevin and Wayne Chen. Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music. Temple University Press. Philadelphia.
  • Jahn, Brian and Tom Weber. Reggae Island: Jamaican Music in the Digital Age. Da Capo Press. Kingston. ISBN 0-306-80853-6
  • Pogus Caesar photographs of Jamaican singers, producers, dj's - Muzik Kinda Sweet exhibition http://www.oomgallery.net/gallery.asp?location=6&c=251

External links

Caribbean music

Bahamas | Bermuda | Cayman Islands | Cuba | Dominican Republic
Haiti | Jamaica | Lesser Antilles | Puerto Rico | Turks and Caicos Islands The music of the Caribbean is a diverse grouping of musical genres. ... The music of the Lesser Antilles encompasses the music of this chain of small islands making up the eastern and southern portion of the West Indies. ...

Ska

Mento - Calypso - Jazz - R&B - Rocksteady - Reggae - 2 Tone - Third wave ska - Ska jazz - Ska punk - J-ska - List of ska musicians - Music of Jamaica - Caribbean music genres - Caribbean music in the UK - Culture of Jamaica - Dancehall (venue) - Skank (dance) - Sound system (Jamaican) - Toasting - Jamaican record producers - Studio One - Trojan Records - Blue Beat Records - 2 Tone Records - Moon Ska Records - Asian Man Records
Rude boy - Mod - Skinhead - Trojan skinhead - Suedehead - Scooterboy
Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... For other uses, see SKA (disambiguation). ... Blue Beat Records was a record label that released Jamaican rhythm & blues and ska music in the United Kingdom in the early and mid 1960s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Dub. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Lovers Rock is the United Kingdoms main contribution to reggae. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Reggae rock is a fusion genre that combines elements of reggae and rock music to varying degrees. ... Daddy Yankee, a reggaeton artist. ... Roots reggae is a spiritual Rastafari subgenre of reggae music with lyrics that often include praise for Jah Ras Tafari Makonnen, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia; the Emperor of Ethiopia. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The term reggae, in a proper sense, only covers the period in Jamaican music from 1969 to 1979 (or 1985 depending on opinion). ... Jamaican music in the United Kingdom // White Reggae White reggae has very low artistic credibility, but it laid a path for genuine reggae in Britain. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement, or Rasta, is a cultural value system that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... Rastaman with long locks Dreadlocks, sometimes called simply locks or dreads, are matted ropes of hair which will form by themselves if the hair is allowed to grow naturally without the use of brushes, combs, razors or scissors for a long period of time. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Skinheads, named for their close-cropped or shaven heads, are a working-class subculture that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s, and then spread to other parts of the world. ... Suedehead was an early-1970s offshoot of the skinhead subculture in the United Kingdom. ... The dance halls of Jamaica in the 1950s and 60s were home to public dances usually targeted at younger patrons. ... A dubplate is an acetate disc — usually 12 inches, 10 inches or 7 inches in diameter — used in mastering studios for quality control and test recordings before proceeding with the final master, and subsequent pressing of the record to be mass produced on vinyl. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In the context of Jamaican popular culture, a sound system is a group of disc jockeys, engineers and MCs playing ska, rocksteady or reggae music. ... A sound system is a group of DJs and engineers contributing and working together as one, often playing and producing one particular kind of music. ... A riddim is a rhythm pattern consisting basically of a drum pattern and a prominent bassline. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Studio One is one of reggaes most renowned record labels and recording studios, having been described as the Motown of Jamaica. ... Trojan Records Trojan Records is a label specialising in ska,rocksteady,reggae and dub music. ... Island Records is a record label that was founded by British record producers in Jamaica. ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (Kingston, Jamaica, January 26, 1932 – May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of Reggae musicians. ... Dub music is a form of reggae which developed in the early 1970s. ... Chris Blackwell Lloyd Barnes Richard Browne Clive Chin Lloyd Daley Clement Dodd Clancy Eccles Rupie Edwards Roy Francis Boris Gardiner Joe Gibbs (record producer) Jeremy Harding Derrick Harriott Harry Johnson Niney the Observer Joseph Hoo Kim Keith Hudson Clive Hunt King Jammy Tony CD Kelly Dave Kelly King Tubby Leslie... For other uses, see SKA (disambiguation). ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad at about the start of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rhythm and blues (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Third wave ska is a music genre derived from the fusion of Jamaican ska with various American and British styles of music, such as 2 Tone, rock music, punk rock, pop punk, hardcore and jazz. ... Ska jazz is a musical form derived by combining the melodic content of jazz with the rhythmical and harmonic content of ska. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Japanese ska or J-ska is ska (スカ) or ska punk music made in Japan by Japanese artists with lyrics in the Japanese language or in English. ... This is a list of notable bands and soloists who have performed ska or ska-influenced music at some point in their careers. ... The music of the Caribbean is a diverse grouping of musical genres. ... Jamaican music in the United Kingdom // White Reggae White reggae has very low artistic credibility, but it laid a path for genuine reggae in Britain. ... Jamaican culture represents a rich blend of cultures that have inhabited the island. ... The dance halls of Jamaica in the 1950s and 60s were home to public dances usually targeted at younger patrons. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the context of Jamaican popular culture, a sound system is a group of disc jockeys, engineers and MCs playing ska, rocksteady or reggae music. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Chris Blackwell Lloyd Barnes Richard Browne Clive Chin Lloyd Daley Clement Dodd Clancy Eccles Rupie Edwards Roy Francis Boris Gardiner Joe Gibbs (record producer) Jeremy Harding Derrick Harriott Harry Johnson Niney the Observer Joseph Hoo Kim Keith Hudson Clive Hunt King Jammy Tony CD Kelly Dave Kelly King Tubby Leslie... Studio One is one of reggaes most renowned record labels and recording studios, having been described as the Motown of Jamaica. ... Trojan Records Trojan Records is a label specialising in ska,rocksteady,reggae and dub music. ... Blue Beat Records was a record label that released Jamaican rhythm & blues and ska music in the United Kingdom in the early and mid 1960s. ... 2 Tone Records was a British record label which released ska and reggae influenced music with a punk overtone. ... Moon Ska Records was one of the most influential ska record labels of the 1980s and 1990s. ... Asian Mans Logo resembling the South Korean flag Asian Man Records is a small, DIY record label run by Mike Park out of his parents garage in Monte Sereno, California. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Skinheads, named for their close-cropped or shaven heads, are a working-class subculture that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s, and then spread to other parts of the world. ... Trojan Skinhead is a subculture of skinheads who identify themselves with the subcultures heyday in 1969 when ska music was at its most popular, and with the cults multicultural Jamaican and British working class roots (called The Spirit of 69). Bands/artists The Ethiopians Judge Dread Laurel Aitken... Suedehead was an early-1970s offshoot of the skinhead subculture in the United Kingdom. ... Originating in the United Kingdom in the 1980s, scooterboy culture emerged from mods and skinheads, although it became a distinct and separate subculture. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Music of Jamaica (2193 words)
Jamaica's music culture is a fusion of elements from the United States of America with its R&B, rock and roll, soul, Africa and neighbouring Caribbean islands such as Trinidad with its calypso.
Jamaican music has also had an effect on the musical development of other countries, such as the practice of toasting, which was brought to New York City and became rapping, one of the four elements of hip hop.
Reggae music was intricately tied to the expansion of Rastafarian religion with its principles of pacifism, Zionism, and pan-Africanism.
Jamaica Gleaner - 'Music is ...' beautiful - Wednesday | August 24, 2005 (512 words)
'Music is...', the title of the UWI Panoridim Steel Orchestra's Panfest 2005, ended with a deserved standing ovation, foot stomps on the wooden flooring and chants for 'more, more' on Sunday night on the Mona Campus, St. Andrew.
The chain from which 16 musical pendants dangled was narrator Rosemarie Murray, who was a patron at a jazz club before the cool jazz of 'Sermonette', a 'roots' woman for Bob Marley's 'Is This Love' and a happy-go-lucky Carnival reveller before the closing 'Dead or Alive'.
The action was staged against a backdrop with changing images to reflect the music, with Sizzla and Marley larger than life where required, and the theme of the concert set against vinyl records, members of the band and carnival revellers where required.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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