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Encyclopedia > Music of Iran
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Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum.

The music of Iran has thousands of years of history dating back to the Neolithic age, as seen in the archeological evidence of Elam, one of the earliest world civilizations, which was located in southwestern Iran. A distinction needs to be made between the science of Music or Musicology which as a branch of mathematics has always been held in high regards in Iran; as opposed to Music performance, (Tarab, Navakhteh, Tasneef, Taraneh or more recently Muzik) which has had an uneasy and often acrimonious relationship with the religious authorities and, in times of religious revival, with society as a whole. Image File history File linksMetadata Persian_art_collage. ... The Iranian Cultural Continent - consisting of the modern nations Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and surrounding regions - is home to one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stone masonry. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Persian painting has several branches, most famously the classical art of the Persian miniature, and including the modern popular form of Qahveh Khanehei Painting (Tea House style of painting). ... The themes of Persian miniature are mostly related to the Persian mythology and poetry. ... The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ... Iran (Persia) possesses an extraordinary treasure of royal jewelry including the mothers-of-pearl caught in the Persian Gulf. ... Persian embroidery is one of the many forms of the multi-faceted Persian arts. ... Persia (Iran) has an ancient tradition of its own design of motifs. ... Pottery Vessel, Fourth Millennium BCE. The Sialk collection of Tehrans National Museum of Iran. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iranian cuisine. ... The Persian carpet (Pahlavi bōb[1] Persian farÅ¡ فرش, meaning to spread and Arabic qāli, Turkish hali)[2] is an essential part of Persian art and culture. ... Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia, modernday Iran. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The cinema of Iran (or Persian cinema) is a flourishing film industry with a long history. ... Figurines playing the ancestor of the guitar. ... Figurines playing the ancestor of the guitar. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ...

Contents

The Position of Music Performance in Iranian Culture

The ambivalence of Iranian culture towards music may be seen in the context of what Darius Shayan has termed cultural schizophrenia: the contradictory nature of the two sources of Iranian culture, ancient Persia and Islam. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


In ancient Persia musicians held socially respectable positions. We know that the Elamites and the Achemenians certainly made use of musicians but we can not guess what that music might have been like. During the Parthian era, troubadours or Gosans were highly sought after as entertainers. There are theories in Academia that perhaps the early Dari Poets of Eastern Iran like Roudaki were in fact Gosans. Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Dari is a term used to denote one of several closely related Persian dialects spoken in what used to be Greater Khorasan: The official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan; see Dari (Afghanistan) One name used by Zoroastrians (the others being Gabri and Yazdi) to refer to the Northwestern... Rudaki depicted as a blind poet, here on this Iranian stamp. ...


By the time the Sassanids came to power, the position of the Musicians was so exalted that it is only them, amongst all practitioners of fine arts, whose names have come down to the present in numbers. We may know that Mani was a painter or Burzoe was a literary as well as a medical figure but these names have survived for reasons other than their arts. We may know Farhad was a famous sculptor but only because he had pursued a love affair with the Queen. The names of famous musicians, as well as the nature of their fame have come down to us. Amongst the master musicians Barbad, Sarkad, Ramtin and Nakissa there was fierce rivalry during the reign of Khosroe Parveez. Barbad invented the lute and the musical traditions that was to transform into the Maqam tradition and eventually the Dastgah music. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Barbod or Barbod the Great was the court musician of the Sassanid Empire. ... Sarkash is the least renowned of the three most influential musicians of the Sassanids. ... Nakisa (fl. ... A medieval era lute. ...


Even after Islam Persian Musicians did not disappear: Zaryab is often credited with being the greatest influence over Andalusian and Spanish music. [1] Farabi and Avicenna were not only musical theorist but adept at the lute and the Ney respectively. However, late Medieval and modern Islam viewed music with suspicion. Zyriab (789- 857) (Zorab in Kurdish) was a poet and musician. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ...


Traditional Hierarchies of Authenticity and Value

Musicians playing traditional Iranian classical chamber music.
Musicians playing traditional Iranian classical chamber music.
Taq-e Bostan carving, Women playing harp while the king is hunting, 6th century AD.
Taq-e Bostan carving, Women playing harp while the king is hunting, 6th century AD.

The position of a particular work of Music often depends on the music genre and its relationship to music theory. The academic Persian Classical Tradition (Musiqi Asil or Dastgah) is strongly based on the theories of sonic aesthetics as expounded by the likes of Farabi and Shirazi in the early centuries of Islam. It also preserves melodic formulae that are often attributed to the musicians of the Persian imperial court of Khosroe Parviz in the Sassanid Period. Dastgah is the music of those who have a greater share of, or affect to be in possession of, refined taste and high culture and as such, in spite of its present popularity has always been the preserve of the elite. However, the influence of Dastgah can not be underestimated as it is seen as the reservoir of authenticity that other forms of musical genres derive melodic and performance ideas and inspiration. Image File history File links Navazandegan_musiqi. ... Image File history File links Navazandegan_musiqi. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... Image File history File links Harp-Sassanid. ... Image File history File links Harp-Sassanid. ... Frontal view of the two arches. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... Moosiqi Asil or Persian music is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). ...


Other genres of respectable music were those which were perhaps not as soundly based in abstract theory but from a utilitarian point of view were seen as useful. To this group belongs the martial music of Persia (Musiqi Razmi) whose roots go back to the Parthian era, as attested by Roman sources. This form of music has now been almost completely replaced by European forms ever since the modernization of the armed forces. This type of music with large drums, brass and reed instruments was used not only at war but also in official and solemn occasions. The Naqareh Khaneh or the house of drum, the chief exponent of this type of music survived into the Qajar Period but by this time much of the expertise, fostered during the Safavid era, had disappeared. The only trace of this form of music in a much simplified form is the music of the Zurkhaneh, the traditional martial arts of Iran, where the exercises of champions (Pahlavan, literally Parthians) is regulated by a drummer / vocalist known as the Murshid.


Religious music as a category for music is not a musicologically homogeneous genre. The Shiite passion plays depicting the martyrdom of Imam Hussein have its beginnings in the martial music of Iran. Similarly Sufi music, though having set traditions of its own such as the use of the mystical instrument daf and a set compendium of librettos in Persian mystical poetry, is nevertheless perhaps closest to Dastgah music but enjoys a greater freedom of composition and is rhythmically more sophisticated.


The recitation of the Koran is not considered music by Muslims, but something more sublime. Similarly, religious liturgy or Noheh is a category of improvised song, but is never discussed in musical terms.


Popular music however occupies a low ebb in the rungs of respectability with the exception of folk music that plays an important role in the daily life of rural Iranians. Some of the most beautiful music composed in Iran is remembered in the folk songs in Kurdistan and Khorasan for example. Unlike all other form of music which can be considered children of Classical Persian Music, Folk songs have greatly influence the Dastgah system and names such as Isfahan and Bayat e Turk attest to the regional origins of the melodic formulae that underly Persian Art Musical Tradition. Moosiqi Asil or Persian music is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). ...


Musical theatre in the form of Rohozi, whereby the covered pool in the middle of an inner courtyard served as a stage, is considered decadent by many Iranians. Tasneefs or popular urban compositions were often put together for the purposes of dance often in all women parties and some of the more famous compositions like Baba Karam and the accompanying dance is today the height of Persian Kitsch. (Dr Salardini - excerpt from upcoming book)


Iranian classical music

See main article: Musiqi-e assil This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Persian classical music goes back a long way. Musicians like Barbod were legendary in the empire of the Sassanid era. Barbod or Barbod the Great was the court musician of the Sassanid Empire. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


Until the early 20th century, musiqi-e assil was heard almost entirely at the royal courts of the monarchy. The Qajar dynasty ruled until 1925, with their influence declining since the turn of the century. Musiqi-e assil became a more common past-time for the next few decades, especially after cassettes were introduced in the 1960s. Before the 1979 revolution, Iran produced the singing star Gholam Hossein Banan and instrumentalists like Abolhasan Saba, Ahmad Ebadi, Hossein Tehrani,Faramarz Payvar and Hassan Kassai. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Typical 60-minute Compact Cassette. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Gholam Hossein Banan (May , 1911 - February 29, 1986) was a Persian musician and singer. ... The tomb of Saba is prohibited from visitor access. ... Ahmad Ebadi, (1906-1992) was an Iranian musician and setar player. ... Hossein Tehrani (1912 – 1974) was an Iranian musician and Tonbak player. ... Master Farāmarz Pāyvar (Persian: , born February 1933) is an Iranian composer and santur player. ...


The 1979 revolution launched a renaissance in Persian classical music, from which emerged national stars like Parisa, Parviz Meshkatian, Jamshid Andalibi, Kayhan Kalhor, Mohammad Reza Lotfi, Hossein Alizadeh, Madjid Khaladj, Shahram Nazeri and, most famously, Mohammad-Reza Shajarian. Though the revolution created classical music's popularity, music and Islam have not always meshed well, and many Iranian conservatives disliked even the simple melodies and lyrics of classical music. The role of women in music was restricted, though they were allowed to continue performing as instrumentalists and in chorus. Parisa (born 1950 in Shahsavar) is a Persian classical vocalist and musician. ... Parviz Meshkatian (born 1955 in Neishabour) is a renowned Persian musician, composer, researcher and University lecturer. ... Kalhor Playing Kamancheh Kayhan Kalohor (كيهان كلهر) is an Iranian kamancheh player of Kurdish origin. ... Mohammad Reza Lotfi was born in 1947 in Gorgan, northern Iran. ... Alizadeh at a concert in London Hossein Alizadeh (Persian: ) who is of Azerbaijani descent, is a Grammy Award nominated Iranian composer, Radif-preserver, researcher, teacher, and excellent tar and setar instrumentalist and improvisor, dubbed by many as an Ostad (Master of Persian music). ... Shahram Nazeri (Persian: شهرام ناظرى , Kurdish: Şehram Nazirî ) is a contemporary Iranian Kurdish musician who sings classical Persian and Kurdish music. ... Shajarian at a concert in London This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Most notable living Iranian classical vocalists are Mohammad Reza Shajarian, Shahram Nazeri, Parissa, Salar Aghili, Alireza Ghorbani, Homayoun Shajarian, Afsaneh Rasaei, Davod Azad, Hamed Nikpay, Ali Jahandar and Mahsa Vahdat. Alireza Ghorbani is a Persian classical vocalist and musician. ... Homayoun Shajarian (born May 21, 1975) is a Persian traditional music vocalist, as well as a Tombak and Kamancheh palyer. ... Davood Azad (born 1963 in Urmia, Iran) is an Iranian singer and a prominent master of Iranian classical music. ...


More notable Iranian progressive musicians whom at their own time have created modern and contemporary Persian classical based theories and styles include the late Ostad Vaziri, the late Ostad Varzandeh, the late Ostad Hossein Tehrani, Ostad Faramarz Payvar, Ostad Bahman Rajabi, Alan Kushan, Shirzad Sharif, Pejman Haddadi, etc. whom have impacted and influenced the classical Iranian traditions with their respective innovative musical approaches.

This wall painting depicts a scene from a 17th century classical Iranian music ensemble.
This wall painting depicts a scene from a 17th century classical Iranian music ensemble.

Sound file samples of classical Iranian music: Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB)Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ... Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB)Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ...

Notable bands: Javad Maroufi (جواد معروفی in Persian, 1912-1993) was a famous Iranian classical piano player and composer. ...

Aref ensemble (in Persian: گروه عارف) was one of the leading ensembles in Persian classical music of 20th century. ... Flyer for Masters of Persian Music concert autographed by Shajarian (from left to right: Alizadeh, Shajarian,Kalhor, and Shajarians son: Homayoun) Masters of persian Music is a Persian music group, consisted of the following: Mohammad Reza Shajarian: Vocals Hossein Alizadeh: Tar Kayhan Kalhor: Kamancheh Homayoun Shajarian: Tombak and Vocals... Zoufonoun ensemble is a notable Persian classical music ensemble. ... Shahram Nazeri (Persian: شهرام ناظرى , Kurdish: Şehram Nazirî ) is a contemporary Iranian Kurdish musician who sings classical Persian and Kurdish music. ... Gol-e Behesht by Dastan ensemble Dastan ensemble is a world-renowned Persian classical music ensemble. ... The Grand Prix du Disque for World Music is awarded by LAcadémie Charles Cros. ... The Kamkars (Farsi: کامکاران, Kurdish: Koma Kamkaran), a Kurdish family of seven brothers and a sister, are undeniably one of the leading musical ensembles in Iran today. ... Chemirani ensemble is a notable Persian classical music ensemble. ... Lian Ensemble is a Persian classical music ensemble. ... Axiom of Choice is a world music group of Iranian émigrés who perform a fusion style incorporating Persian classical music and Western music. ... Nour ensemble is an Iranian music ensemble under the leadership of renowned Iranian composer Christophe Rezai. ... Afsaneh Ballet (in Persian: گروه رقص افسانه ) is a non-profit cultural organization devoted to the art, dance, music, poetry of Iranian cultural continent (Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Armenia and Western China). ...

Persian Symphonic Music

Ali Rahbari conducting Jeunesse Musicales de Tehran, 1974
Ali Rahbari conducting Jeunesse Musicales de Tehran, 1974

Persian Symphonic Music has a long history. In fact Opera originated from Persia much before its emergence in Europe. Iranians traditionally performed Tazeeieh, which in many respects resembles the European Opera.[1] The first serious pieces of Persian symphonic music have been composed by Gholma-Reza Minbashian, Gholam-Hossein Minbashian, Aminollah Hossein, Parviz Mahmoud and then Houshang Ostovar, Samin Baghtcheban, Emanuel Melik-Aslanian, Morteza Hannaneh, Hossein Nassehi, Hossein Dehlavi, Ahmad Pejman, Mohammad Taghi Massoudieh, etc. Persian Symphonic Music generally refers to the pieces by the Persian (Iranian) composers which have been composed for Western ensembles and orchestras, mostly based on the Persian folk and classical melodies. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 280 × 144 pixelsFull resolution (280 × 144 pixel, file size: 13 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Alexander (Ali) Rahbari (Persian: علی رهبری) is a Persian (Iranian) composer and conductor born in 1948. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... Tazieh (Persian: تعزیه) and Naqqali are traditional Persian theatrical genres in which the drama is conveyed wholly or predominantly through music and singing. ... Aminollah Hossein (Born 1284 in Samarghand) was a celebrated Persian (Iranian) composer and Tar soloist. ... h Hossein Derakhshan (حسين درخشان; born January 7, 1975), also known as Hoder, is an Iranian-Canadian journalist and weblogger, based in Toronto. ... Hossein Dehlavi (Persian: حسین دهلوی) is a Persian composer. ... Ahmad Pejman is an Iranian classical composer who resides in the United States // Born in 1937 in Laar, Iran, Ahmad Pejman started studying music under the supervision of Heshmat Sanjari and Hossein Nasseri and continued studies in composition with Alsred Uhi, Thomas Christian David, Hans Jelineck, Nusiant Arel, Vladimir Ushachevsky...


There are also some growing attempts to combine Persian classical music and western classical music. Davood Azad, a renowned Iranian musician and vocalist, melded Johann Sebastian Bach's music style and Iranian classical music. Moosiqi Asil or Persian music is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). ... This article is about the genre of classical music in the Western musical tradition. ... Davood Azad (Born 1963 Urmia, Iran) is an Iranian Singer and a Prominant Master of Iranian Classical Music. ... “Bach” redirects here. ...


Iran's main orchestra include: National Orchestra, Tehran Symphony Orchestra and Perspolis Symphony Orchestra (Nations Orchestra). National Iranian Symphony Orchestra founded in 1998 under the conduction of maestro Farhad Fakhreddini. ... Tehran Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1937, is one of Irans main Symphony Orchestra. ... Perspolis Symphony Orchestra, also Melal Orchestra, is a Persian Symphony Orchestra. ...


Iran is not alien to western classical music either. Many radio stations in Tehran play Mozart's concertos on a daily basis, and many Iranians even make it to world fame and fortune. The late 20th century classical composer Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji was of Iranian descent. The best examples of these Iranians are perhaps Shardad Rohani (LA Symphony Orchestra conductor), Lily Afshar (world class classical guitarist and student of Andrés Segovia), Loris Tjeknavorian(principal conductor to the Rudaki Opera House Orchestra in Tehran) [2] , and Hormoz Farhat (Composer, Ethnomusicologist, Music Professor). Moreover, Zubin Mehta, the world-famous classical conductor of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, is of Iranian ancestry and acted as guest conductor of Tehran Symphony Orchestra. Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji (August 14, 1892 – October 15, 1988) was a British Parsi composer, music journalist and pianist. ... Shardad Rohani is a Persian (Iranian) composer, violinist/pianist, and conductor. ... Says Classical Guitar Magazine in 2002: Lily Afshar is a guitarist of the highest order. ... Andrés Torres Segovia, marqués de Salobreña (21 February 1893 – 3 June 1987) was a Spanish classical guitarist, and later nobleman, born in Linares, Spain who is considered to be the father of the modern classical guitar movement by most modern music scholars. ... Loris Tjeknavorian (also Cheknavarian) (born 1937) is a contemporary Iranian-Armenian composer. ... Hormoz Farhat (Born 1929 Iran) is a renowed Persian musician, composer, researcher and University lecturer. ... Zubin Mehta (b. ... Tehran Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1937, is one of Irans main Symphony Orchestra. ...


In 2005, Ali Rahbari, the head of Tehran Symphony Orchestra, performed Beethoven's 9th Symphony in Tehran Vahdat Hall.[3] Alexander (Ali) Rahbari (Persian: علی رهبری) is a Persian (Iranian) composer and conductor born in 1948. ... Tehran Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1937, is one of Irans main Symphony Orchestra. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ...


Also in 2005, Perspolis Orchestra (Melal Orchestra) played a piece which dates back to 3000 years ago. The notes of this piece of music, which is believed to have belonged to Sumerians and ancient Greeks, were discovered among some ancient inscriptions and after being deciphered by archaeologists, was orchestrated by Siavosh Beizaee for Perspolis Orchestra Symphony. However, as it is demonstrated on ancient reliefs of that era, the instrumentations of such pieces probably comprised wind instruments like horn and pipe. Renowned Iranian musician, Peyman Soltani, conducted the Perspolis orchestra.[2] Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Peyman Soltani (Born 1970 Kerman) is a notable Persian musician and conductor of Perspolis Orchestra (Nations Orchestra). ...


Folk music

Ancient Iranians attached great importance to music and poetry, like today. Post Sassanid era silver plate. 7th century. The British Museum.
Ancient Iranians attached great importance to music and poetry, like today. Post Sassanid era silver plate. 7th century. The British Museum.

Main article: Iranian folk music Image File history File linksMetadata Sassanid_Music_Plate_7thcentury. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sassanid_Music_Plate_7thcentury. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Iran’s local melodies are some of the richest, most beautiful and most various among the folk melodies in the world. ...


The modal concepts in Persian folk music are directly linked with that of the classical music. However, improvisation plays a minor role as folk tunes are characterized by relatively clear-cut melodic and rhythmic properties. The function of each folk melody determines its mood. The varying aesthetic requirements of wedding songs, lullabies, love songs, harvest songs, dance pieces, etc., are met with transparent and appropriate simplicity. The majority of the classical instruments are too elaborate and difficult for the folk musicians. Instead, there are literally dozens of musical instruments of various sorts found among the rural people. In fact, each region of the country can boast instruments peculiar to itself. Three types of instruments, however, are common to all parts of the country. They are, a kind of shawm called Surnay (or Sorna ~ Zorna), the various types of Ney (flute), and the Dohol, a doubleheader drum. A discussion of Persian music must necessarily include the new hybrid of mixed Persian-Western music which is functioning as a popular-commercial music. The use of western popular rhythms, an elementary harmonic superimposition, and relatively large ensembles composed of mostly western instruments, characterize this music. The melodic and modal aspects of these compositions maintain basically Persian elements. On the whole, it would be something of an understatement to say that the artistic merit of such a melange as this is rather questionable. (Prof. Farhat-musicologist Persianartmusic.com)


Iran is home to several ethnic groups, including Kurdish, Azerbaijanis, Bakhtiari and Baluchi peoples. Turkmen epic poets similar to Central Asian musicians are common in Khorasan, while Kurdish music is known for its double-reed duduk and an earthy, dance-oriented sound. The most famous personalities in Iranian folk music are Pari Zangeneh and Sima Bina. Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a group of southwestern Iranian people. ... When referring to central asian peoples, Baluchi is an alernative spalling of Balochi (qv). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... Kurdish Music (Kurdish: Muzîk û strana kurdî) referes to music performed in Kurdish language. ... A duduk The duduk (pronounced ) is a traditional woodwind instrument of Armenian origins. ... Sima Bina (Born in 1944 Birjand) is a master of Persian classical music and Irans top researcher, singer and song-writer of Iranian Folk music. ...


Kurdistan

The forms of music found in various parts of Kurdistan, all known as Kurdish music, vary depending on the climate and geography of the regions as well as their contact with the neighboring cultures. For example, the melodies found among the people living in the mountains are different from those found among the people living in the meadows. However, the poetry and the rhythms are common to both areas. Kurdish Music (Kurdish: Muzîk û strana kurdî) referes to music performed in Kurdish language. ...


Kurdish music, similar to other Eastern music, is monophonic and modal (more specifically, based on the maqam system, which is loosely translated as modal). However, because multiple instruments with varying pitch range, color, and ornamentation capabilities are used to play the same melody, it is also heterophonic. In addition to` specifically Kurdish modes (maqams), Kurdish music also utilizes all the modes and dastgahs found in the traditional music of Iran.


There are two forms of Kurdish music. The first is based on the maqam system. Similar to traditional music of Iran, improvisation plays an important role in Kurdish music. While a maqam is used to designate a certain melodic structure, a musician may improvise within this structure by employing variations on ornamental figures, rhythms, and melodic forms. The maqams of Kurdistan, preserved by oral tradition throughout generations, are based on microtonal tuning systems where one can find intervals of half step, full step, three quarter step, and one and a quarter step. [These intervals are not necessarily in an equal-tempered 24 tone scale.]


The second form of Kurdish music is based on a set of melodies, known as gourani or closed, which have distinct and structured rhythms. The word gourani is derived from gabaran, which literally means "one who worships fire." This word is related to the ancient rituals of fire worship among the Zoroastrians. Through the passage of time gabaran was changed to gouran. Gourani is also the name of a tribe whose members speak Kurdish and are known for their poetry. The members of certain groups of dervishes (Ahle Hagh) in Kermanshah and certain regions of Sanandaj, use this word to refer to the songs performed during their spiritual ceremonies. Because of its distinct rhythm, gourani is often accompanied by other instruments, and in some cases by clapping.


The poems used in most Kurdish music are filled with stories of romance and unrequited love. These poems have often two verses, which are divided in ten, eleven, or twelve syllables, and are based on the Gathas of the Zoroastrians. Kurdish melodies are very simple; their range is usually confined to a few notes. The form of the music is often strophic, and every gourani has a particular melody which is sung with various stanzas. At the end of every stanza the strophe is repeated unchanged throughout the song. Every gourani is characterized by a specific strophe. Similar to a lied or a chanson, gouranis may be accompanied by instrumental sections, which have three parts: prelude, middle section, and the ending. The prelude and the ending are performed by the group, and the middle section is performed in the form of call and response. The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...


Gouranis fall into several categories, each performed with specific melodies for specific occasions. Some examples are work gouranis, shepherd gouranis, romantic gouranis, religious and spiritual gouranis, festive gouranis, Chemari (mourning) gouranis, war gouranis, children gouranis, women gouranis, and Ramadan gouranis.


Before Islam, the "religious and spiritual gouranis" were used by the Kurds in their worship rituals of Ahura Mazda (the wise and supreme god of Zoroastrianism), fire, the sun, and the moon. Within Islam, new gouranis were developed for worship of God and paying tribute to sacred figures. The dervish houre, Azan (special forms of reciting of the Koran), and zekr [also a ritualistic dance performed by the dervishes during devotional ceremonies] are among these types of gouranis. The "festive gouranis", which have strong and exciting rhythms, are used for marriage, circumcision, or holiday celebrations, and are often accompanied by dancing and clapping. The "war gouranis" have moving rhythms and are often used with poems which induce feelings for nationalism and the protection of freedom. "Children gouranis" have very simple rhythms accompany children's poems. "Women gouranis" are sung by women during their everyday chores, such as milking the cows, carrying water from the springs, or picking flowers. "Chemari gouranis", which are sung in the funerals while carrying the dead (especially a young deceased), are accompanied by sorna (a wind instrument) and dohol (a large percussion instrument), and have very sad poems. "Ramadan gouranis" are mostly used during the month of Ramadan to declare the coming of dawn [when people have food before fasting during the day]. Accompanied by sorna and dohol, they are played in elevated regions of cities and villages. (H. Kamkar - master musician www.kereshmeh.com)


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Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 676 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: User:Siamax Source: [1] tag: Masters of Persian Music This image is of a poster for an event, and the copyright for... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 676 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: User:Siamax Source: [1] tag: Masters of Persian Music This image is of a poster for an event, and the copyright for...

Khorasan

Due to its ethnic diversity and the existence of different languages and religious observations (Sunni and Shi'a), the musical tradition of Khorasan is very rich. From the north to the south, the music scene varies greatly. In the north of Khorasan, one can find the bakhshi narrating and singing, among other things, "dastans" (stories in Turkish), although they can also sing in Kurdish about the historical deeds of local figures. They accompany themselves on the dotar. One can also find in the north, the Asheq who play "dohol" (double-faced drum), the "sorna" (a kind of oboe-like reed instrument) and the "qoshme" (double clarinet made of the central nervure of the plumage of birds tied together). The Asheq are specifically associated with the Kurds and play at wedding dances and village feasts. In the East of Khorasan, near Torbat Jam , the main instrument is the dotar with some modifications (hear it), but there are no Bakhshi and the music is different. Here, the music takes the form of "ghazal khani'" and is performed by singers of quatrains and "ghazals" - lyric poems based on the invocations of mystic poets like Rumi, Attar and Sheikh Ahmad Jami. Purely instrumental pieces also figure in the repertoire. Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... Torbat-e-Jam County (Persian: شهرستان تربت جام) is a county in Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Farid al-Din Attar (b. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ...


More towards the south, in the regions of Birjand and Qa'in, the musical culture changes again: the dotar is no longer present (although it seems that in the past, it was played). The songs are called "sotak" and are accompanied on the "dayereh" (tambourine). (Ameneh Yousefzadeh - Musicologist www.kereshmeh.com)


Turkmen Music

In Khorasan as in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, the word bakhshi means instrumentalist, singer, and storyteller. The origin of the word bakhshi comes from Turkish which in turn comes from a Chinese word po-shih meaning erudite. It was through the Turkish Ouigours that certain elements of Chinese language infiltrated 13th and 14th century Mongol literature). The word bakhshi appeared in Iranian and Turkish literature with the advent of the Mongols. At the time, the role of the bakhshi seems to have been sometimes that of the healing shaman, and at other times that of a Buddhist priest.


As for the bakhshi of Khorasan, they claim that the origin of their name can be found in the word bakhshande (donor, bestower of gifts) because of the musical gift that God has bestowed upon them. This is a title of respect in northern Khorasan and among the Turkmen of Torkaman-Sahra.


The bakhshi can also be found in almost all of Central Asia, among the Kazakh, Kirghiz, Uzbek, and Turkmen people as well as in Afghanistan, Tajik-Arab and in East Turkestan. Among other ethnicities, on the other hand, the term bakhshi, throughout centuries has designated a bard, a story-teller, and singer of legends and epics.


As a singer, the bakhshi is more precisely a narrator of dastan (story) and an instrumentalist who plays the dotar (long-necked two-stringed instrument) and who, in most cases, fabricates his own musical instrument. The majority of the great bards of Khorasan, regardless of their ethnic origin, sing in three languages (Turkish, Persian, and Kurdish). Whether professional or semi-professional, nowadays the bard doesn't usually earn his living solely through playing music. Most often, he is also, for example, a farmer, a barber, or a teacher. With his instrument, the dotar, he usually sings and plays by himself. However, the Turkmen bards prefer to play in groups of two or three. In this case, the bard is accompanied by another dotar player and a person playing the kamanche.

Iran's legendary conductors of 20th century: Ali Rahbari, Farhad Fakhreddini and Loris Tjeknavorian

The right to assume the title of bakhshi is subject to specific conditions. A bakhshi should not only be a good musician and have a good voice, he also needs excellent diction for telling stories. Ideally, he learns his art from his father or his uncle while living under the family roof. Some acquire their apprenticeship under the tutelage of a master (ostad). The learning process evolves in three stages: 1) learning the dotar technique, 2) learning vocal techniques, 3) memorizing the stories. In the last stage, the master teaches his student a fragment of a dastan on a daily basis, so that he can memorize and recite it the next day. The bakhshi is renowned for his prodigious memory. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 601 × 348 pixelsFull resolution (601 × 348 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 601 × 348 pixelsFull resolution (601 × 348 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Alexander (Ali) Rahbari (Persian: علی رهبری) is a Persian (Iranian) composer and conductor born in 1948. ... Farhad Fakhreddini (Born 1937) is a renowned Iranian composer, conductor and founder of Iran’s National Orchestra. ... Loris Tjeknavorian (also Cheknavarian) (born 1937) is a contemporary Iranian-Armenian composer. ...


Traditionally, the bakhshi plays at village ceremonies such as weddings and circumcisions, but he also performs at private gatherings and in ghahve-khanes (coffee houses) of the bazars. Unfortunately, nowadays, television has taken the place of the traditional bard in the Ghahve-khane. Fortunately, today we can also hear the bakhshi performing in concerts often within the context of festivals. (Ameneh Yousefzadeh)


Mazandaran

Mazandaran has a diverse folk music culture that includes songs and instrumental and ritual music. Rhythm is usually simple in songs, which include katuli, which is most common around the town of Aliabad-e Katul; the song is sometimes said to be sung when people take a catouli cow out to graze. Because the song was originally sung while walking and working, it often has syllables like jana, hey or aye added, in order to allow the singer to breath while he was working (a work song). Another kind of song is called kaleh haal (or kal kaal or Leili's lover). The term kaleh haal may refer to its shortness of length (kale haal means short present) or to its common wingers, housewives who sang it while cooking with a kaleh, a type of oven. Amiri songs usually use long poems written by Amir Pazevari, a legendary poet from Mazandaran. There is also a type of song called najma which describes the love between Prince Najmedin of the Fars area and a girl named Ranaa. The najma is popular throughout Iran, adapted for the local cultures. The Charvadars are an ancient class of merchants who sold commodities abroad for a local village; their songs are called charvadari. In contrast to most Mazandarani music, charvadari has a prominent rhythm, which may be because it was often sung on horseback. Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... Katuli is of the most important tunes in Mazandaran music. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Amir Pazevari was a Mazandarani Iranian poet with numerous works written in the Mazandarani language. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...


Pop music

Main article: Persian pop music Persian classical and pop singer Mahasti was a veteran celebrity of Iran’s Golden Years of music. ...

Vigen Derderian, founder of Iranian pop and jazz
Vigen Derderian, founder of Iranian pop and jazz

Iran developed its own pop music by the 1970s, using indigenous instruments and forms and adding electric guitar and other imported characteristics; the most popular pop singer of this period was Googoosh. After the Iranian Revolution in 1979, pop music's future seemed so dark because of the new Islamic laws and restrictions. Many Iranians migrated to foreign countries, especially Los Angeles in the United States, and Iranian-in-exile pop stars include (in alphabetical order) Vigen Derderian, Dariush Eghbali, Siavash Ghomeyshi, Hayedeh, Homeirah, Mahasti, and Sattar. Image File history File linksMetadata Vigen. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Vigen. ... Vigen Derderian, founder of Iranian pop and jazz Vigen Derderian (November 23, 1929-October 26, 2003), known as Soltan of Pop and Soltan of Persian jazz, was a hugely popular Armenian-Iranians pop music singer. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... An electric guitar is a type of guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into electrical current, which is then amplified. ... Googoosh (Persian: ) (also spelled as Gogosh and Googosh and Gougoush), [born Faegheh Atashin (Persian: ) on February 7, 1951 in Tehran, Iran], is an Iranian pop singer and actress. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Vigen Derderian, founder of Iranian pop and jazz Vigen Derderian (November 23, 1929-October 26, 2003), known as Soltan of Pop and Soltan of Persian jazz, was a hugely popular Armenian-Iranians pop music singer. ... Dariush Eghbali was born in Tehran on February 4, 1951 and spent his early years in Karaj and Kurdistan. ... Siavash Ghomeyshi (Persian: ‎ , born 1945 in Ahvaz, Khuzestan, Iran) is a notable Iranian singer and song writer. ... Hayedeh (also transcribed Haideh or Haydeh; Persian: ; (1942 - January 20, 1990) was a Persian pop and classical singer who died in exile some hours after one of her performances. ... Mahasti (Persian: مهستی) Khadijeh (Eftekhar) Dadehbala, 1946, Tehran - d. ... Sattar, in 70s Hassan Sattar (Persian: ستار ) is an Iranian singer. ...


Iranian Rock and Metal Music

Iranian rock is largely underground in Iran.
Main article: Iranian rock

Rock music in Iran has been influenced by many traditional forms of Iranian music and popular Western rock bands such as Pink Floyd, The Doors, and Dire Straits. Image File history File linksMetadata Iran-rock. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Iran-rock. ... Rock music icon of the world Freddie Mercury of the band Queen, was an Iranian by ancestry. ... Rock music icon of the world Freddie Mercury of the band Queen, was an Iranian by ancestry. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... This page is about the rock band. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Iranian rock music first developed in the 1970s, but was largely silent during the 1980s, only to witness a recurrence in the 1990s.


Iranian Hip Hop and Rap Music

Iranian Rap is largely underground in Iran and abroad.
Main article: Iranian Rap

The term hip hop refers to a musical and political movement that has developed predominantly over the last quarter-century. Since first emerging in New York City in the seventies, hip-hop has grown to encompass not just music, but an entire lifestyle that consistently incorporates diverse elements of ethnicity, technology and urban life. Iranians gen Xr's have mixed taken elements of the new and the old to create a new chapter in the "Music of Iran". Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ...


Electronic music

First experiments of electronic music with Persian music was performed by Dariush Dolatshahi other Pioneers include Som'ma Ensemble directed by Shirzad Sharif in San Francisco as well as experimentations of Shahrokh Yadegari & Alan Kushan.


Many of the expatriate Iranians in North America and Europe are involved in electronic music. The best known group is the Washington, D.C.-based Deep Dish which consists of Ali "Dubfire" and Shahram. For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... Deep Dish is a duo of DJ and house music producers consisting of Iranian-American members Ali Dubfire Shirazinia and Sharam Tayebi. ...


Known personalities

Deep Dish is a duo of DJ and house music producers consisting of Iranian-American members Ali Dubfire Shirazinia and Sharam Tayebi. ... Low End Specialists is New York City-based house music DJ/producer duo of Mac Clark and Ali Geramian. ... 16B (real name Omid Nourizadeh) is a London electronic music producer of Persian heritage. ... Category: Possible copyright violations ...

Iranian Children Music

Iranian children music has commonly simple melodies and lyrics and are performed by kids.


Iranian music in other countries

Iranian music style influenced the music of central Asia.

Since the 1980s, Afghanistan has been involved in near constant violence. ... Tajik music is closely related to Uzbek music and other Central Asian forms. ... The music of Pakistan is probably one of the most diverse selection of music in the whole world within one country; being at the crossroads of Central Asia, Iran, the Middle East and India. ... Timeline and Samples Genres Classical (Carnatic and Hindustani) - Rock - Pop - Hip hop Awards Bollywood Music Awards - Punjabi Music Awards Charts Festivals Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine National anthem Jana Gana Mana, also national song Vande Mataram Music of the states Andaman and... Music of Azerbaijan includes various arrays of styles that reflect influences from the musics of the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Iran. ... Armenia is situated close to the Caucasus Mountains, and its music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyans well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music, due to Armenias status as the oldest Christian nation in the... Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Awards Kral MV, MÜ-YAP, MGD Charts Billboard Charts Music Festivals Istanbul International Music Festival, Istanbul International Jazz Festival, Izmir European Jazz Festival, Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival Media Rolling Stone (Türkiye), MTV (T...

Songs

Ey Iran is a famous Iranian song. ...

International recognition of Iranian music

Music of Iran and Iranian musicians have received countless awards in the course of history. Here are some:


2007

2006 Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... Alizadeh at a concert in London Hossein Alizadeh (Persian: ) who is of Azerbaijani descent, is a Grammy Award nominated Iranian composer, Radif-preserver, researcher, teacher, and excellent tar and setar instrumentalist and improvisor, dubbed by many as an Ostad (Master of Persian music). ... Djivan Gasparyan (Armenian: born 1928 in Solag, Armenia) is an Armenian musician and composer. ...

  • Grammy Award (nommination), Faryad album, Masters of Persian Music.
  • Grammy Award, Ali Shirazinia, Shahram Tayyebi and Deep Dish.
  • Grammy Award for Best Orchestral Performance (nommination), Persian Trilogy by Behzad Ranjbaran.
  • "Best Middle Eastern Song" & "Best Middle Eastern Album", 2006 JPF Awards: Andy Madadian.
  • "2006 Best International Armenian Album Award" for the 2006 Armenian Music Awards: City of Angels by Andy Madadian.
  • Golden Lioness Award for Best Conductor, The World Academy of Arts, Literature, and Media: Ali Rahbari.
  • Golden Lioness Award for Classic Music Best Soprano Performer, The World Academy of Arts, Literature, and Media: Monika Jalili.

2005 Flyer for Masters of Persian Music concert autographed by Shajarian (from left to right: Alizadeh, Shajarian,Kalhor, and Shajarians son: Homayoun) Masters of persian Music is a Persian music group, consisted of the following: Mohammad Reza Shajarian: Vocals Hossein Alizadeh: Tar Kayhan Kalhor: Kamancheh Homayoun Shajarian: Tombak and Vocals... Deep Dish is a duo of DJ and house music producers consisting of Iranian-American members Ali Dubfire Shirazinia and Sharam Tayebi. ... Behzad Ranjbaran (Born in 1955 Tehran) is an Iranian musician, composer and a master of Persian music. ... Andy Andranik Madadian (Persian: , Armenian: ) (born April 02, 1958), better known by his stage name Andy, is an Armenian-Iranian singer. ... Andy Andranik Madadian (Persian: , Armenian: ) (born April 02, 1958), better known by his stage name Andy, is an Armenian-Iranian singer. ... Alexander (Ali) Rahbari (Persian: علی رهبری) is a Persian (Iranian) composer and conductor born in 1948. ... Monika Jalili is a Persian classical vocalist. ...

  • Golden Lioness Award for Classical Performance, The World Academy of Arts, Literature, and Media: Shakila.
  • UNESCO music award (Picasso award), nomminee: Mohammad Reza Darvishi.

2003

2001 The Grand Prix du Disque for World Music is awarded by LAcadémie Charles Cros. ... Gol-e Behesht by Dastan ensemble Dastan ensemble is a world-renowned Persian classical music ensemble. ... Parisa (born 1950 in Shahsavar) is a Persian classical vocalist and musician. ... Kalhor Playing Kamancheh Kayhan Kalohor (كيهان كلهر) is an Iranian kamancheh player of Kurdish origin. ...

  • NAV’s best contemporary world music album: Axiom of Choice (band).
  • Best Recombinant World Music Ensemble in 2001 by the LA Weekly Music Awards. (nommination): Axiom of choice band.

2000 Axiom of Choice is a world music group of Iranian émigrés who perform a fusion style incorporating Persian classical music and Western music. ...

1999 Says Classical Guitar Magazine in 2002: Lily Afshar is a guitarist of the highest order. ...

  • Picasso Medal, Mohammad Reza Shajarian.
  • Pikanes award, Thailand's most prestigious music award for an outstanding orchestral performance: Shahrdad Rohani.

1977 Shardad Rohani is an Iranian composer, violinist/pianist, and conductor. ...

  • Prestigious Gold Medal at the Besancon International Conductors' Competition, Ali Rahbari.
  • Silver medal in Geneva International Conducting Competition, Ali Rahbari.

Others

  • Rudolf Nissim Award, Behzad Ranjbaran.
  • Grand Prize in the Aspen Music Festival Guitar Competition, Lily Afshar.
  • Top Prize in the Guitar Foundation of America Competition, Lily Afshar.
  • Loris Tjeknavorian, Homayoon Order and Medal for the composition of "Son et Lumiere Persepolis 2500"

Behzad Ranjbaran (Born in 1955 Tehran) is an Iranian musician, composer and a master of Persian music. ... Loris Tjeknavorian (also Cheknavarian) (born 1937) is a contemporary Iranian-Armenian composer. ...

See also

The tradition of Persian art music embodies twelve modal systems, known as dastgahs. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Moosiqi Asil or Persian music is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ancient Iranians attached great importance to music and poetry, as they still do today. ... Persian Symphonic Music generally refers to the pieces by the Persian (Iranian) composers which have been composed for Western ensembles and orchestras, mostly based on the Persian folk and classical melodies. ... Traditional Persian Mohammad Reza Lotfi Hossein Alizadeh Hossein Dehlavi Farhad Fakhroddini Fereydun Farzaneh Shahrokh Khajehnuri Ruhollah Khaleqi Sharif Lotfi Alireza Mashayekhi Muhammad-Taqi Masudiyeh Gholamreza Minbashiyan Hossein Nasehi Mostafa Kamal Pourtorab Hasan Riyahi Kiyavash Sahebnasaq Heshmat Sanjari Javad Maroufi Western Classical Lily Afshar Aminollah Hussein Lotfi Mansouri Alexander (Ali) Rahbari... Persian music owes partly its maturity to the significant efforts made by accomplished female musicians, instrumentalists and vocalists throughout the history. ... 18th Fajr International Music Festival Fajr International Music Festival is Irans most prestigious Music Festival founded in 1986. ...

Sources and Further reading

  • Nelly Caron and Dariush Safvate, "Iran: Traditions Musicales" (Paris, 1966).
  • Nooshin, Laudan. "The Art of Ornament". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, pp 355-362. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0.
  • Nettl, Bruno (1989). Blackfoot Musical Thought: Comparative Perspectives. Ohio: The Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-370-2.
  • Ameneh Youssefzadeh, "Iran’s Regional Musical Traditions in the Twentieth Century: A Historical Overview." Iranian Studies, volume 38, number 3, September 2005.Link.
  • DVD of TOMBAK / Madjid Khaladj - Coproduction : Le Salon de Musique & Ecole de Tombak | Language : français, anglais, espagnol | 172 minutes | Booklet of 80 pages (French/English.)| EDV 937 CV. [4]. CD Infinite Breath / Madjid Khaladj, NAFAS / Bâ Music Records. [5]

Notes

  1. ^ Iranian performance of Beethoven's 9th Symphony (BBC Persian)
  2. ^ 3000 Year Old Piece to be Performed at Persepolis
  3. ^ Maestro Shajarian was awarded Mozart Medal.(2007)

“Beethoven” redirects here. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Iranian Musical Instruments
String Instruments (Sāzhāy-e Zehī)
Bowed instruments: Ghazhak | Kamāncheh | Robāb
Plucked instruments: Barbat | Chang | Dotār | Qānūn | Robāb | Sallāneh | Sāz | Setār | Tanbūr | Tār | Ūd
Struck instruments: Santur
Woodwind instruments (Sāzhāy-e Bādī):
Exposed: Darāy | Sornā | Karnay
End-blown: Haft Band | Nāy (Ney) | Sheypur
Percussion instrument (Sāzhāy-e Kūbeheyī/Zarbī)
Auxiliary Percussion: Daf | Dohol | Dāvūl | Dāyereh Zangī | Naqāreh | Tonbak (Dombak) | Kūs | Sanj

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