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Encyclopedia > Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias
traditional Asturian dancers
traditional Asturian dancers

The traditional music of Galicia and Asturias has some similarities with the neighbouring areas of Cantabria, León, Castile and northern Portugal. In a similar way to the Balearic Islands, it is characterized by an extensive use of bagpipes. Much of what can be said about Galician and Asturian folk music also applies to the closely related Trás-os-Montes and Minho regions of Portugal. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1671x1232, 171 KB) Description: Traditional asturian dancers, at Interceltic Festival of Avilés (july 2004). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1671x1232, 171 KB) Description: Traditional asturian dancers, at Interceltic Festival of Avilés (july 2004). ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian have special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Anthem: Himno de Cantabria Capital Santander Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 15th  5,321 km²  1. ... The name Leon or Léon or León may refer to: // Places in Spain León, city León, province Castile-Leon, autonomous community Kingdom of León, historical kingdom Places in North and Central America León, Guanajuato, Mexico León, Nicaragua Places in the United States De... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... Photo of the village of Urjais, concelho of Chaves, by J.B. Cesar Tras-os-Montes is a historical province of Portugal located in the northeastern corner of the country. ... Miño/Minho designates both the river as well as an adjacent Portuguese region Miño/Minho River The river is the longest in Galicia with an extension of 340 km. ...

Contents

History

In recent times, many Galician folk musicians have considered Galician music to be at least partially "Celtic" in origin, and whether or not this is the case much modern commercial Galician folk and folk-rock is strongly influenced by Irish and Scottish traditions. Certainly, Galicia is nowadays a strong player on the international Celtic folk scene. As a result, elements of the pre-industrial Galician tradition have become integrated into the modern Celtic folk repertoire and style. Many, however, claim that the "Celtic" appellation is merely a marketing tag, such as bagpipe player Susana Seivane, who said "I think [the 'Celtic' moniker is] a label, in order to sell more. What we make is Galician music". In any case, due to the "Celtic" brand, the Galician music industry is the only non-Spanish speaking music in Spain that has an audience beyond the country's borders. Some even argue that this Celtic "boom" finished to kill the remains of previous Galician traditional music. Folk rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... Susana Seivane on stage at Lorient, Brittany in 2004 Susana Seivane is a Galician gaita (bagpipes) player. ...


The ancestors of the Celts lived in Spain after about 600 BC, arriving from the area around the upper Danube and Rhine rivers. Little is known about the population that existed there before them. During the 1st century, the Roman Empire conquered all of modern Spain and Portugal. The Latin language came to dominate the region, and is the ancestor of all the Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula: Galician, Portuguese, Aragonese, Aranese, Astur-Leonese-Mirandese, Castilian (Spanish) and Catalan. With the exception of Basque, all the other regional languages died out. The departure of the Romans in the 5th century led to the invasion by the Germanic Suevi people in the northwest, who left little cultural impact. By the 8th century, the Moors controlled southern Iberia, but never conquered the north, which was the Kingdom of Asturias. Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... The Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Categories: Pages containing IPA | Language stubs | Romance languages | Languages of Spain ... Aranese (Aranès or Aranais) is a dialect of Gascon (which is part of the Occitan language group of the Romance languages), spoken in Spain, where it is an official language. ... Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as Mirandese). ... The Mirandese language (Lhéngua Mirandesa in Mirandese; Língua Mirandesa or Mirandês in Portuguese) is spoken in northeastern Portugal. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Basque (native name: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign... Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of...


In 810, it was claimed that the remains of Saint James, one of the apostles, had been found in Galicia. The site, which soon became known as Santiago de Compostela, was the premier pilgrimage destination in the European Middle Ages. This had a monumental effect on the folk culture of the area, as the pilgrims brought with them elements, including musical instruments and styles, from as far afield as Scandinavia. 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... Saint James, son of Zebedee (d. ... For other uses, see Twelve Apostles (disambiguation). ... Location map of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia Santiago de Compostela (also Saint James of Compostela) is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ...


However, little is known about musical traditions from this era. A few manuscripts are known, such as those by the 13th century poet and musician Martín Codax, which indicate that some distinctive elements of modern music, such as the bagpipes, were common by then. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Cantigas de Amigo (Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, Vindel MS M979) Martín Codax (o Martim Codax) was a medieval Galician musician, possibly from Vigo, between the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th Century. ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ...


Revival

The Galician folk revival drew on early 20th century performers like Perfecto Feijoo, a bagpipe and hurdy-gurdy player. The first commercial recording of Galician music had come in 1904, by a corale called Aires d'a Terra from Pontevedra. The middle of the century saw the rise of Ricardo Portela, who inspired many of the revivalist performers, and played in influential bands like Milladoiro. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... This article is about the musical instrument. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Pontevedra is a city in northwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Pontevedra in Galicia. ... From left to right: Nando Casal, Antón Seoane, Roi Casal, Harry C., Moncho García, Manú Conde, Xosé V. Ferreirós, Xosé A. Mendez Milladoiro is a music band from Galicia, Spain. ...


During the regime of Francisco Franco, honest displays of folk life were replaced with rehearsed spectacles of patriotism, leading to a decline in popularity for traditional styles. The appropriation and sanitization of folk culture for the authorities led to a perception that folk music was unauthentic and old-fashioned. In the late 1970s, recordings of Galician bagpipes flourished, as well as the Festival Internacional Do Mundo Celta (1977), which helped establish some Galician bands. Aspiring performers began working with bands like Os Areeiras, Os Rosales, Os Campaneiros and Os Irmáns Graceiras, learning the folk styles; others went to the renowned workshop of Antón Corral at the Universidade Popular de Vigo. Some of these musicians then formed their own bands, like Milladoiro. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20th (or possibly 19th) November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... From left to right: Nando Casal, Antón Seoane, Roi Casal, Harry C., Moncho García, Manú Conde, Xosé V. Ferreirós, Xosé A. Mendez Milladoiro is a music band from Galicia, Spain. ...


In the 1980s and 1990s, some famous performers began to emerge from the Galician and Asturian music scenes. Galician musicians of this period included Uxía, a singer originally with the band Na Lúa, whose 1995 album Estou vivindo no ceo and a subsequent collaboration with Sudanese singer Rasha, gained her an international following. 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It was Carlos Nuñez, however, who has done the most to popularize Galician traditions. His 1996 A irmandade das estrelas sold more than 100,000 copies and saw major media buzz, partially due to the collaboration with well-known foreign musicians like La Vieja Trova Santiaguera, The Chieftains and Ry Cooder. His follow-up, Os amores libres, included more fusions with flamenco, Celtic music (especially Breton) and Berber music. Carlos Nuñez is a musician from Galicia, Spain, who plays the gaita, a kind of bagpipes. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The Chieftains are an Irish musical group founded in 1962, known for performing and popularizing Irish traditional music. ... Ryland Ry Peter Cooder (born 15 March 1947, in Los Angeles, California) is an American guitarist, singer and composer, known for his slide guitar work, his interest in the American roots music and, more recently, for his collaborations with traditional musicians from many countries. ... Bailaora (dancer) of Flamenco Belén Maya, photograph taken by Gilles Larrain at his studio, 2001 Flamenco is one of the great European non-academic musical genres. ... Celtic music is a term utilized by record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples of Western Europe. ... Brittany is a Celtic country rich in its cultural heritage. ... The Berbers are an ethnic group in North and West Africa. ...


Other modern Galician bagpipe players include Xosé Manuel Budiño and Susana Seivane. Seivane is especially notable as the first major female player, paving the way for many more women in a previously male-dominated field. Galicia's most popular singers are also mostly female, including Uxía, Mari Luz Cristóbal Caunedo, Sonia Lebedynski and Mercedes Peón. Susana Seivane on stage at Lorient, Brittany in 2004 Susana Seivane is a Galician gaita (bagpipes) player. ...


A revival of traditional Asturian music also occurred during this period. Artists such as the popular bagpiper Hevia and music groups such as Llan de cubel and Tejedor helped to bring attention to Asturian folk music both within Asturias itself, and in the wider realm of the "celtic" and world music scenes. Musicians from Asturias have become increasingly prominent at events such as the Festival Interceltique de Lorient in France. Hevia, or José Ángel Hevia Velasco, is a Spanish bagpiper – specifically, a Asturian gaita piper, from Villaviciosa, Asturias. ... Llan de Cubel are a celtic folk band from Asturias (Spain) which specializes in playing Asturian folk music. ... Tejedor is a folk music group from Avilés, Asturias, Spain, consisting of three siblings (Jose, Javier and Eve Tejedor). ...


As this revival spreads, such famed Asturian Celtic bands as "Brenga Astur" are continually gaining notoriety across the world. [1]


Traditional instruments

Tradicional musicians with pito and drum in Cantabria.
Tradicional musicians with pito and drum in Cantabria.

Traditional instruments in Galicia and Asturias include the well-known gaita, a kind of bagpipe, as well as an array of percussion and wind instruments. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gaita is the Spanish and Portuguese name for the bagpipe used in Galicia, Asturias and northern Portugal. ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... A percussion instrument is any object which produces a sound by being struck with an implement, shaken, rubbed, scraped, or by any other action which sets the object into vibration. ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ...


Wind instruments

Folk wind instrument of the area include the pito, a kind of conical-bored shawm with seven holes in the front and one in the back, which is played in a similar manner to the bagpipe chanter. While it was traditionally made in E-flat, the instrument has been revitalized by Antón Corral, who makes them in D. A transverse flute with six holes is called a requinta; it is similar to the fife. It is usually in G, or sometimes a high C. Other wind instruments include chifre, ocarina and the imported clarinet and accordion. Cantabria has a rich dance repertoire for soprano clarinet, also known as pito or requinto (not to be confounded with the requinta fife). A calabash of warm pito Pito is a type of beer common in northern Ghana, parts of Nigeria, and other parts of West Africa. ... The shawm was a Renaissance musical instrument of the woodwind family, made in Europe from the late 13th century until the 17th century. ... It has been suggested that Practice chanter be merged into this article or section. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Fife from the American Civil War A fife is a small, high-pitched, transverse flute that is similar to the piccolo, but louder and shriller due to its narrower bore. ... The ocarina is an ancient flute-like wind instrument. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... A calabash of warm pito Pito is a type of beer common in northern Ghana, parts of Nigeria, and other parts of West Africa. ...


String instruments

Plucked stringed instruments are common throughout Spain and Portugal, but they were proscribed in Galician or Asturian commercial folk music until recent years. Modern guitarists like Xesús Pimentel often use strong flamenco influences in their sound. The violin has a long tradition in the area, common since the early 20th century, when blind fiddlers travelled to fairs to play traditional and self-composed songs, as well as pieces by composers like Sarasate. The hurdy gurdy (zanfona) has been played in the area for many centuries, but had mostly died out by the middle of the 20th century before being revived by Faustino Santalices, Xosé Lois Rivas and the like. Though the instrument is now more closely associated with French music, the first recordings of the hurdy gurdy were by Galician Perfecto Feijoo in 1904. Harps had been used in the Middle Ages, but were not revived until the 1970s, when Emilio Cao used the instrument to accompany his compositions. Modern harpists have been encouraged by the use of the Celtic harp in Scotland, Ireland and Brittany, and include Quico Comesaña and Rodrigo Romaní. A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... Pablo Martín Melitón de Sarasate y Navascuéz (March 10, 1844 - September 20, 1908) was a Spanish violinist and composer. ... Drawing of a hurdy gurdy A hurdy gurdy (alternately, hurdy-gurdy) is a stringed musical instrument. ... France has long been considered a centre for European art and music. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The harp is a stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ...


Percussion

Percussion instruments include the tamboril, a snare drum that hangs from the player's belt and is played with two sticks. It is small, natural-skinned and features snares made usually of gut. Along with the bombo, a bass drum played with one stick, the tamboril is typically found as accompaniment to bagpipes. The pandeiro (Asturian: panderu) is a double-faced, square frame drum, similar to the Portuguese and Castilian adufe. It usually contains some beans that rattle inside. It is often played alongside the pandeireta, a large tambourine, in small groups or by a single female singer. A pair of vieira shells (cunchas) are rubbed together, and accompany dancing. Tarrañolas (Asturian and Spanish: tejoletas) are strips of wood held between the fingers. Charrasco consists of a pole with a frame on the top adorned with tambourine rattles; it is played by rubbing a string along the pole with a stick. Other percussion instruments are canaveira and carraca. The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) strethced across the bottom head. ... A bombo is a kind of bass drum used in traditional music in Spain, Portugal and South America. ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... The pandeiro (pronounced: ), is a type of hand frame drum. ... A framedrum is a membranophone that has a drumhead diameter greater than its depth. ... Köçek with tambourine c. ... Vieira is the Portuguese word for shell. Its a common surname of Portuguese and Portuguese-descent persons. ...


Gaita

Though bagpipes are associated to the traditions of Scotland, they are actually found throughout Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and India, including Aragon, Catalonia, León, Majorca, Zamora and Portuguese Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Estremadura. The term gaita may refer to a variety of different pipes, shawms, recorders, flutes and clarinets in different areas of Spain and Portugal. Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... The name Leon or Léon or León may refer to: // Places in Spain León, city León, province Castile-Leon, autonomous community Kingdom of León, historical kingdom Places in North and Central America León, Guanajuato, Mexico León, Nicaragua Places in the United States De... Location Location of Majorca in Balearic Islands Coordinates : 39° 30’N , 3°0E Time Zone : CET (UTC+1) - summer: CEST (UTC+2) General information Native name Mallorca (Catalan) Spanish name Mallorca Postal code 07001-07691 Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Illes Balears) Website http://www. ... Zamora may refer to Ecuador Zamora, Ecuador Zamora-Chinchipe Province Mexico Zamora, Michoacán Gutiérrez Zamora, Veracruz Spain Zamora, Spain Zamora (province) United States Zamora, California Venezuela Zamora Municipality, Aragua Zamora Municipality, Miranda Bobby Zamora, English footballer Ezequiel Zamora, 19th-century Venezuelan military commander Jesús Jiménez Zamora... Miño/Minho designates both the river as well as an adjacent Portuguese region Miño/Minho River The river is the longest in Galicia with an extension of 340 km. ... Photo of the village of Urjais, concelho of Chaves, by J.B. Cesar Tras-os-Montes is a historical province of Portugal located in the northeastern corner of the country. ... Estremadura Estremadura is a historical province of Portugal. ... The shawm was a Renaissance musical instrument of the woodwind family, made in Europe from the late 13th century until the 17th century. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ...


The instrument was common and popular by the 15th century, followed by a decline until the 19th century renaissance of the instrument. The early 20th century saw another decline. Then, beginning in about the 1970s, a roots revival heralded another rebirth. The folk revival may have peaked in the late 1990s, with the release of acclaimed albums by Galician Carlos Núñez (A Irmandade Das Estrelas) and Asturian Hevia (Tierra De Nadie). Both releases broke records, and Tierra De Nadie sold more than a million copies. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Carlos Nuñez is a musician from Galicia, Spain, who plays the gaita, a kind of bagpipes. ... Hevia, or José Ángel Hevia Velasco, is a Spanish bagpiper – specifically, a Asturian gaita piper, from Villaviciosa, Asturias. ...


In the 18th century, an important teaching school was opened in Asturias, created by José Remis Vega. Musicians of that era included the legendary Ramón García Tuero, while the 20th century produced performers like Vega's son, José Remis Ovalle and José Antonio García Suárez. The best-known modern Asturian player is Hevia, whose 1998 Tierra De Nadie was a landmark recording that smashes record sales and became the darling of the Spanish music media. Other modern performers and bands include Tejedor and Xuacu Amieva. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Hevia, or José Ángel Hevia Velasco, is a Spanish bagpiper – specifically, a Asturian gaita piper, from Villaviciosa, Asturias. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... Tejedor is a folk music group from Avilés, Asturias, Spain, consisting of three siblings (Jose, Javier and Eve Tejedor). ...


Traditional use include both solo performances or with a snare-drum known as tamboril (a wooden natural-skinned drum with gut snares), and the bombo, a bass drum. A bombo is a kind of bass drum used in traditional music in Spain, Portugal and South America. ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ...


Galician bagpipes come in three main varieties, though there are exceptions and unique instruments. These include the tumbal (B-flat), grileira (D) and redonda (C). Asturian bagpipes are usually played along with a tambor (snare drum). Asturian bagpipes usually have only one drone and follow a different fingering pattern. A Pandura (tanboura, tanbur, tambora, mandore, pandore, bandora, bandoer, etc. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) strethced across the bottom head. ...


Description

The player inflates the bag using his mouth through a tube fitted with a non-return valve. Air is driven into the chanter (Galician: punteiro; Asturian: punteru) with the left arm controlling the pressure inside the bag. The chanter has a double reed similar to a shawm or oboe, and a conical bore with seven finger-holes on the front. The bass drone (ronco or roncón) is situated on the player's left shoulder and is pitched two octaves below the key note of the chanter; it has a single reed. Some bagpipes have up to two more drones, including the ronquillo or ronquilla, which sticks out from the bag and plays an octave above the ronco, or the smaller chillón. This two extra drones are placed by the right arm of the player. Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... The shawm was a Renaissance musical instrument of the woodwind family, made in Europe from the late 13th century until the 17th century. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ...


The finger-holes include three for the left hand and four for the right, as well as one at the back for the left thumb. The chanter's tonic is played with the top six holes and the thumb hole covered by fingers. Starting at the bottom and (in the Galician fingering pattern) progressively opening holes creates the diatonic scale. Using techniques like cross-fingering and half-holding, the chromatic scale can be created. With extra pressure on the bag, the reed can be played in a second octave, thus giving range of an octave and a half from tonic to top note. It is also possible to close the thumb hole with the little finger of the right hand, thus creating a semitone below the tonic. In Music theory, the diatonic major scale (also known as the Guido scale), from the Greek diatonikos or to stretch out, is a fundamental building block of the European-influenced musical tradition. ... The chromatic scale is the scale that contains all twelve pitches of the Western tempered scale. ...


Songs

Tunes using the gaita are usually songs, with the voice either accompanying the instrumentation or taking turns with it.


The most common type is the muiñeira, found in both Asturias and Galicia, a sprightly 6/8 rhythm. Other 6/8 Galician tunes use different steps; they include the carballesa, ribeirana, redonda, chouteira and contrapaso. Redonda is an uninhabited island dependency of Antigua and Barbuda. ...


The asturian alborada usually-instrumental tune, most often in 2/4, though sometimes 3/4, and is characterized by a series of descending turning phrases. It is used to begin a day's celebrations, and is played at sunrise. Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov included tree asturian movements (two Alboradas and one Fandango Asturiano) in his famous orchestral work Capriccio espagnol, Op. 34, written in 1887. Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian have special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (O.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (O.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a teacher of harmony and... Capriccio espagnol, Op. ... Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning work, is usually used in the sense of a work of art. In this sense the plural of opus, opera, is used to refer to the genre of music drama. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ...


The foliada is a joyful 3/4 jota-type song, often played at romerías (community gatherings at a local shrine).


Songs

The oldest and best-known form of Galician music is the alalá, a form of chanting that has been associated with Galician nationalism. They share characteristics with Celtic nations as well as Castilian, German, Arab and other Mediterranean-area peoples. Their origin is shrouded in mystery, with some scholars asserting Gregorian chants as a major souce, while others fancily point to Greek or Phoenician rowing songs called alelohuías. A chant is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, either on a single pitch or with a simple notes and often including a great deal of repetition or statis. ... Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... Rowing in the Amstel River by a student rowing club. ...


Alalás are arhythmic, and based on a single, short theme that repeats the melody, separated by instrumental bagpipes or a cappella interludes. Melodies are based on a continuous drone and are almost always diatonic. Over time, alalas have adapted to include choral polyphony which has added harmony and rhythms (most typically in 2/4 or 3/4 time) to the tradition. A distinct feature of alalas is that the first cadence is also the last. They end in an enlarged coda that fades into a sustained and undefined sound. In contrast to the typically slow alalá there are also swift songs called pandeirada. A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... A cappella music is vocal music or singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Coda sign Coda (Italian for tail; from the Latin cauda), in music, is a passage which brings a movement or a separate piece to a conclusion through prolongation. ...


Marching tunes (Galician: arruadas, Asturian: pasucáis, Spanish: pasacalles) are also known, as well as the local variation of jota. Jota is a Spanish music and dance. ...


Other Asturian dances include saltón, diana, respingu, pericote, fandango, pasodoble, marcha procesional, rebudixu, corri-corri, baile de los pollos, giraldilla and xiringüelu. Fandangos is a style of flamenco music and dance, probably derived from the jota[]. Philologists link it to the ancient Roman erotic dance known as the cordax (called iconici motus by the poet Horace and the playwright Plautus). ... Pasodoble is a Spanish march-like musical style. ...


Dances

Baile is the term for social dances, though there are also weapon dances like danzas de palillos (stick dances), danzas de espadas (sword dances) and danzas de arcillos (dances with decorated arches) a hallmark of Cantabrian folk tradition. Other popular dance songs in the area include the jota, pasacorredoiras (pasacalles, Asturian: pasucáis), and the imported fandango, mazurka, polka, rumba and pasodoble. Jota is a Spanish music and dance. ... Fandangos is a style of flamenco music and dance, probably derived from the jota[]. Philologists link it to the ancient Roman erotic dance known as the cordax (called iconici motus by the poet Horace and the playwright Plautus). ... The mazurka (Polish: mazurek, probably named after Polands Masuria district) is a Polish folk dance in triple metre with a lively tempo, containing a heavy accent on the third or second beat. ... Street musicians in Prague playing a polka Polka is a type of dance, and also a genre of dance music. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Pasodoble is a Spanish march-like musical style. ...


References

  • Cronshaw, Andrew. "Celtic Iberia". 2001. In Mathieson, Kenny (Ed.), Celtic music, pp. 140-175. Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-623-8

http://www.celtic-musicians.net , The World's Largest Biographical Directory of Celtic Musicians


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias (2430 words)
The traditional music of Galicia and Asturias has some similarities with the neighbouring areas of Cantabria, León, Castile and northern Portugal.
In recent times, many Galician folk musicians have considered Galician music to be at least partially "Celtic" in origin, and whether or not this is the case much modern commercial Galician folk and folk-rock is strongly influenced by Irish and Scottish traditions.
Cantabria has a rich dance repertoire for soprano clarinet, also known as pito or requinto (not to be confounded with the requinta fife).
Music of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2157 words)
Music notation developed in Spain as early as the eighth century (the so-called Visigothic neumes) to notate the chant and other sacred music of the Christian church, but this obscure notation has not yet been deciphered by scholars, and exists only in small fragments.
The music of the Christian church in Spain was known as the music of the Mozarabic Rite, and developed in isolation, not subject to the enforced codification of Gregorian chant under the guidance of Rome around the time of Charlemagne.
Baroque music in Spain, when it arrived, was a pale imitation of Italian models; musical creativity mainly moved into areas of folk and popular music until the nationalist revival of the late Romantic era.
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