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Encyclopedia > Music of Africa
Hand drumming is significant throughout Africa
Hand drumming is significant throughout Africa

The music of Africa is as vast and varied as the continent's many regions, nations and ethnic groups. Although there is no distinctly pan-African music, there are common forms of musical expression, especially within regions. Image File history File links Handdrumming. ... Image File history File links Handdrumming. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The continent of Africa can be conceptually subdivided into a number of regions. ... This is an alphabetical list of African countries and dependencies. ... The continent of Africa can be conceptually subdivided into a number of regions. ...

Some musical genres of northern and northeastern Africa, and the Islands off East Africa, share both traditional African and Middle Eastern features. The Horn of Africa. ... Map of Africa with the northeastern countries highlighted North East Africa is the northeastern portion of the African continent. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The category Middle Eastern music refers to music from the Middle East and its different regions such as North Africa, the Levant and the Persian Gulf States. ...

The music and dance forms of the African diaspora, including many Caribbean and Latin American music genres like rumba and salsa, as well as African American music, were founded to varying degrees on musical traditions from Africa, taken there by African slaves. The African diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and cultures of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America); Europe and Asia. ... The music of the Caribbean is a diverse grouping of musical genres. ... Latin American music, sometimes simply called Latin music in The United States, includes the music of all countries in Latin America and comes in many varieties. ... Rumba is a family of music rhythms and dance styles that originated in Africa and were introduced to Cuba and the New World by African slaves. ... Salsa music is a diverse and predominantly Spanish Caribbean genre that is popular across Latin America and among Latinos abroad. ... An African American man gives a piano lesson to a young African American woman, in 1899 or 1900, in Georgia, USA. Photograph from a collection of W.E.B. DuBois. ... The slave trade in Africa has existed for thousands of years. ...


Musical instruments

Besides using the voice, which has been developed to use various techniques such as complex melisma and yodel, a wide array of musical instruments are used. African musical instruments include a wide array of drums, slit gongs, rattles, double bells as well as melodic instruments like string instruments, (musical bows, different types of harps and harp-like instruments like the Kora as well as fiddles), many types of xylophone and lamellophone such as the mbira and different types of wind instrument like flutes and trumpets. Melisma, in music, is the technique of changing the note (pitch) of a single syllable of text while it is being sung. ... There are several uses of the term Yodel: Yodeling, a form of singing Yodels, a cream-filled cake make by Drakes This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... Slit gong is a primitive type of drum. ... A rattle may be: bird-scaring rattle, a Slovene device used to drive birds off vineyards and a folk instrument football rattle, a noisy ratchet device for showing approval, used by sports fans. ... The Gankoqui (or Gonkoque) is a West African musical instrument, usually made of iron. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... For the device drawn across the strings of string instruments such as the violin to make them sound, see bow (music). ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... The kora is a 21-string harp-lute used extensively by peoples in West Africa. ... “Fiddler” redirects here. ... Kulintang a Kayo, a Philippine xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. ... Lamellophone (also spelled Lamellaphone) describes any of a family of musical instruments. ... Mbira Dzavadzimu in deze (top), Mbira Nyunga Nyunga (bottom), Hosho (bottom left). ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ...

Drums used in African traditional music include tama talking drums, bougarabou and djembe in West Africa, water drums in Central and West Africa, and the different types of ngoma drums (pronounced by some "engoma") in Central and Southern Africa. Other percussion instruments include many rattles and shakers, such as the kosika, rainstick, bells and woodsticks. Many cultures use song and dance to ward off evil spirits, and pay respects to good spirits, the dead, and ancestors. For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... A bougarabou (actual spelling BouGARabou) is a set of three to four drums commonly used in West Africa. ... A basic student djembe A djembe (pronounced jem bay) also known as djimbe, jenbe, jembe, yembe or sanbanyi in Susu; is a skin covered hand drum, shaped like a large goblet, and meant to be played with bare hands. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Water drums are a category of membranophone characterized by the filling of the drum chamber with some amount of water to create a unique sound. ...  Central Africa  Middle Africa (UN subregion)  Central African Federation (defunct) Central Africa is a core region of the African continent often considered to include: Burundi Central African Republic Chad Democratic Republic of the Congo Rwanda Middle Africa (as used by the United Nations when categorising geographic subregions) is an analogous... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Traditional Style Cactus Rainstick A rainstick is a long, hollow tube which is filled with small baubles such as beads or beans and has small pins arranged helically on its inside surface. ...

Relationship to language

Many African languages are tonal languages, leading to a close connection between music and language in many African cultures. In singing, the tonal pattern or the text puts some constraints on the melodic patterns. On the other hand, in instrumental music a native speaker of a language can often perceive a text or texts in the music. This effect also forms the basis of drum languages (talking drums).[citation needed] Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... A Tonal language is a language that uses tone to distinguish words. ... Often invented and used by cultures living in forested areas, drums served as an early form of long distance communication, and were used during ceremonial and religious functions. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ...

Relationship to dance

An African woman, wearing native garments, performs during a visit from participants in the West Africa Training Cruise 1983.
An African woman, wearing native garments, performs during a visit from participants in the West Africa Training Cruise 1983.

The treatment of "music" and "dance" as separate art forms is a European idea. In many African languages there is no concept corresponding exactly to these terms. For example, in many Bantu languages, there is one concept that might be translated as "song" and another that covers both the semantic fields of the European concepts of "music" and "dance". So there is one word for both music and dance (the exact meaning of the concepts may differ from culture to culture). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2750x1850, 1819 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Music of Africa Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2750x1850, 1819 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Music of Africa Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used...

For example, in Kiswahili, the word "ngoma" may be translated as "drum", "dance", "dance event", "dance celebration" or "music", depending on the context. Each of these translations is incomplete. This article is about the language. ...

Therefore, from an intracultural point of view, African music and African dance must be viewed in very close connection. The classification of the phenomena of this area of culture into "music" and "dance" is foreign to many African cultures. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... An African woman, wearing native garments, performs during a visit from participants in the West Africa Training Cruise 1983. ...

Traditional music

A lot of African traditional music is or was performed by professional musicians. Some of it is belong to court music or sacral music traditions, therefore the term "folk" music is not always appropriate. Nevertheless, both the terms "folk music" and "traditional music" can be found in the literature. Traditional Music is a quasi-synonym for folk music. ... Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. ...

Sub-Saharan African folk music and traditional music is mostly functional in nature. There are, for example, many different kinds of work songs, ceremonial or religious music and courtly music performed at royal courts, but none of these are performed outside of their intended social context. This is a list of folk music traditions, with styles, dances, instruments and other related topics. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Music is highly functional in African ethnic life, accompanying childbirth, marriage, hunting, and even political activities. Similarities with other cultures, particularly Indian and Middle Eastern, can be ascribed primarily to the spread of Islam[citation needed]. Parturition redirects here. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...

Popular music

Main article: African popular music

African popular music, like African traditional music, is vast and varied. ...

Influence in American music

African music has been a major factor in the shaping of what we know today as blues and jazz. These styles have all, to some extent, borrowed from African rhythms and sounds, brought over the Atlantic ocean by slaves. Paul Simon, on his album "Graceland" has used African bands and music along with his own lyrics. Blues music redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Paul Frederic Simon (born October 13, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, half of the folk-singing duo Simon and Garfunkel who continues a successful solo career. ... Graceland is an album released in 1986 by Paul Simon. ...

As the rise of rock'n'roll music is often credited as having begun with 1940s blues music, and with so many genres having branched off from rock - the myriad subgenres of heavy metal, punk rock, pop music and many more - it can be argued that African music has been at the root of a very significant portion of all contemporary music. Rock and roll (also spelled rock n roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ...

See also

Africa Portal
Music Portal

Download high resolution version (1624x1824, 535 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Musical_note_nicu_bucule_01. ... Paul Berliner is an important twentieth century ethnomusicologist, best known for specializing in African Music as well as Jazz and other improvizational systems. ... now. ... The International Library of African Music (ILAM) is an organization dedicated to the preservation and study of African music. ... Ashenafi Kebede (1938–May 8, 1998) was an Ethiopian composer, conductor, ethnomusicologist, historical musicologist, music educator, novelist, and poet. ... African popular music, like African traditional music, is vast and varied. ...


  • Tracey, Hugh. (1961). The evolution of African music and its function in the present day. Johannesburg: Institute for the Study of Man in Africa.
  • Lomax, Alan: Folk song style and culture. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Publication No. 88, Washingthon 1968.
  • Lomax, Alan, Bertenieff, Irmgaard, Paulay, Forrestine: Choreometrics: a method for the study or cross-cultural pattern in film. Research Film, Vol 6, No. 6, Göttingen 1969.
  • Koetting, James T (1992). "Africa/Ghana", Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples, Second edition, New York: Schirmer Books, 67-104. ISBN 0-02-872602-2. 
  • Kubik, Gerhard Zum Verstehen Afrikanischer Musik, Aufsätze, Reihe: Ethnologie: Forschung und Wissenschaft, Bd. 7, 2., aktualisierte und ergänzte Auflage, 2004, 448 S., ISBN 3-8258-7800-7 (in German language)
  • Simon, Artur (Ed.), "Musik in Afrika", (Staatliche Museen) Berlin 1983 (in German language)
  • Bender, Wolfgang: Sweet Mother - Moderne afrikanische Musik, 1985, Trickster Verlag, München. ISBN 3-923804-10-5 (in German language)

Hugh Tracey was an important twentieth century ethnomusicologist. ... now. ...

External links

  • African Popular Music: Evolution and Diversity
  • African Music
  • A collection of contemporary & classic African Music videos
  • A glossary of African music styles
  • International Library of African Music at Rhodes University Department of Music And Musicology
  • Rhythms of the Continent (BBC)
  • Some African musical instruments
This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Burkina Faso is home to some 60 different ethnic groups, each with their own variety of folk music. ... Cape Verde is known internationally for morna, a form of folk music usually sung in creole-Portuguese, accompanied by clarinet, accordion, violin, guitar and cavaquinho. ... The Central African Republic includes many different cultures and musical forms. ... Comoros is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean, most an independent nation but also including the French territory of Mayotte. ... Describing the music of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is difficult, due to vagaries surrounding the meanings of various terms. ... Côte dIvoires largest city, Abidjan, is perhaps the most influential city in recorded African music, with performers coming from across the continent to record their singles and albums. ... Equatorial Guineas culture has been less-documented than most African countries, and commercial recording remains scarce. ... São Tomé and Príncipe is an island country off the coast of Africa. ... Sierra Leones music is a mixture of native and French influences. ... The South African music scene includes both popular (jive) and folk forms. ... World map of dependent territories. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... The Canary Islands used to be inhabited by the Guanches which are related to Berbers; they mixed with Spaniards, who live on the islands now. ... Comoros is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean, most an independent nation but also including the French territory of Mayotte. ... The most internationally famous form of music from Zanzibar (one half of Tanzania with Tanganyika) is taarab, which was invented by the Kiswahili Muslim minority. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Culture of Africa encompasses and includes all cultures which were ever in the continent of Africa. ... The architecture of Africa, like other aspects of the culture of Africa, is exceptionally diverse. ... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. ... Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. ... This film, television, or video-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Cinema of Africa A list of African films by country of orign: // A proposito dellAngola (1973) Burned By Blue (2001) Camarada Faz la Coregem Caravana (1992) Carnaval da vitoria (1978) Comboio da Canhoca (1989) Des fusils pour Banta (1970) O Desassossego de Pessoa (2002) Dissidence (1998) O Golpe O... The cuisine of Africa reflects indigenous traditions, as well as influences from Arabs, Europeans, and Asians. ... Ignorance about African cultures can lead to accidental breaches of etiquette. ... African literature generally refers to the novels, short stories, and poetry written by African writers during the 20th century. ... African Writers (by country): This is a list of prominent and notable literary figures from the African continent, listed by country, including poets, novelists, childrens writers, essayists, and scholars, listed by country. ... This is a list of African musicians and musical groups. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... This is a list of African countries/dependencies by population. ... This is a list of African countries/dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km2. ... The HIV/AIDS epidemics spreading through the countries of Sub-saharan Africa are highly varied. ... The following is a list of the 50 most populous cities in Africa. ... This is a list of the largest metropolitan areas in Africa. ... This is a list of the countries in Africa in order of Gross domestic product (GDP), Values are given in Billion USDs. ... Human Development Index is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for countries worldwide. ... Countries using CFA franc There are two African currency unions; the West African Banque Centrale des Etats de lAfrique de lOuest (BCEAO) and the Central African Banque des Etats de lAfrique Centrale (BEAC). ... African nations typically fall toward the bottom of any list measuring economic activity, such as per capita income or per capita GDP, despite a wealth of natural resources. ... The developing nations of Africa are ideal locations for the application of renewable energy technology. ... This is an alphabetical list of African countries and dependencies. ... The vegetation of Africa follows very closely the distribution of heat and moisture. ... This List of impact craters in Africa includes all confirmed impact craters as listed in the Earth Impact Database. ... This is a list of islands of Africa. ... This is a list of rivers of Africa. ... The continent of Africa can be conceptually subdivided into a number of regions. ... The History of Africa begins from the emergence of modern human beings to its current state as a politically developing continent. ... Map showing European claimants to the African continent in 1913. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The slave trade in Africa has existed for thousands of years. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The Decolonisation of Africa was the withdrawal of colonial powers from Africa after World War II.[1] // Main article: Scramble for Africa Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... It is today believed that humanity originated in Africa and as soon as human societies formed so did economic activity. ... There have been a number of African Empires of varying size and influence throughout recorded history. ... The military history of Africa includes many diverse civilizations from antiquity to the modern day. ... A, thus far incomplete, list of conflicts in Africa (arranged by Country), including; Wars between African nations Civil Wars within African nations Colonial Wars/Conflicts in Africa Wars of Independence in African nations Secessionist/Separatist Conflicts in Africa Major episodes of violence (riots, massacres, etc. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... This page lists the most recent (direct) national elections in African countries. ... The situation of human rights in Africa is generally reported to be highly mixed at best, and typically seen as an area of grave concern according to the UN, governmental, and non-governmental observers. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... African Philosophy is a disputed term, used in different ways by different philosophers. ... Countries in Africa who have societies with caste systems within their borders include Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Niger, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Algeria, Nigeria, Chad, Ethiopia and Somalia. ... This is a list of radio stations in Africa. ... This is a list of African television stations. ... The African Cricket Association is an international body which oversees cricket in African countries. ... The All-Africa Games, sometimes called the African Games or Pan African Games, are a regional multi-sport event held every four years, organized by the Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa (ANOCA). ... Australian rules football in Africa is currently only played at an organised level in South Africa, although there have been attempts to introduce the sport in other African nations. ... The 53 member CAF (Confederation of African Football) , (French : Confédération Africaine de Football) , (Arabic : الإتحاد الأفريقى لكرة القدم) represents international football in Africa, and organises the African Cup of Nations, CAF Confederation Cup and the African Champions League. ... The African Cup of Nations, also referred to as the African Nations Cup (ANC) is the main international football competition in Africa. ... The CAR logo. ... The Africa Cup is an annual rugby union tournament involving African nations, organised by the Confederation of African Rugby (CAR). ... FIBA Africa is a zone within the FIBA association which contains all 53 national African FIBA federations, it was founded in 1961. ... Stade des Martyrs has the joint largest capacity in Africa. ... The Tour dAfrique is one of the longest and toughest bicycle races in the world. ... // International organisations African Union See also : African Union The first summit of chiefs of state of the African Unions Peace and Security Council was held in Libreville (Gabon) on January 10 and January 11, 2005. ... ... 2007 in Africa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

  Results from FactBites:
earthcds: cuba, santeria, africa cd music, africa history music, africa in music, africa instrument music, africa king ... (162 words)
Many of these titles are recorded during the actual traditional events that this music comes from.
A portion of all sales from titles under the earthcds label is donated to charities that assist with humanitarian needs in the countries where the music was recorded.
This branch of earthcds is for titles and recordings that have been produced by others and have been acquired by earthcds.
The music of Africa - congolose sokous, zouk, makossa, lingala, mbalax, highlife and more (1054 words)
Their music is a mix of western hip hop, RandB, soul with the rhythms of Africa.
Mory Kante is born in Guinea in 1951.
Koffi was born in the so-called "Democratic Republic of Congo" in 1958.
  More results at FactBites »



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