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Encyclopedia > Music industry

The music industry is the business of music. Although it encompasses the activity of many music-related businesses and organizations, it is currently dominated by the "big four" record groups, also known as "the major labels"/"the majors" — Sony BMG, EMI, Universal and Warner — each of which consists of many smaller companies and labels serving different regions and markets. For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Bertelsmann is a transnational media corporation founded in 1835, based in G tersloh, Germany. ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ... Universal Music Group (UMG) is the largest business group and family of record labels in the recording industry. ... Warner Music Group is one of the Big Four record labels. ...

Contents

Usage

When the term music industry is used in a narrow sense, it refers only to the businesses and organizations that record, produce, publish, distribute, and market recorded music (e.g., music publishers, recording industry, record production companies). This corresponds to the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) that includes sound recording and music publishing activities (J-59). The International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities is a United Nations system for classifying economic data. ...


When the term is used more broadly, it refers to a range of sub-industries that come from a number of different industrial classifications, including Information and Communication (which includes sound recording and music publishing activities), programming and broadcasting activities (e.g., radio stations), education (e.g., music training schools), Arts, entertainment and recreation, and manufacturing and retail sales (e.g., of musical instruments). In this broader sense, the term usually also encompasses not-for-profit organizations such as Musicians' Unions and writers' copyright collectives and performance rights organizations. The International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities is a United Nations system for classifying economic data. ... There are several organizations calling themselves the Musicians Union: For the United Kingdom, see: Musicians Union (UK) For the United States of America, see listing by state: For Alabama, see Musicians Union (Alabama) Category: ‪Music stubs‬ ... A copyright collective (also known as a copyright collecting agency or collecting society) is a body created by private agreements or by copyright law that collects royalty payments from various individuals and groups for copyright holders. ... A performance rights organisation exists to collect and distribute royalties on behalf of audio and video artists, for performances of their copyrighted works under copyright law. ...


History

Until the 1700s, the process of composition and printing of music was mostly supported by patronage from the aristocracy and church. In the mid-to-late 1700s, performers and composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart began to seek commercial opportunities to market their music and performances to the general public. After Mozart's death, his wife (Constanze Weber) continued the process of commercialization of his music through an unprecedented series of memorial concerts, selling his manuscripts, and collaborating with her second husband, Georg Nissen, on a biography of Mozart.[1] ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Churchianity is a negative description of organized religion that characterizes it as emphasizing the institutional forms of Christianity (traditions, rituals, committees, and programs) and omitting the actual gospel teachings of Jesus Christ that forms the basis of Christianity. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Constanze Mozart is perhaps the most unpopular woman in music history,” writes H.C. Robbins Landon. ...


In the 1800s, the music industry was dominated by sheet music publishers. In the United States, the music industry arose in tandem with the rise of blackface minstrelsy. The group of music publishers and songwriters which dominated popular music in the United States was known as Tin Pan Alley. In the early 20th century the phonograph industry grew greatly in importance, and the record industry eventually replaced the sheet music publishers as the industry's largest force. Sheet music is written representation of music. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Tonearm redirects here. ... The record industry is the part of the music industry that earns profit by selling sound recordings of music. ...


Just as radio and television did before it, the advent of file sharing technologies may change the balance between record companies, song writers, and performing artists. Bands such as C-Side have fought back against peer-to-peer programs such as the infamous Napster, and the arguments for and against technology to circumvent them - digital rights management systems - remain controversial. File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ... Napster was a file sharing service that paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs such as Kazaa, Limewire, iMesh, Morpheus, and BearShare, which are now used for many of the same reasons and can download music, pictures, and other files. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ...


With the re-launch of Napster as a legally licensed download site in 2003 (in the US), along with the advent of Apple Computer's iTunes online music store in the same year, the major record companies have begun to embrace digital downloading as the future of the music industry. Apple Inc. ... This article is about the iTunes application. ...


Both Napster and iTunes, with the support of the majors, are promoting a digital music subscription service. This may lead to a fundamental change in the way music is consumed, as a utility that "flows" into a person's house rather than as a commodity that is bought one-by-one. Music may well become purchased 'like water' (Leonhard, 2004), in that people will pay for their monthly consumption of music. The subscription business model is a business model that has long been used by magazines and record clubs, but the application of this model is spreading. ...


Business structure

The music industry is made up of various elements, including:

A record company is an entity that manages sound recording-related brands and trademarks which consist of their owned labels; their owned and licensed master recordings; and various related ancillary businesses such as home video and DVDs. For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... A musical ensemble is a group of two or more musicians who perform instrumental or vocal music. ... There are several organizations calling themselves the Musicians Union: For the United Kingdom, see: Musicians Union (UK) For the United States of America, see listing by state: For Alabama, see Musicians Union (Alabama) Category: ‪Music stubs‬ ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A songwriter is someone who writes the lyrics to songs, the musical composition or melody to songs, or both. ... This article deals with contemporary popular music publishing. ... A copyright collective (also known as a copyright collecting agency or collecting society) is a body created by private agreements or by copyright law that collects royalty payments from various individuals and groups for copyright holders. ... A performance rights organisation exists to collect and distribute royalties on behalf of audio and video artists, for performances of their copyrighted works under copyright law. ... The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) is an organization known as a collecting society that protects copyright, ensuring that music which is broadcast, commercially recorded, or otherwise used for profit, pays a fee to compensate the creators of that music. ... Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI) is a collecting society that protects composers intellectual property in the communications business, especially radio. ... The Mechanical-Copyright Protection Society (MCPS) is the United Kingdom body responsible for collecting and distributing royalties to composers, songwriters and publishers for recording of copyrighted music onto many different formats. ... The PRS (short for Performing Right Society) is the collecting society for UK songwriters, composers and music publishers. ... In the music industry, a record producer (or music producer) has many roles, among them controlling the recording sessions, coaching and guiding the musicians, organizing and scheduling production budget and resources, and supervising the recording, mixing and mastering processes. ... In the music industry, a record label can be a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. ... A record distributor is a company (usually a Record_label) which works with smaller labels to promote and distribute their records, either in their home market or overseas. ... In the music industry, Artists and Repertoire (A&R) is the division of a record label company that is responsible for scouting and artist development. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An agent or representative of musicians and/or recording artists, whose main job is to supervise their business affairs, and the proper handling of their financial matters. ... A band manager is a largely useless person who either steals money from the artist who he claims to represent or supplies drugs to the artist he claims to represent in order that he may steal money from the artist. ... Tour promoters are the people responsible for putting together a tour. ... Booker is the term applied in the music industry to someone who books a concert at a venue or several venues, hence the name. ... The road crew (or roadies) are the technicians who travel with a band on tour, usually in sleeper buses, and handle every part of the concert productions except actually performing the music with the musicians. ... The record industry (or recording industry) is the industry that manufactures and distributes mechanical recordings of music. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... “(TM)” redirects here. ...


Labels may comprise a record group which is, in turn, controlled by a music group. As such, a larger umbrella label may have a number of sub-labels releasing music.


Music publishers exist separately (even if sharing the same ultimate holding company or brand name), and they represent the rights in the compositions - i.e. the music as written rather than as recorded.


Record companies and record labels that are not under the control of the Big Four music groups and music publishers that are not one of the Big Four are generally considered to be independent, even if they are part of large corporations with complex structures. Some prefer to use the term indie label to refer to only those independent labels that adhere to criteria of corporate structure and size, and some consider an indie label to be almost any label that releases non-mainstream music, regardless of its corporate structure. According to US Market Research Firm NPD Group, iTunes recently surpassed Wal-Mart as America's largest music distributor.


Statistics

US music market shares, according to Nielsen SoundScan (2005)
US music market shares, according to Nielsen SoundScan (2005)

Nielsen SoundScan reported that the big four accounted for 81.87% of the US music market in 2005:[2] Image File history File links WMM-nielsen. ... Image File history File links WMM-nielsen. ...

and in 2004, 72.64%: Universal Music Group (UMG) is the largest business group and family of record labels in the recording industry. ... Bertelsmann is a transnational media corporation founded in 1835, based in G tersloh, Germany. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ...

  • Universal Music Group — 29.59%
  • Sony BMG — 28.46% (13.26% Sony, 15.20% BMG)
  • Warner Music Group — 14.68%
  • EMI Group — 9.91%
  • independent labels — 27.36%
World music market sales shares, according to IFPI (2005)
World music market sales shares, according to IFPI (2005)

The global market was estimated at $30-40 billion in 2004.[3] Total annual unit sales (CDs, music videos, mp3s) in 2004 were 3 billion. Image File history File links WMM-IFPI.svg‎ Summary World music market sales share according to IFPI as of 2005. ... Image File history File links WMM-IFPI.svg‎ Summary World music market sales share according to IFPI as of 2005. ... CD redirects here. ... A music video is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ...


According to an IFPI report published in August 2005,[4] the big four accounted for 71.7% of retail music sales: The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) is the organization that represents the interests of the recording industry worldwide. ...

  • Universal Music Group — 25.5%
  • Sony BMG Music Entertainment — 21.5%
  • EMI Group — 13.4%
  • Warner Music Group — 11.3%
  • independent labels — 28.4%

Prior to December 1998, the industry was dominated by the "Big Six": Sony Music and BMG had not yet merged, and PolyGram had not yet been absorbed into Universal Music Group. After the PolyGram-Universal merger, the 1998 market shares reflected a "Big Five", commanding 77.4% of the market, as follows, according to MEI World Report 2000: PolyGram was the name from 1972 of the major label recording company started by Philips as a holding company for its music interests in 1945. ...

Note: the IFPI and Nielsen Soundscan use different methodologies, which makes their figures difficult to compare casually, and impossible to compare scientifically.[5] Universal Music Group (UMG) is the largest business group and family of record labels in the recording industry. ... PolyGram was the name from 1972 of the major label recording company started by Philips as a holding company for its music interests in 1945. ... ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... BMG (Bertelsmann Music Group) is one of the six divisions of Bertelsmann. ... An independent record label is variously described as a record label operating without the funding (or outside the organizations) of the major record labels, and/or a label that subscribes to indie philosophies such as DIY and anti-corporate art. ...


Albums sales and market value

The following table shows album sales and market value in the world in the 1990s–2000s.

N Country Album Sales Share Share of World Market Value
1 USA 37-40% 30-35%
EU 30-32% 31-34%
2 Japan 9-12% 16-19%
3 UK 7-9% 6.4-9.1%
4 Germany 7-8% 6.4-5.3%
5 France 4.5-5.5% 5.4-6.3%
6 Canada 2.6-3.3% 1.9-2.8%
7 Australia 1.5-1.8% 1.5-2.0%
8 Brazil 2.0-3.8% 1.1-3.1%
9 Italy 1.7-2.0% 1.5-2.0%
10 Spain 1.7-2.3% 1.4-1.8%
11 Netherlands 1.2-1.8% 1.3-1.8%
12 Mexico 2.1-4.6% 0.8-1.8%
13 Belgium 0.7-0.8% 0.8-1.2%
14 Switzerland 0.75-0.9% 0.8-1.1%
15 Austria 0.5-0.7% 0.8-1.0%
16 Sweden 0.7-0.9% 0.7-1.0%
17 Russia 2.0-2.9% 0.5-1.4%
18 Taiwan 0.9-1.6% 0.5-1.1%
19 Argentina 0.5-0.7% 0.5-1.0%
20 Denmark 0.45-0.65% 0.5-0.8%

Singles sales

Physical single sales in the world in the 90s-00s and digital single sales in 2005.

N Country Physical Sales Share Digital Sales Share in 2005
EU 34-50% 13.2%
1 Japan 26-32% 1.7%
2 USA 4-25% 85%
3 UK 14.5-16% 6.3%
4 Germany 9-12% 5%
5 France 4-12.5% 1.9%
6 Australia 1.8-4.6% 0.48%
7 Netherlands 1.3-1.7% < 0.2%
8 Belgium 0.8-1.8% < 0.2%
9 Sweden 0.6-0.96% < 0.2%
10 Switzerland 0.5-0.92% < 0.2%
11 Austria 0.58-0.82% < 0.2%
12 Italy 0.3-1.0% < 0.2%
13 Spain 0.3-0.7% < 0.2%
14 Norway 0.3-0.47% < 0.2%
15 Ireland 0.2-0.5% < 0.2%
16 Canada 0.1-0.6% < 0.2%
17 Portugal 0.01-1.0% < 0.2%
18 Republic of South Africa 0.02-0.45% < 0.1%
19 New Zealand 0.19-0.29% < 0.1%
20 Denmark 0.10-0.25% < 0.1%

Recorded Music Interim Physical Retail Sales in 2005

all figures in millions

COUNTRY UNITS VALUE CHANGE
Singles CD DVD Total Units $US Local Currency Units Value
1 USA 14.7 300.5 11.6 326.8 4783.2 4783.2 -5.70% -5.30%
2 Japan 28.5 93.7 8.5 113.5 2258.2 239759 -6.90% -9.20%
3 UK 24.3 66.8 2.9 74.8 1248.5 666.7 -1.70% -4.00%
4 Germany 8.5 58.7 4.4 71 887.7 689.7 -7.70% -5.80%
5 France 11.5 47.3 4.5 56.9 861.1 669.1 7.50% -2.70%
6 Italy 0.5 14.7 0.7 17 278 216 -8.40% -12.30%
7 Canada 0.1 20.8 1.5 22.3 262.9 325 0.70% -4.60%
8 Australia 3.6 14.5 1.5 17.2 259.6 335.9 -22.90% -11.80%
9 Spain 1 17.5 1.1 19.1 231.6 180 -13.40% -15.70%
10 Netherlands 1.2 8.7 1.9 11.1 190.3 147.9 -31.30% -19.80%
11 Russia - 25.5 0.1 42.7 187.9 5234.7 -9.40% 21.20%
12 Mexico 0.1 33.4 0.8 34.6 187.9 2082.3 44.00% 21.50%
13 Brazil 0.01 17.6 2.4 24 151.7 390.3 -20.40% -16.50%
14 Austria 0.6 4.5 0.2 5 120.5 93.6 -1.50% -9.60%
15 Switzerland ** 0.8 7.1 0.2 7.8 115.8 139.2 n/a n/a
16 Belgium 1.4 6.7 0.5 7.7 115.4 89.7 -13.80% -8.90%
17 Norway 0.3 4.5 0.1 4.8 103.4 655.6 -19.70% -10.40%
18 Sweden 0.6 6.6 0.2 7.2 98.5 701.1 -29.00% -20.30%
19 India - 10.9 - 55.3 79.2 3456.6 -19.20% -2.40%
20 Denmark 0.1 4 0.1 4.2 73.1 423.5 3.70% -4.20%
Top 20 74.5 757.1 42.8 915.2 12378.7 -6.60% -6.30%

In its June 30, 2000 annual report filed with the SEC, Seagram reported that Universal Music Group was responsible for 40% of worldwide classical music sales over the preceding year.[6] is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Securities and Exchange Commission, commonly referred to as the SEC, is the United States governing body which has primary responsibility for overseeing the regulation of the securities industry. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...


Music industry organizations

RIAA redirects here. ... The RIAA Logo. ... The American Federation of Musicians (AFM) is a labor union of professional musicians in the United States and Canada. ... AFM is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: Atomic force microscope or microscopy Adobe Font Metrics file format AFM Records a record company Adventist Frontier Missions, an outreach organization affiliated with the Seventh-day Adventist Church the American Federation of Musicians the American Federation of Motorcyclists... The American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) is a performers union that represents a wide variety of talent, including actors in radio and television, as well as radio and television announcers and newspersons, singers and recording artists (both royalty artists and background singers), promo and voice-over announcers... The American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) is an actors union that aims to represent actors in radio and television, much like the Screen Actors Guild does for movies. ... The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) is an organization known as a collecting society that protects copyright, ensuring that music which is broadcast, commercially recorded, or otherwise used for profit, pays a fee to compensate the creators of that music. ... The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) is an organization known as a collecting society that protects intellectual property, ensuring that music which is broadcast, commercially recorded, or otherwise used for profit, pays a fee to compensate the creators of that music. ... Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI) is a collecting society that protects composers intellectual property in the communications business, especially radio. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The AARC Logo. ... The Recording Artists Coalition (RAC) is an American music industry organization that represents recording artists, and attempts to defend their rights and interests. ... There are several organizations calling themselves the Musicians Union: For the United Kingdom, see: Musicians Union (UK) For the United States of America, see listing by state: For Alabama, see Musicians Union (Alabama) Category: ‪Music stubs‬ ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Country Music Association (CMA) was founded in 1958 in Nashville, Tennessee. ... The Harry Fox Agency is one of the main US agencies for collecting and distributing licence fees on behalf of music publishers. ... The Academy of Country Music (ACM) was founded in 1964 in Los Angeles, California. ... The Mechanical-Copyright Protection Society (MCPS) is the United Kingdom body responsible for collecting and distributing royalties to composers, songwriters and publishers for recording of copyrighted music onto many different formats. ... The PRS (short for Performing Right Society) is the collecting society for UK songwriters, composers and music publishers. ... The National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences is known variously as NARAS or The Recording Academy. ...

Further reading

  • Krasilovsky, William; Shemel, Sidney: This Business of Music, Billboard Books, ISBN 978-0823077236
  • Lebrecht, Norman: When the Music Stops: Managers, Maestros and the Corporate Murder of Classical Music, Simon & Schuster 1996
  • Imhorst, Christian: The ‘Lost Generation’ of the Music Industry, published under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License 2004
  • Leonhard, Gerd: Music Like Water - the inevitable music ecosystem
  • The Methods Reporter: Music Industry Misses Mark with Wrongful Suits
  • Music CD Industry - a mid-2000 overview put together by Duke University undergraduate students
  • d’Angelo, Mario: Does globalisation mean ineluctable concentration ? in The Music Industry in the New Economy, Report of the Asia-Europe Seminar, Lyon, 25-28 oct. 2001, IEP de Lyon/Asia-Europe Foundation/Eurical, Editors Roche F., Marcq B., Colomé D., 2002, pp. 53-54.
  • d'Angelo, Mario: Perspectives of the Management of Musical Institutions in Europe, OMF, Musical Activities and Institutions Sery, ParisIV-Sorbonne University, Ed. Musicales Aug. Zurfluh, Bourg-la-Reine, 2006.
  • The supply of recorded music: A report on the supply in the UK of prerecorded compact discs, vinyl discs and tapes containing music. Competition Commission, 1994.

GFDL redirects here. ... Gerd Leonhard (‘61) is an acknowledged futurist, visionary, blogger, digerati, writer, speaker and advisor. ...

References

  1. ^ Dear Constanze The Guardian
  2. ^ Paul Cashmere (2006-01-05). Universal Is The Biggest Music Company of 2005. Undercover (Australia). Retrieved on 2006-05-27.
  3. ^ According to the RIAA the world music market is estimated at $40 billion, but according to IFPI (2004) it is estimated at $32 billion.
  4. ^ IFPI releases definitive statistics on global market for recorded music
  5. ^ [1]"Digital Music Futures and the Independent Music Industry", Clicknoise, February 1, 2007.
  6. ^ BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES The Seagram Company Ltd.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This is a list of record labels. ... This is the list of best selling music artists (including groups) worldwide, alltime. ... The record industry is the part of the music industry that earns profit by selling sound recordings of music. ... An album cover is a cover used to package commercial audio recordings such as the printed cardboard covers that were typically used to package 12 gramophone records from the 1960s through to the 1980s when the 12 record was the major format for distribution of popular music. ...

External links

  • http://www.musicindustrylearning.com - Music Industry learning "Making It In Music"
  • Find Music - Online Music search.
  • http://www.musicindustrylinks.com - Online Music Industry Links Directory
  • http://www.themusicconnect.com - Music industry tips and advice
  • http://www.move.de/amm/ECON.htm - CD-Markets size in 1996
  • http://www.zobbel.de/ - World records sales in years 1994/95/97/98.
  • http://www.HitQuarters.com - World Top 20 A&R Chart
  • http://www.TheMusicSnob.com - The brains of the music industry.
  • http://www.DownhillBattle.org - Fighting the "big four" monopoly.
  • http://www.allmusicindustrycontacts.com - Music Industry Contacts
  • The Best Music
For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For the academic study of history of music, see Music history. ... Ancient music is music that developed in literate cultures, replacing prehistoric music. ... The category Middle Eastern music refers to music from the Middle East and its different regions such as North Africa, the Levant and the Persian Gulf States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1750 to 1830, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... A revolution occurred in 20th century music listening as the radio gained popularity worldwide, and new media and technologies were developed to record, capture, reproduce and distribute music. ... In the broadest sense, contemporary music is any music being written in the present day. ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... Image File history File links GClef. ... Musical composition is a phrase used in a number of contexts, the most commonly used being a piece of music. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in... In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Musical improvisation is the spontaneous creative process of making music while it is being performed. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... A History of Western Music Seventh Edition by J. Peter Burkholder, Donald J. Grout, and Claude V. Palisca is one of several popular books used to teach Music History in North America. ... For album by Prince, see Musicology (album). ... Ethnomusicology, formerly comparative musicology, is cultural musicology or the study of music in its cultural context. ... Music cognition is an interdisciplinary field involving such disparate areas as cognitive science, music theory, psychology, musicology, neuroscience, computer science, philosophy, psychoacoustics, etc. ... Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a qualified professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... Look up lyrics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the musical composition. ... An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. ... A compilation album is an album (music or spoken-word) featuring tracks from one or multiple recording artists, often culled from a variety of sources (such as studio albums, live albums, singles, demos and outtakes. ... In the music industry, a record label can be a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. ... In the music industry, a record producer (or music producer) has many roles, among them controlling the recording sessions, coaching and guiding the musicians, organizing and scheduling production budget and resources, and supervising the recording, mixing and mastering processes. ... This page aims to list articles related to music. ... Music is a human expression in the medium of time using the structures of sounds or tones and silence. ... This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores. ... A list of musical forms. ... The following is a list of musical instruments, categorized by section. ... The definition of music is a contested evaluation of what constitutes music and varies through history, geography, and within societies. ... Music theorists often use mathematics to understand musical structure and communicate new ways of hearing music. ... There is a long history of the connection between music and politics, particularly political expression in music. ...

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With royalty free corporate and industrial music, professionals get tracks and albums of music in many different invigorating styles such as rock and techno along with those that are more subtle and inspiring, such as pieces of original royalty free music in the light jazz, light rock and even classical music genres.
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