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Encyclopedia > Mushroom
The mushroom Amanita muscaria, commonly known as "fly agaric"
The mushroom Amanita muscaria, commonly known as "fly agaric"

A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard for the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, hence the word mushroom is most often applied to fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) on the underside of the cap just as do store-bought white mushrooms. However, "mushroom" can also refer to a wide variety of gilled fungi, with or without stems, and the term is used even more generally to describe both the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota and the woody or leathery fruiting bodies of some Basidiomycota, depending upon the context of the word. Forms deviating from the standard form usually have more specific names, such as "puffball", "stinkhorn", and "morel", and gilled mushrooms themselves are often called "agarics" in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their placement in the order Agaricales. By extension, "mushroom" can also designate the entire fungus when in culture or the thallus (called a mycelium) of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms. The word mushroom may also refer to one of the following. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1745x2569, 453 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mushroom Agaric Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1745x2569, 453 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mushroom Agaric Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Binomial name (L.:Fr. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Mushroom In fungi, the fruiting body (also known as sporocarp) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Binomial name (J.E.Lange) Imbach Agaricus bisporus, known as table mushroom, cultivated mushroom or button mushroom, is an edible basidiomycete fungus which naturally occurs in grasslands, fields and meadows across Europe and North America, though has spread much more widely and is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms... Subphyla/Classes Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Agaricomycotina Incertae sedis (no phylum) Wallemiomycetes Entorrhizomycetes Basidiomycota is one of two large phyla, that together with the Ascomycota, comprise the subkingdom Dikarya, which were in general what were called the Higher Fungi within the Kingdom Fungi. ... Hymenomycetes are a class of fungi within the genus basidiomycota. ... In common parlance, a stem is any elongated, usually narrow, extension or supporting structure of an object. ... Diagram of a basidiomycete stipe with a annulus and vulva In mycology a stipe refers to the stem or stalk-like feature supporting the cap of a mushroom. ... The cap of a fungal fruiting body. ... Mushroom gills Mushroom gills revealed through backlighting. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores... Subphyla/Classes Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Agaricomycotina Incertae sedis (no phylum) Wallemiomycetes Entorrhizomycetes Basidiomycota is one of two large phyla, that together with the Ascomycota, comprise the subkingdom Dikarya, which were in general what were called the Higher Fungi within the Kingdom Fungi. ... For the 2007 motion picture, see Puffball (film). ... Genera Clathrus Mutinus Phallus Stinkhorns are a type of fungus which produce a foul-scented, rod-shaped mushroom. ... Species Morchella angusticeps Morchella conica Morchella costata Morchella crassipes Morchella elata Morchella esculenta Morchella gigas Morchella semilibera Morchella spongiola Morchella spongiola var. ... The agaric Amanita muscaria, late August, Norway Agaric meaning ‘tree-fungus: from Latin agaricum. ... Agaricus is a large and important genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with possibly over 300 members worldwide[1][2]. The genus includes the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), and the Field mushroom (Agaricus campestris) the dominant cultivated mushrooms of the West. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Thallus is an undifferentiated vegetative tissue (without specialization of function) of some non-mobile organisms, which were previously known as the thallophytes. ... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. ...

Contents

Identification

Identifying mushrooms requires a basic understanding of their macroscopic structure. Most are Basidiomycetes and gilled. Their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills and fall in a fine rain of powder from under the caps as a result. At the microscopic level the basidiospores are shot off of basidia and then fall between the gills in the dead air space. As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and placed gill-side-down overnight, a powdery impression reflecting the shape of the gills (or pores, or spines, etc.) is formed (when the fruitbody is sporulating). The color of the powdery print, called a spore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them. Spore print colors include white (most common), brown, black, purple-brown, pink, yellow, and cream, but almost never blue, green, or red. Macroscopic is commonly used to describe physical objects that are measurable and observable by the naked eye. ... Classes Subdivision Teliomycotina    Urediniomycetes Subdivision Ustilaginomycotina    Ustilaginomycetes Subdivision Hymenomycotina    Homobasidiomycetes - mushrooms The Division Basidiomycota is a large taxon within the Kingdom Fungi that includes those species that produce spores in a club_shaped structure called a basidium. ... A basidiospore is a spore produced by mushrooms of Fungi division Basidiomycota. ... Basidium is a cell on which the spores of the mushroom are produced. ... Making a spore print of the mushroom Volvariella volvacea shown in composite: (photo lower half) mushroom cap laid on white and dark paper; (photo upper half) cap removed after 24 hours showing pinkish-tan spore print. ...


While modern identification of mushrooms is quickly becoming molecular, the standard methods for identification are still used by most and have developed into a fine art harking back to medieval times and the Victorian era, combined with microscopic examination. The presence of juices upon breaking, bruising reactions, odors, tastes, shades of color, habitat, habit, and season are all considered by mycologists, amateur and professional alike. Tasting and smelling mushrooms carries its own hazards because of poisons and allergens. Chemical tests are also used for some genera. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... Look up test in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In general, identification to genus can often be accomplished in the field using a local mushroom guide. Identification to species, however, requires more effort; one must remember that a mushroom develops from a button stage into a mature structure, and only the latter can provide certain characteristics needed for the identification of the species. However, over-mature specimens lose features and cease producing spores. Many novices have mistaken humid water marks on paper for white spore prints, or discolored paper from oozing liquids on lamella edges for colored spored prints. For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


Classification

The genus Trichaptum, an example of a polypore, a mushroom without a stalk, fruiting on a log
The genus Trichaptum, an example of a polypore, a mushroom without a stalk, fruiting on a log

Typical mushrooms are the fruitbodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom, Agaricus campestris. However, in modern molecularly defined classifications, not all members of the order Agaricales produce mushroom fruitbodies, and many other gilled fungi, collectively called mushrooms, occur in other orders in the class Agaricomycetes. For example, chanterelles are in the Cantharellales, false chanterelles like Gomphus are in the Gomphales, milk mushrooms (Lactarius) and russulas (Russula) as well as Lentinellus are in the Russulales, while the tough leathery genera Lentinus and Panus are among the Polyporales, but Neolentinus is in the Gloeophyllales, and the little pin-mushroom genus, Rickenella, along with similar genera, are in the Hymenochaetales. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 3. ... Genera Polyporus . ... Basidiocarps of Amanita muscaria. ... Schematic of a typical basidiocarp, showing fruiting body, hymenium and basidia. ... Diagram of an apothecium showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Agaricus is a large and important genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with possibly over 300 members worldwide[1][2]. The genus includes the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), and the Field mushroom (Agaricus campestris) the dominant cultivated mushrooms of the West. ... Binomial name Agaricus campestris (L. 1753) Agaricus campestris, commonly known as the Field mushroom or, in North America, Meadow mushroom, is a widely eaten gilled mushroom closely related to the button mushroom. ... Hymenomycetes are a class of fungi within the genus basidiomycota. ... Species Cantharellus is a genus with many delicious and popular edible mushrooms. ... Families    Aphelariaceae    Botryobasidiaceae    Cantharellaceae    Clavulinaceae    Hydnaceae The order Cantharellales is a group of fungi that includes the chanterelles, the tooth fungi, and some club fungi. ... Gomphus can refer to either one of two genera of living organism: Gomphus, a small genus of fungus. ... To find out more about the order Gomphales, select another rank from the taxobox. ... Species blennius deliciosus pyrogalus quietus tabidus torminosus vellerius vietus etc. ... Around 750 worldwide species of mushrooms compose the genus Russula. ... This article or section should be merged with Agaricales Families Auriscalpiaceae Corticiaceae Hericiaceae Meruliaceae Rusulaceae Stereaceae Russulales is an order of agarics (Basidiomycota, Fungi). ... Families    .    . Polyporales (earlier known as Aphyllophorales) are important decomposers of wood. ... Species The genus Neolentinus was described as segregate of Lentinus (as used in a broad taxonomic sense) and is partially distinguished by the fact that Neolentinus species produce a brown rot type of decay of wood, whereas Lentinus causes a white rot. ... A genus of brightly colored bryophilous agarics in the Hymenochaetales that have an omphalinoid morphology[1][2][3][4][1] [2][3]. They inhabit mosses on mossy soils, peats, tree trunks and logs in temperate regions of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ... Families Hymenochaetaceae Schizoporaceae The Hymenochaetales is an order of basidiomycete fungi. ...


Within the main body of mushrooms, in the Agaricales, are common fungi like the common fairy-ring mushroom (Marasmius oreades), shiitake, enoki, oyster mushrooms, fly agarics, and other amanitas, magic mushrooms like species of Psilocybe, paddy straw mushrooms, shaggy manes, etc. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Marasmius oreades There are about 300 species of agarics in the genus Marasmius (family Marasmiaceae), which contains a few edible species such as Marasmius oreades. ... Binomial name Lentinula edodes (Berk. ... Species Flammulina callistosporioides Flammulina elastica Flammulina fennae Flammulina ferrugineolutea Flammulina mediterranea Flammulina mexicana Flammulina ononidis Flammulina populicola Flammulina rossica Flammulina similis Flammulina stratosa Flammulina velutipes Enokitake (Japanese: えのき茸), Chinese:金针菇, Pinyin:jīnzhēngū ) are long and thin white mushrooms used in the Cuisine of Japan and China. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pleurotus. ... Binomial name Amanita muscaria Amanita muscaria is a basidiomycete mushroom of the genus Amanita. ... Species 600, see List of Amanita species Synonyms Aspidella The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics including some of the most toxic known mushrooms found worldwide. ... Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... Type species Psilocybe montana Species List of Psilocybe species Psilocybe is a genus of small mushrooms growing worldwide. ... Mushrooms of the genus Volvariella account for 16% of total production of cultivated mushrooms in the world. ... Coprinus comatus, the shaggy ink cap, lawyers wig, or shaggy mane, is a common fungus often seen growing on lawns. ...


An atypical mushroom is the Lobster mushroom, which is a deformed, cooked-lobster-colored parasitized fruitbody of a Russula or Lactarius colored and deformed by the mycoparasitic Ascomycete Hypomyces lactifluorum.[1] Binomial name Hypomyces lactifluorum (Schwein. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Around 750 worldwide species of mushrooms compose the genus Russula. ... Species blennius deliciosus pyrogalus quietus tabidus torminosus vellerius vietus etc. ... Classes Archaeascomycetes Hemiascomycetes Euascomycetes Neolectomycetes Pezizomycotina Pneumocystidomycetes Saccharomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes mitosporic Ascomycota Members of the Division Ascomycota are known as the Sac Fungi and are fungi that produce spores in a distinctive type of microscopic sporangium called an ascus (Greek for a bag or wineskin). This monophyletic grouping was formerly... Binomial name Hypomyces lactifluorum (Schwein. ...


Other mushrooms are non-gilled, and then the term "mushroom" is loosely used, so that it is difficult to give a full account of their classifications. Some have pores underneath (and are usually called boletes), others have spines, such as the hedgehog mushroom and other tooth fungi, and so on. "Mushroom" has been used for polypores, puffballs, jelly fungi, coral fungi, bracket fungi, stinkhorns, and cup fungi. Thus, the term mushroom is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning. There are approximately 14,000 described species of mushrooms.[2] A bolete is a type of fungal fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus that is clearly differentiated from the stipe, with a spongy surface of pores (rather than gills) on the underside of the pileus. ... Binomial name Hydnum repandum L., Fr. ... Tooth fungi are a relatively small group of fungi whose mushroom bears its spores on a hymenium - a layer of mother cells - that grow on the outside of tooth-like spines. ... Genera Polyporus . ... For the 2007 motion picture, see Puffball (film). ... Orders Tremellales Auriculariales Dacryomycetales Ceratobasidiales Tulasnellales The Class Heterobasidiomycetes or jelly fungi comprises the five fungal orders: Tremellales, Auriculariales, Dacryomycetales, Ceratobasidiales, and Tulasnellales. ... Genera Clavaria Clavariadelphus Clavicorona Clavulina Clavulinopsis Macrotyphula Ramaria Ramariopsis Coral fungi (also called antler fungi by some) are mushrooms that are so named due to their resemblance to aquatic coral or antlers. ... A bracket fungus(Pycnoporus A bracket fungus, this one grooved and hairy, especially at the margins Bracket fungi, or shelf fungus, are fungi of the family Polyporaceae, notable for bearing fruiting bodies (conk) as or in a bracket: a grouping of individual mushroom caps that lie in a close planar... Genera Clathrus Mutinus Phallus Stinkhorns are a type of fungus which produce a foul-scented, rod-shaped mushroom. ... Cup fungi are fungi (Ascomycota: family Pezizaceae) which produce a mushroom that tends to grow in the shape of a cup. Spores are formed on the inner surface of this fruiting body (mushroom). ... Macroscopic is commonly used to describe physical objects that are measurable and observable by the naked eye. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ...

The relative sizes of the cap (pileus) and stalk (stipe) vary widely. Shown here is a species of Macrolepiota.
The relative sizes of the cap (pileus) and stalk (stipe) vary widely. Shown here is a species of Macrolepiota.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (373x799, 97 KB) Summary I took this photograph and I release it to the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (373x799, 97 KB) Summary I took this photograph and I release it to the public domain. ... Pileus may mean: In science: Pileus (mycology), the cap of a mushroom. ... Diagram of a basidiomycete stipe with a annulus and vulva In mycology a stipe refers to the stem or stalk-like feature supporting the cap of a mushroom. ...

Mushroom vs. toadstool

The terms "mushroom" and "toadstool" go back centuries and were never precisely defined, nor was there consensus on application. The term "toadstool" was often but not exclusively applied to poisonous mushrooms or to those that have the classic umbrella-like cap-and-stem form. Between 1400 and 1600 A.D., the terms tadstoles, frogstooles, frogge stoles, tadstooles, tode stoles, toodys hatte, paddockstool, puddockstool, paddocstol, toadstoole, and paddockstooles sometimes were used synonymously with mushrom, mushrum, muscheron, mousheroms, mussheron, or musserouns.[3] The term "mushroom" and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss (mousse). There may have been a direct connection to toads (in reference to poisonous properties) for toadstools. However, there is no clear-cut delineation between edible and poisonous fungi, so that a "mushroom" may be edible, poisonous, or unpalatable. The term "toadstool" is nowadays used in storytelling when referring to poisonous or suspect mushrooms. The classic example of a toadstool is Amanita muscaria. For other uses, see Toad (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.:Fr. ...


Growth rates

Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding rapidly. This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions in the English language including "to mushroom" or "mushrooming" (expanding rapidly in size or scope) and "to pop up like a mushroom" (to appear unexpectedly and quickly). In actuality all species of mushrooms take several days to form primordial mushroom fruitbodies, though they do expand rapidly by the absorption of fluids. The cultivated mushroom as well as the common field mushroom initially form a minute fruiting body, referred to as the pin stage because of their small size. Slightly expanded they are called buttons, once again because of the relative size and shape. Once such stages are formed, the mushroom can rapidly pull in water from its mycelium and expand, mainly by inflating preformed cells that took several days to form in the primordia. Similarly, there are even more ephemeral mushrooms, like Parasola plicatilis ([1] formerly Coprinus plicatlis), that literally appear overnight and may disappear by late afternoon on a hot day after rainfall. The primordia form at ground level in lawns in humid spaces under the thatch and after heavy rainfall or in dewy conditions balloon to full size in a few hours, release spores, and then collapse. They "mushroom" to full size. The slang term "mushrooms" is a gang-related term for victims accidentally shot as collateral damage simply because they popped up suddenly, as do fungal mushrooms.[4] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Binomial name (J.E.Lange) Imbach Agaricus bisporus, known as table mushroom, cultivated mushroom or button mushroom, is an edible basidiomycete fungus which naturally occurs in grasslands, fields and meadows across Europe and North America, though has spread much more widely and is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms... Binomial name Agaricus campestris (L. 1753) Agaricus campestris, commonly known as the Field mushroom or, in North America, Meadow mushroom, is a widely eaten gilled mushroom closely related to the button mushroom. ... Mushroom In fungi, the fruiting body (also known as sporocarp) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne. ... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... A primordia is the first stage in the development of an organ. ... Genera Coprinellus Coprinopsis Coprinus Lacrymaria Parasola Psathyrella The Psathyrellaceae is a family of agarics formerly known as the Coprinaceae. ... Species atramentarius comatus micaceus picaceus The genus Coprinus (commonly known as Ink caps) is a group of basidiomycete fungi, having the principal characteristic that the gills deliquesce (turn to ink) at maturity. ... Thatching is the art or craft of covering a roof with vegetative materials such as straw, reed or sedge. ... Dew on a spider web Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening. ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ...

Yellow, flower pot mushrooms (Leucocoprinus birnbaumii) at various states of development
Yellow, flower pot mushrooms (Leucocoprinus birnbaumii) at various states of development

Not all mushrooms expand overnight; some grow very slowly and add tissue to their fruitbodies by growing from the edges of the colony or by inserting hyphae. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1748 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1748 pixel, file size: 2. ... Binomial name (Corda) Singer (1961) Leucocoprinus birnbaumii, the yellow houseplant mushroom, previously known as Lepiota lutea, is a common fungus that grows in many house plants, generally occurring in warmer areas, or in greenhouses or potted plants. ... A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filament that, with other hyphae, forms the feeding thallus of a fungus called the mycelium. ...


Size and age

Though mushroom fruiting bodies are short-lived, the underlying mycelial colony can itself be long-lived and massive. A colony of Armillaria ostoyae in Malheur National Forest in the United States is estimated to be 2,400 years old, possibly older, and spans an estimated 2,200 acres. Most of the fungus is underground and in decaying wood or dying tree roots in the form of white mycelia combined with black shoelace-like rhizomorphs that bridge colonized separated woody substrates.[5] Binomial name Armillaria ostoyae Armillaria ostoyae is the binomial name for one species of fungus commonly known as a Honey mushroom, and sometimes called Shoestring Rot. This is the most common variant in the western US, of the group of species that all used to share the name, Armillaria mellea. ... The Malheur National Forest contains 1. ... The fungal cords, found under the rotting log Armilaria cords Mycelial cords - a linear aggregations of the parallel oriented hyphae. ...


Human use

The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms in the world.
The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms in the world.
Further information: Ethnomycology

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Binomial name Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange) Imbach The Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is a gilled fungus which naturally occurs in Europe and North America, though now occurs much more widely. ... Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi, most specifically psychoactive mushrooms such as Amanita muscaria and those containing psilocybin, and can be considered a branch of both mycology and anthropology. ...

Edible mushrooms

Edible mushrooms are used extensively in cooking, in many cuisines (notably Chinese, European, and Japanese). Though mushrooms are commonly thought to have little nutritional value, many species are high in fiber and provide vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, cobalamins, ascorbic acid. Though not normally a significant source of vitamin D, some mushrooms can become significant sources after exposure to ultraviolet light, though this also darkens their skin.[6] Mushrooms are also a source of some minerals, including iron, selenium, potassium and phosphorus. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Morphological characteristics of the caps of mushroom, such as those illustrated in the above chart, are essential for correct mushroom identification. ... Fungiculture is the process of producing food, medicine, and other products by the cultivation of mushrooms and other fungi. ... White mushrooms being prepared for cooking. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... See the individual entries for: // Belarusian cuisine Bulgarian cuisine Czech cuisine Hungarian cuisine Jewish cuisine Polish cuisine Romanian cuisine Russian cuisine Slovak cuisine Slovenian cuisine Ukrainian cuisine British cuisine English cuisine Scottish cuisine Welsh cuisine Anglo-Indian cuisine Modern British cuisine Nordic cuisine Danish cuisine Finnish cuisine Icelandic cuisine Lappish... There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine. ... For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Vitamin H redirects here. ... Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B12 (or B12 for short). ... This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Fe redirects here. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ...


Most mushrooms that are sold in supermarkets have been commercially grown on mushroom farms. The most popular of these, Agaricus bisporus, is safe for most people to eat because it is grown in controlled, sterilized environments, though some individuals do not tolerate it well. Several varieties of A. bisporus are grown commercially, including whites, crimini, and portabello. Other cultivated species now available at many grocers include shiitake, maitake or hen-of-the-woods, oyster, and enoki. Binomial name (J.E.Lange) Imbach Agaricus bisporus, known as table mushroom, cultivated mushroom or button mushroom, is an edible basidiomycete fungus which naturally occurs in grasslands, fields and meadows across Europe and North America, though has spread much more widely and is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms... Binomial name Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange) Imbach The Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms in the world. ... Binomial name Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange) Imbach Agaricus bisporus is a gilled fungus which naturally occurs in Europe and North America, though now occurs much more widely. ... Binomial name Lentinula edodes (Berk. ... Binomial name Grifola frondosa (Dicks. ... Binomial name Grifola frondosa (Dicks. ... Binomial name Pleurotus ostreatus Champ. ... Species Flammulina callistosporioides Flammulina elastica Flammulina fennae Flammulina ferrugineolutea Flammulina mediterranea Flammulina mexicana Flammulina ononidis Flammulina populicola Flammulina rossica Flammulina similis Flammulina stratosa Flammulina velutipes Enokitake (Japanese: えのき茸), Chinese:金针菇, Pinyin:jīnzhēngū ) are long and thin white mushrooms used in the Cuisine of Japan and China. ...

Mushroom and Truffle output in 2005
Mushroom and Truffle output in 2005

There are a number of species of mushroom that are poisonous, and although some resemble certain edible species, eating them could be fatal. Eating mushrooms gathered in the wild is risky and should not be undertaken by individuals not knowledgeable in mushroom identification, unless the individuals limit themselves to a relatively small number of good edible species that are visually distinctive. More generally, and particularly with gilled mushrooms, separating edible from poisonous species requires meticulous attention to detail; there is no single trait by which all toxic mushrooms can be identified, nor one by which all edible mushrooms can be identified. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mushroom and truffle output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 1,410,540 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mushroom and truffle output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 1,410,540 tonnes). ... For other uses, see Truffle. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ...


People who collect mushrooms for consumption are known as mycophagists, and the act of collecting them for such is known as mushroom hunting, or simply "mushrooming". Morphological characteristics of the caps of mushroom, such as those illustrated in the above chart, are essential for correct mushroom identification. ...


Toxic mushrooms

Main article: Mushroom poisoning
The Panther cap (Amanita pantherina), a toxic mushroom
The Panther cap (Amanita pantherina), a toxic mushroom

Of central interest with respect to the chemical properties of mushrooms is the fact that many species produce secondary metabolites that render them toxic, mind-altering, or even bioluminescent. Though there are only a small number of deadly species, several have particularly severe and unpleasant symptoms. Toxicity likely plays a role in protecting the function of the basidiocarp: the mycelium has expended considerable energy and protoplasmic material to develop a structure to efficiently distribute its spores. One defense against consumption and premature destruction is the evolution of chemicals that render the mushroom inedible, either causing the consumer to vomit (see emetics) the meal or avoid consumption altogether. Poison Mushroom redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 442 KB) Amanita pantherina September 2005 - Piacenzas mountains - Italy by Archenzo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mushroom Amanita pantherina ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 442 KB) Amanita pantherina September 2005 - Piacenzas mountains - Italy by Archenzo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mushroom Amanita pantherina ... Panther Cap founded the Toad Patrol and started this group because Mistle Toad taught him about the great migration that he missed and that he had to get to the Fairy Ring before it closed or he would never see his family again. ... Secondary metabolites, also known as natural products, are those products (chemical compounds) of metabolism that are not essential for normal growth, development or reproduction of an organism. ... Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism as the result of a chemical reaction during which chemical energy is converted to light energy. ... Only a small number of the many macroscopic fruiting bodies commonly known as mushrooms and toadstools have been implicated in the deaths of people. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ...


Psychoactive mushrooms

Main article: Psychedelic mushrooms

Psilocybin mushrooms possess psychedelic properties. They are commonly known as "magic mushrooms" "mush" or "shrooms" and are available in smart shops in many parts of the world, though some countries have outlawed their sale. A number of other mushrooms are eaten for their psychoactive effects, such as fly agaric, which is used for shamanic purposes by tribes in northeast Siberia, Russia. They have also been used in the West to potentiate, or increase, religious experiences. Because of their psychoactive properties, some mushrooms have played a role in native medicine, where they have been used in an attempt to effect mental and physical healing, and to facilitate visionary states. One such ritual is the Velada ceremony. A practitioner of traditional mushroom use is the shaman and curandera (priest-healer) María Sabina. Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family, found in psilocybin mushrooms. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... A smart shop (or smartshop) is a retail establishment that specializes in the sales of psychoactive substances, usually including psychedelics, as well as related literature and paraphernalia. ... Binomial name (L.:Fr. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Country Autonomous community Province Toledo Municipality Velada Area  - City 145 km²  (56 sq mi) Elevation 432 m (1,417 ft) Population (2006)  - City 2,436  - Density 16. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... A curandera is a type of female shaman. ... María Sabina García (1888 - November 23, 1985) was a Mazatec medicine woman who lived her whole life in a modest dwelling in the Sierra Mazateca of southern Mexico. ...


Medicinal mushrooms

Currently, many species of mushrooms and fungi used in folk medicine for thousands of years are under intense study by ethnobotanists and medical researchers. Maitake, shiitake, chaga, and reishi are prominent among those being researched for their potential anti-cancer, anti-viral, or immunity-enhancing properties. Psilocybin, originally an extract of certain psychedelic mushrooms, is being studied for its ability to help people suffering from mental disease, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder. Minute amounts have been reported to stop cluster and migraine headaches.[2] A traditional healer in Côte dIvoire Folk medicine refers collectively to procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury, aid to childbirth, and maintenance of wellness. ... An ethnobotanist is an ethnologist who studies relationships between people from various cultures and their plants. ... Binomial name Grifola frondosa (Dicks. ... Binomial name Lentinula edodes (Berk. ... Binomial name Inonotus obliquus L. The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus), also known as tinder mushroom, is a fungus in Hymenochaetaceae family. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family, found in psilocybin mushrooms. ... Cluster headaches are rare, extremely painful and debilitating headaches that occur in groups or clusters. ... Migraine is a form of headache, usually very intense and disabling. ...


Other uses

Mushrooms can be used for dyeing wool and other natural fibers. The chromophores of mushrooms are organic compounds and produce strong and vivid colors, and all colors of the spectrum can be achieved with mushroom dyes. Before the invention of synthetic dyes mushrooms were the primary source of textile dyes. This technique has survived in Finland, and many Middle Ages re-enactors have revived the skill.[citation needed] Some fungi, types of polypores loosely called mushrooms, have been used as fire starters (known as tinder fungi). Ötzi the Iceman was found carrying such fungi. Mushrooms and other fungi will likely play an increasingly important role in the development of effective biological remediation and filtration technologies. The US Patent and Trademark office can be searched for patents related to the latest developments in mycoremediation and mycofiltration. Dyeing is the process of changing the colour of a yarn or cloth by treatment with a dye. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... A chromophore is part (or moiety) of a molecule responsible for its color. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is a type of roleplay in which participants attempt to recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ... Genera Polyporus . ... Amadou is a spongy, flammable substance prepared from bracket fungi. ... “Ötzi” redirects here. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Mycoremediation is a form of bioremediation, the process of using microbes to return an environment (usually soil) contaminated by pollutants to a less contaminated state. ... Mycofiltration is the process of using mushroom mycelium mats as biological filters. ...


References

  1. ^ botit.botany.wisc.edu - The lobster mushroom
  2. ^ Chang, S., and Miles, P.G., Mushrooms, Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact, CRC Press, 2004
  3. ^ Ramsbottom J (1954). Mushrooms & Toadstools. A study of the Activities of Fungi. 
  4. ^ Sherman LW et al (1989). "Stray bullets and “mushrooms”: Random shootings of bystanders in four cities, 1977–1988". J. Quantitative Criminology 5(4): 297-316. 
  5. ^ A Fungus Among Us. Extreme Science (n.d.). Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
  6. ^ "Bringing Mushrooms Out of the Dark", MSNBC, April 18 2006. Retrieved on 2007-08-06. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America: A Field-to-kitchen Guide (1992) ISBN 0-292-72080-0
  • Mushrooms of Northeastern North America (1997) ISBN 0-8156-0388-6
  • All That the Rain Promises, and More (1991) ISBN 0-89815-388-3
  • Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms (2000) ISBN 1-58008-175-4
  • Mushroom Cultivator: A Practical Guide to Growing Mushrooms at Home (1983) ISBN 0-9610798-0-0
  • Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact (2004) ISBN 0-8493-1043-1
  • Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Will Save The World (2005) ISBN 1-58008-579-2
  • Mushrooms Demystified: A Comprehensive Guide to the Fleshy Fungi (1986) ISBN 0-89815-169-4
  • Psilocybin Mushroom Handbook: Easy Indoor and Outdoor Cultivation (2004) ISBN 0-932551-64-5
  • Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World (1996) ISBN 0-89815-839-7

External links

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Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ... Simons Rock College of Bard Simons Rock College of Bard, also abbreviated as Simons Rock College and Simons Rock or, simply, The Rock , is a small liberal arts college located in the small town of Great Barrington (population 7,527), in Berkshire County, Massachusetts. ...

Research related


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gourmet Mushrooms and Mushroom Products (478 words)
Oyster Mushrooms - Pom Pom Blanc Mushrooms - Shiitake Mushrooms
Mushrooms are valuable health food - low in calories, high in vegetable proteins, iron, zinc, chitin, chiton, fiber, vitamins and minerals.
Mushrooms also have a long history of use in Traditional Chinese Medicine to promote good health and vitality and increasing your body's adaptive abilities.
Mushroom - MSN Encarta (1878 words)
In the young mushroom the margin of the cap is jointed to the stem by a membranous collar, which breaks at maturity to expose the gills on the undersurface of the cap.
Mushrooms are cultivated commercially in caves, dark cellars, or specially constructed mushroom houses in which the proper humidity and temperature are maintained.
This mushroom grows from 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in) tall and has an irregularly lobed orange or yellow cap that is funnel-shaped when young, but that expands and becomes depressed at the center as it ages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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