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Encyclopedia > Museum
School children in the Louvre.
School children in the Louvre.
The Shaanxi History Museum located in Xi'an, China, houses over 300,000 items.
The Shaanxi History Museum located in Xi'an, China, houses over 300,000 items.

A museum is a "permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment, for the purposes of education, study, and enjoyment", as defined by the International Council of Museums.[1] The UK Museums Association definition (adopted 1998)[2] is: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x773, 164 KB) Summary School (or kindergarden) children with their teachers in Louvre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x773, 164 KB) Summary School (or kindergarden) children with their teachers in Louvre. ... This article is about the museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3752x2391, 2729 KB) Summary The Natural History Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3752x2391, 2729 KB) Summary The Natural History Museum. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... By zh:user:Jamguo. ... By zh:user:Jamguo. ... The Shaanxi History Museum The Shaanxi History Museum is a museum located in Xian, China, housing over 300,000 items (murals, paintings, pottery, coins; bronze, gold, and silver objects). ... Xian redirects here. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... The International Council of Museums (ICOM) is an international organization of museums and museum professionals which is committed to the conservation, continuation and communication to society of the worlds natural and cultural heritage, present and future, tangible and intangible. ... The Museums Association (MA) is a professional organization for museum professionals and museums in the United Kingdom. ...

Museums enable people to explore collections for inspiration, learning and enjoyment. They are institutions that collect, safeguard and make accessible artifacts and specimens, which they hold in trust for society.

There are tens of thousands of museums all over the world. For a relatively short list, see the List of museums. The list of museums is a link page for any museum anywhere. ...

Contents

Origins

The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as "museums" (or, rarely, "musea"). It is originally from the Greek mouseion, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses (the patron divinities in Greek mythology of the arts), and hence a building set apart for study and the arts,[3] especially the institute for philosophy and research at the Library established at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter c280 BCE.[4] This is considered by many to be the first museum/library.[citation needed] For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses see Muse (disambiguation). ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The original Musaeum or Temple of the Muses at ancient Alexandria was the source for the modern usage, which denoted in Early Modern France as much a community of scholars brought together under one roof as it did the collections themselves, which French and English writers referred to as a... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ...


Overview

View of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, home of the Hermitage Museum, from the Palace Square.
View of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, home of the Hermitage Museum, from the Palace Square.

Museums collect and care for objects of scientific, artistic, or historical importance and make them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in small cities. Most museums offer programs and activities for a range of audiences, including adults, children, and families, as well as those for more specific professions. Programs for the public may consist of lectures or tutorials by the museum faculty or field experts, films, musical or dance performances, and technology demonstrations. Many times, museums concentrate on the host region's culture. Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. Modern trends in museology have broadened the range of subject matter and introduced many interactive exhibits, which give the public the opportunity to make choices and engage in activities that may vary the experience from person to person. With the advent of the internet, there are growing numbers of virtual exhibits, i.e. web versions of exhibits showing images and playing recorded sound. Winter Palace with the Alexander Column. ... Winter Palace with the Alexander Column. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Palace Square is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire. ... A lecture on linear algebra at the Helsinki University of Technology A lecture is an oral presentation intended to teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Museology (also called museum studies) is the study of how to organize and manage museums and museum collections. ... A virtual museum is a museum that takes advantages of new media innovative implementations, to displayed, preserved, reconstructed, disseminated and stored their collections, for example producing CD-ROMs and web pages that can showcase their collections or learning materials to new audiences physically far from their location. ...


Museums are usually open to the general public, sometimes charging an admission fee. Some museums have free entrance, either permanently or on special days, e.g. once per week or year. One pays a fee as renumeration for services, especially the honorarium paid to a doctor, lawyer or member of a learned profession. ...


Museums are usually not run for the purpose of making a profit, unlike galleries which more often engage in the sale of objects. There are governmental museums, non-governmental or non-profit museums, and privately owned or family museums. Museums are nowadays a great source of addition to human knowledge as it provides wide information about ethics, culture, and other things of our country. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. ... A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ...


Types of museums

There are very many types of museums, from very large collections in major cities, covering many of the categories below, to very small museums covering either a particular location in a general way, or a particular subject, such an individual notable person. Categories include: fine arts, applied arts, craft, archaeology, anthropology and ethnology, history, cultural history, military history, science, technology, children's museums, natural history, numismatics, botanical and zoological gardens and philately. Within these categories many museums specialize further, e.g. museums of modern art, local history, aviation history, agriculture or geology. A museum normally houses a core collection of important selected objects in its field. Objects are formally accessioned by being registered in the museum's collection with an artifact number and details recorded about their provenance. The persons in charge of the collection and of the exhibits are known as curators. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 538 KB) National Gallery - London 22-08-2004 Author: Yorick Petey (Yoti) File links The following pages link to this file: National Gallery, London ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 538 KB) National Gallery - London 22-08-2004 Author: Yorick Petey (Yoti) File links The following pages link to this file: National Gallery, London ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Fine art is a term used to refer to fields traditionally considered to be artistic. ... Example of a cup figuring a tortise. ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This is about the social science. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Cultural history (from the German term Kulturgeschichte), at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Childrens museums are institutions that provide fun informal learning experiences for children. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants both for scientific purposes and for the enjoyment and education of visitors. ... A zoo. ... Close examination of the Penny Red, left, reveals a 148 in the margin, indicating that it was printed with plate #148. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Look up Accession in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Provenance is the origin or source from which anything comes. ... A curator of a cultural heritage institution (e. ...


Art museums

Main article: Art museum

An Art museum, also known as an art gallery, is a space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art, and usually primarily paintings, illustrations, and sculpture. Collections of drawings and old master prints are often not displayed on the walls, but kept in a print room. There may be collections of applied art, including ceramics, metalwork, furniture, artist's books and other types of object. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 674 KB) w:Czartoryski_Museum entry Photo by my friend done specifically for Wikipedia use. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 674 KB) w:Czartoryski_Museum entry Photo by my friend done specifically for Wikipedia use. ... Entry to Czartoryski Museum, Kraków, early June 2005 The Czartoryski Museum was founded in 1796 by Princess Izabela Czartoryska to preserve Polish heritage in keeping with the Princess motto: The Past to the Future. The first objects in the so-called Temple of Memory were trophies commemorating the victory... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Many times, the term art is used to refer to the visual arts. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Illustration by Jessie Willcox Smith. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Example of a cup figuring a tortise. ... Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ... Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. ... Bob Cobbings Processual: collected poems volume ten (New River Project, 1987) Artists Book by Cheri Gaulke and Sue Maberry called Offerings at the Crossroads, 2006. ...


The first publicly owned museum in Europe was the Amerbach-Cabinet in Basel, originally a private collection sold to the city in 1661 and public since 1671 (now Kunstmuseum Basel).[5] The Uffizi Gallery in Florence was initially conceived as a palace for the offices of Florentian magistrates (hence the name), it later evolved into a display place for many of the paintings and sculpture collected by the Medici family or commissioned by them. After the house of Medici was extinguished, the art treasures remained in Florence, forming the first modern museums.[citation needed] The gallery had been open to visitors by request since the sixteenth century, and in 1765 it was officially opened to the public. The first museum to open to the public was The British Museum in London, which opened free to the public in 1759 after been funded a few years earlier in 1753.[6] It was a "universal museum" with very varied collections covering art, applied art, archaeology, anthropology, history, and science, and a library. The science collections, library, paintings and modern sculpture have since been found separate homes, leaving history, archaeology, non-European and pre-Renaissance art, and prints and drawings.[citation needed] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ... The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, surrounding the original Reading Room. ...


The specialised art museum is considered a fairly modern invention, the first being the Hermitage in St. Petersburg which was established in 1764.[citation needed] For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


The Louvre in Paris, France was established in 1793, soon after the French Revolution when the royal treasures were declared for the people.[7] The Czartoryski Museum in Kraków was established in 1796 by Princess Izabela Czartoryska.[8] This showed the beginnings of removing art collections from the private domain of aristocracy and the wealthy into the public sphere, where they were seen as sites for educating the masses in taste and cultural refinement. This article is about the museum. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Entry to Czartoryski Museum, Kraków, early June 2005 The Czartoryski Museum was founded in 1796 by Princess Izabela Czartoryska to preserve Polish heritage in keeping with the Princess motto: The Past to the Future. The first objects in the so-called Temple of Memory were trophies commemorating the victory... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Noble Family Fleming Coat of Arms Fleming Parents Jerzy Detloff Fleming Antonina Czartoryska Consorts Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski Children with Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski Teresa Czartoryska Maria Anna Czartoryski Adam Jerzy Czartoryski Konstanty Adam Czartoryski Gabriela Czartoryska Zofia Czartoryska Date of Birth March 3, 1746 Place of Birth Warsaw, Poland Date of...

History museums cover the knowledge of history and its relevance to the present and future. Some cover specialized curatorial aspects of history or a particular locality; others are more general. Such museums contain a wide range of objects, including documents, artifacts of all kinds, art, archaeological objects. Antiquities museums specialize in more archaeological findings. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1073 KB) Improved version of Image:British_Museum_from_NE.JPG File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The British Museum Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1073 KB) Improved version of Image:British_Museum_from_NE.JPG File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The British Museum Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, surrounding the original Reading Room. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ...


A common type of history museum is a historic house. A historic house may be a building of special architectural interest, the birthplace or home of a famous person, or a house with an interesting history. Historic sites can also become museums, particularly those that mark public crimes, such as Tuol Sleng or Robben Island. Another type of history museum is a living museum. A living museum is where people recreate a time period to the fullest extent, including buildings, clothes and language. It is similar to historical reenactment. A historic house can be a stately home, the birthplace of a famous person, or a house with an interesting history. ... A historic site is a location where pieces of history have been preserved. ... In criminology public order crime is defined by Siegel (2004) as ...crime which involves acts that interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to function efficiently, i. ... The infamous map of skulls that was once on display at the Tuol Sleng Museum Tuol Sleng Museum Inside Tuol Sleng Tuol Sleng Museum, also known as the Museum of Genocidal Crimes is located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ... A living museum is a type of museum that recreates to the fullest extent conditions of a culture, natural environment or historical period. ... Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is a type of roleplay in which participants attempt to recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ...


Maritime museums

Main article: Maritime museum

Maritime museums specialize in the display of objects relating to ships and travel on seas and lakes. They may include a historic ship (or a replica) made accessible as a museum ship. A maritime museum (sometimes nautical museum) is a museum specializing in the display of objects relating to ships and travel on seas and lakes. ... A maritime museum (sometimes nautical museum) is a museum specializing in the display of objects relating to ships and travel on seas and lakes. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body of water. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... USS Wisconsin, one of three Iowa class battleships opened to the public as a museum, and was one of two Iowas maintained in the US Mothball fleet. ...


Mobile museums

Mobile museum is a term applied to museums that make exhibitions from a vehicle, such as a van. Some institutions, such as St. Vital Historical Society and the Walker Art Center, use the term to refer to a portion of their collection that travels to sites away from the museum for educational purposes. Other mobile museums have no "home site", and use travel as their exclusive means of presentation. The St. ... One of the most celebrated art museums in the country, the Walker Art Center is known for commissioning and presenting innovative contemporary art; fostering the cross-pollination of the visual, performing, and media arts; and engaging diverse audiences in the excitement of the creative process. ...


Natural history museums

Museums of natural history and natural science typically exhibit work of the natural world. The focus lies on nature and culture. Exhibitions may educate the masses about dinosaurs, ancient history, and anthropology. Evolution, environmental issues, and biodiversity are major areas in natural science museums. Notable museums of this type include the Natural History Museum in London, the Oxford University Museum of Natural History in Oxford, the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller, Alberta, and the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. Image File history File linksMetadata National_Museum_of_Natural_History. ... Image File history File linksMetadata National_Museum_of_Natural_History. ... Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxfords natural history specimens. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... The Muséum national dHistoire naturelle (MNHN) is the French national museum of natural history. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller, Alberta, Canada, 90 minutes drive east of Calgary, is known the world over as an outstanding paleontology museum and research facility. ... Drumheller is a town (formerly a city) in the Badlands of east-central Alberta, on the Red Deer River. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


List of natural history museums Museum of Natural History can refer to any natural history museum, including: // Museu Nacional - UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia - USP, São Paulo, SP Museu de Geociências - USP, São Paulo, SP Museu de Zoologia - USP, São Paulo, SP Museu de Rochas, Minerais...


Open air museums

Main article: Open-air museum
An old farmhouse at the Salzburger Freilichtmuseum in Großgmain near Salzburg.
An old farmhouse at the Salzburger Freilichtmuseum in Großgmain near Salzburg.

Open air museums collect and re-erect old buildings at large outdoor sites, usually in settings of re-created landscapes of the past. The first one was King Oscar II's collection near Oslo in Norway, opened in 1881 and is now the Norsk Folkemuseum.[citation needed] In 1891 Arthur Hazelius founded the Skansen in Stockholm,[citation needed] which became the model for subsequent open air museums in Northern and Eastern Europe, and eventually in other parts of the world. Most open air museums are located in regions where wooden architecture prevail, as wooden structures may be translocated without substantial loss of authenticity.[citation needed] A more recent but related idea is realized in ecomuseums, which originated in France.[citation needed] An open air museum is a distinct type of museum exhibiting its collections out-of-doors. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1840x1232, 2223 KB)An old farmhouse at the Salzburger Freilichtmuseum in Großgmain near Salzburg, Austria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1840x1232, 2223 KB)An old farmhouse at the Salzburger Freilichtmuseum in Großgmain near Salzburg, Austria. ... FarmHouse Fraternity is an all-male international social fraternity founded at the University of Missouri in 1905. ... This page is for the city of Salzburg. ... The old town (Den gamle by) — an open air museum in the town of Aarhus, Denmark An open air museum is a distinct type of museum exhibiting its collections out-of-doors. ... King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway (January 21, 1829 - December 8, 1907), born Oscar Frederik, ruled Norway from 1872 until 1905 and Sweden from 1872 until his death. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... Log houses in the open air museum. ... Artur Hazelius. ... Winter view of Skogaholm Manor, moved to Skansen from Närke Hand-coloured postcard of Skansen, ca 1900 Skansen is the first open air museum and zoo in Sweden and is located on the island DjurgÃ¥rden in Stockholm, Sweden[citation needed]. It was founded in 1891 by Artur Hazelius... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Science museums

Science museums and technology centers revolve around scientific marvels and their history. To explain complicated inventions, a combination of demonstrations, interactive programs and thought-provoking media are used. Some museums may have exhibits on topics such as computers, aviation, railway museums, physics, astronomy, and the animal kingdom. Science museums, in particular, may consist of planetaria, or large theatre usually built around a dome. Museums may have IMAX feature films, which may provide 3-D viewing or higher quality picture. As a result, IMAX content provides a more immersive experience for people of all ages. Also new virtual museums, known as Net Museums, have been appearing. These are usually web sites belonging to real museums and containing photo galleries of items found in those real museums. This is very useful for people far away who wish to see the contents of these museums. Download high resolution version (1280x960, 329 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 329 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia BFI London IMAX by night LHemisferic (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències) Valencia, Spain IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater... Santiago de Guayaquil, or just Guayaquil is the largest city in Ecuador, as well as that nations principal sea port. ... Image:Science Museum bernoulli exhibit. ... This article is about the machine. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... See Animal. ... For the song by Ai Otsuka, see Planetarium (song) // A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia BFI London IMAX by night LHemisferic (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències) Valencia, Spain IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater... In film, the term 3-D (or 3D) is used to describe any visual presentation system that attempts to maintain or recreate moving images of the third dimension, the illusion of depth as seen by the viewer. ...


List of science museums Below is the list of science museums all over the world. ...


Specialized museums

A number of different museums exist to demonstrate a variety of topics. Music museums may celebrate the life and work of composers or musicians, such as the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio, and the Bellaire Ohio Toy and Plastic Brick Museum Museum in Bellaire, Ohio. Other music museums include live music recitals such as the Handel House Museum in London. Image File history File links Trabant cars from U2s Zoo TV Tour hanging in the lobby of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame + Museum, 2005, by Rick Dikeman From www. ... Image File history File links Trabant cars from U2s Zoo TV Tour hanging in the lobby of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame + Museum, 2005, by Rick Dikeman From www. ... This article is about the automobile. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... For the fan club-exclusive album released from this tour, see Zoo TV Live. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, showing Lake Erie in the background The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum is a museum and institution in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, dedicated, as the name suggests, to recording the history of some of the best-known and most influential... Composers are people who write music. ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Handel House. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Museums targeted for the youth, such as Great Explorations, The Children's Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida, and the Miami Children's Museum, often exhibit interactive and educational material on a wide array of topics. The Baseball Hall of Fame museum is an institution of the sports category. The Corning Museum of Glass is devoted to the art, history, and science of glass. Interpretation centres are modern museums or visitors centres that often uses new means of communication with the public. Miami Childrens Museum logo Map of the Miami Childrens Museum located in Watson Island, Miami, Florida. ... The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 62 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests serving as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display of baseball-related... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about the material. ... Interpretation Centres are institutions for effective desemination of knowledge. ...


Virtual museums

A recent development with the expansion of the web, is the establishment of virtual museums. While some have no counterpart in the real world, such as LIMAC (Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Lima),[9] which has no physical location and might be confused with the city's own museum, other online initiatives like the Virtual Museum of Canada[10] provide physical museums with a web presence, as well as online curatorial platforms such as Rhizome.[11] The art historian Griselda Pollock elaborated a virtual feminist museum, spreading between classical art to contemporary art.[12] WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... A virtual museum is an online website with a collection of objects (real or virtual) or exhibitions, but with no direct counterpart in terms of a real museum. ... The Virtual Museum of Canada (VMC) is Canadas national virtual museum. ... A curatorial platform is an organization whose principal activity is focused on the development and presentation of cultural artifacts according to clearly defined and coherent themes or organizational principles. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...


Zoos and Zoological Gardens

Main article: Zoo

Although zoos are not often thought of as museums, they are considered "living museums". They exist for the same purpose as other museums: to educate, inspire action, study, and preserve a collection. Notable zoos include the Wildlife Conservation International in New York, London Zoo, the San Diego Zoo, Berlin Zoo, Taronga Zoo in Sydney, Australia, Frankfurt Zoo and Zoo Zurich in Switzerland. Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... Wildlife Conservation International is a field division of the Wildlife Conservation Society. ... This article is about the state. ... The giant ZSL London Zoo aviary ZSL London Zoo is the worlds oldest scientific zoo. ... The world-famous San Diego Zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, California is one of the largest, most progressive zoos in the world with over 4,000 animals of more than 800 species. ... The Zoologischer Garten Berlin (zoological garden Berlin) is one of the biggest zoos in Germany and the one with the largest number of species of the world. ... Giraffes in front of Sydneys skyline. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


History

The Larco Museum is housed in a viceroyal mansion atop a pre-Columbian pyramid. Lima, Peru.
The Larco Museum is housed in a viceroyal mansion atop a pre-Columbian pyramid. Lima, Peru.

Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts. These were often displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. Public access was often possible for the "respectable", especially to private art collections, but at the whim of the owner and his staff. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 2160 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 2160 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... For the 2002 novel by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child, see The Cabinet of Curiosities Musei Wormiani Historia, the frontispiece from the Museum Wormianum depicting Ole Worms cabinet of curiosities. ...


The first public museums in the world opened in Europe during the 18th century's Age of Enlightenment: For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ...

  • the Amerbach Cabinet, originally a private collection, was bought by the university und city of Basel in 1661 and opend to the public in 1671.
  • the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology in Oxford is the oldest museum in the United Kingdom. It opened in 1683 and the present building dates from 1845.[13]
  • the Museo Sacro, the first museum in the Vatican Museums complex, was opened in Rome in 1756[citation needed]
  • the British Museum in London, was founded in 1753 and opened to the public in 1759.[6] Sir Hans Sloan's personal collection of curios provided the initial foundation for the British Museum's collection.[6]
  • the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, which had been open to visitors on request since the 16th century, was officially opened to the public 1765[citation needed]
  • the Belvedere Palace of the Habsburg monarchs in Vienna opened with a collection of art in 1781[citation needed]

These "public" museums, however, were often accessible only by the middle and upper classes. It could be difficult to gain entrance. In London for example, prospective visitors to the British Museum had to apply in writing for admission. Even by 1800 it was possible to have to wait two weeks for an admission ticket.[citation needed] Visitors in small groups were limited to stays of two hours.[citation needed] In Victorian times in England it became popular for museums to be open on a Sunday afternoon (the only such facility allowed to do so) to enable the opportunity for "self improvement" of the other - working - classes.[citation needed] Ashmolean Museum main entrance. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Entrance to the museum The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the public art and sculpture museums in the Vatican City, which display works from the extensive collection of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Entrance to the museum Staircase of the Vatican Museum The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the public art and sculpture museums in the Vatican City, which display works from the extensive collection of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Upper Belvedere Lower Belvedere View of the gardens seen from the Upper Belvedere, painted by Canaletto in 1758 Upper Belvedere The Belvedere is a baroque palace complex built by Prince Eugene of Savoy in the 3rd district of Vienna, south-east of the city centre. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


The first truly public museum was the Louvre Museum in Paris, opened in 1793 during the French Revolution, which enabled for the first time in history free access to the former French royal collections for people of all stations and status. The fabulous art treasures collected by the French monarchy over centuries were accessible to the public three days each "décade" (the 10-day unit which had replaced the week in the French Republican Calendar). The Conservatoire du muséum national des Arts (National Museum of Arts's Conservatory) was charged with organizing the Louvre as a national public museum and the centerpiece of a planned national museum system. As Napoléon I conquered the great cities of Europe, confiscating art objects as he went, the collections grew and the organizational task became more and more complicated. After Napoleon was defeated in 1815, many of the treasures he had amassed were gradually returned to their owners (and many were not). His plan was never fully realized, but his concept of a museum as an agent of nationalistic fervor had a profound influence throughout Europe. This article is about the museum. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... A French Revolutionary Calendar in the Historical Museum of Lausanne. ... Bonaparte as general Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français...


American museums eventually joined European museums as the world's leading centers for the production of new knowledge in their fields of interest. A period of intense museum building, in both an intellectual and physical sense was realized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (this is often called "The Museum Period" or "The Museum Age"). While many American museums, both Natural History museums and Art museums alike, were founded with the intention of focusing on the scientific discoveries and artistic developments in North America, many moved to emulate their European counterparts in certain ways (including the development of Classical collections from ancient Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia and Rome). It is typically understood that universities took the place of museums as the centers for innovative research in the United States well before the start of the Second World War, however, museums to this day contribute new knowledge to their fields and continue to build collections that are useful for both research and display. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Controversies

There have been controversies recently regarding artifacts being damaged or being exposed to high risk of damage whilst on loan. For example, an ancient Egyptian stone lion on loan from the British Museum was being manually carried down a flight of stairs (as shown in a BBC Television documentary 2007). The supervisor in charge advised the people carrying it if it starts to fall, let it drop.[citation needed] The irony is that these artifacts have been carefully excavated and transported, often thousands of miles, without damage. Once arriving at a museum the artifact usually does not receive the same level of care and attention that it received whilst being excavated and transported.[citation needed] Another example of this is the recent return of a Terracotta Army horse on loan from a museum in Rome, which showed the item to be damaged on return.[citation needed] As yet, there is no internationally agreed protocol for a level or standard of care of artifacts on display or on loan from museums. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Terracotta Army (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 larger than life Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures vary... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


One of the most central features of the historical emergence of museums is that they were initially produced within the context of imperialist and colonial projects, which is why so many artifacts from the civilizations of the ancient Near East, for example, are now located in the museums of European capitals. Similarly, the National Museum of Iraq was created during the British Mandate period under the auspices of colonial officer, Gertrude Bell.[citation needed] Hence, definitions of museums that claim these are institutions which serve in the name of "the public benefit" are misleading in crucial regards. An American Tank guards the Museum following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq The National Museum of Iraq is located in Baghdad, Iraq. ... Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell (July 14, 1868–July 12, 1926) was a British woman who had a major hand in creating the modern state of Iraq. ...


Management

The museum is usually run by a director, who has a curatorial staff that cares for the objects and arranges their display. Large museums often will have a research division or institute, which are frequently involved with studies related to the museum's items, as well as an education department, in charge of providing interpretation of the materials to the general public. The director usually reports to a higher body, such as a governmental department or a board of trustees. Executive director is a title given to a person who is the head of an executive branch of an organization or company. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Board of directors. ...


Objects come to the collection through a variety of means. Either the museum itself or an associated institute may organize expeditions to acquire more items or documentation for the museum. More typically, however, museums will purchase or trade for artifacts or receive them as donations or bequests.


For instance, a museum featuring Impressionist art may receive a donation of a Cubist work which simply cannot be fit into the museum's exhibits, but it can be used to help acquire a painting more central to the museum's focus. However, this process of acquiring objects outside the museum's purview in order to acquire more desirable objects is considered unethical by many museum professionals. Larger museums may have an "Acquisitions Department" whose staff is engaged full time for this purpose. Most museums have a collections policy to help guide what is and is not included in the collection. This article is about the art movement. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism...


Museums often cooperate to sponsor joint, often traveling, exhibits on particular subjects when one museum may not by itself have a collection sufficiently large or important. These exhibits have limited engagements and often depend upon an additional entry fee from the public to cover costs.


Museum exhibition design

São Paulo Museum of Art in São Paulo, Brazil.
São Paulo Museum of Art in São Paulo, Brazil.

The design of museums has evolved throughout history. Interpretive museums, as opposed to art museums, have missions reflecting curatorial guidance through the subject matter which now include content in the form of images, audio and visual effects, and interactive exhibits. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 806 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 806 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Museu de Arte de São Paulo The Museu de Arte de São Paulo (Portuguese for São Paulo Museum of Art, or MASP, was inaugurated in 1962, by Assis Chateaubriand and Pietro Maria Bardi. ... This article is about the city. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (671x700, 72 KB) Краткое описание State Tretyakov Gallery in Lavrushinsky pereulok. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (671x700, 72 KB) Краткое описание State Tretyakov Gallery in Lavrushinsky pereulok. ... State Tretyakov Gallery (2006) The State Tretyakov Gallery (Russian: , Russian: ), in Moscow, Russia, is the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


Some of these experiences have very few or no artifacts; the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, the Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles, being notable examples where there are few artifacts, but have strong, memorable stories to tell or information to interpret. In contrast, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington DC uses many artifacts in their memorable exhibitions. Exterior of the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania The National Constitution Center is a 160,000 square foot museum that opened on July 4, 2003 in the historic district of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and designed by American architect Henry N. Cobb. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Griffith Observatory, September, 2006. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Interior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum viewed from Raoul Wallenberg Place (15th St. ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ...


Notable international museum exhibition designers include Ralph Appelbaum Associates, C&G Partners, ESI Design, Burdick Group, André & Associates Interpretation & Design Ltd. Ralph Appelbaum is a museum designer and planner, based in New York, with offices in London, Beijing and Washington. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


See also

The British Empire & Commonwealth Museum in Bristol, UK.
The British Empire & Commonwealth Museum in Bristol, UK.

Frontage of Brunels original Bristol Temple Meads station Photograph taken by user:rbrwr in October 2002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Frontage of Brunels original Bristol Temple Meads station Photograph taken by user:rbrwr in October 2002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... , The British Empire and Commonwealth Museum (grid reference ST597725) is a museum in Bristol, United Kingdom which explores the history of the British Empire and the effect that British colonial rule had on the rest of the world. ... This article is about the English city. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The list of museums is a link page for any museum anywhere. ... This is a list of 50 notable museums and galleries worldwide, organised by country and then by city, as included in the Encyclopædia Britannica Almanac 2005, pp. ... This is a list of transport museums throughout the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. ... For the rock band, see Muse (band). ... The Virtual Library museums pages (VLmp) form a leading directory of online museums around the world. ... The International Council of Museums (ICOM) is an international organization of museums and museum professionals which is committed to the conservation, continuation and communication to society of the worlds natural and cultural heritage, present and future, tangible and intangible. ...

References

  1. ^ ICOM Statutes. INternational Council of Museums. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  2. ^ Frequently asked questions. Museums Association. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  3. ^ Findlen, Paula (1989). "The Museum: its classical etymology and renaissance genealogy". Journal of the History of Collections 1: 59-78. Retrieved on 2008-04-05. 
  4. ^ Ptolemy I Soter, The First King of Ancient Egypt's Ptolemaic Dynasty. Tour Egypt. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  5. ^ H.C. Ackermann, The Basle Cabinets of Art and Curiosities in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in: O. Impey & A. MacGregor (edd.), The Origins of Museums: The cabinet of curiosities in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe, 2nd edition, London: House of Stratus 2001, pp. 81-90, quoted in Marta C. Lourenço, A Contribution to the History of University Museums and Collections in Europe, presentation at the UMAC 2002 Conference, Sydney/Canberra, Australia, 29/9-4/10/2002, available at http://publicus.culture.hu-berlin.de/umac/2002/lourenco.html.
  6. ^ a b c The history of the British Museum. British Museum. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  7. ^ McClellan, Andrew (1999). Inventing the Louvre: Art, Politics, and the Origins of the Modern Museum.... University of California Press, pp. 14-20. ISBN 0520221761. 
  8. ^ History of The Czartoryski Museum. Czartoryski. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  9. ^ LiMAC. LiMAC. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  10. ^ Virtual Museum of Canada - Musée virtuel du Canada. Virtual Museum of Canada - Musée virtuel du Canada. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  11. ^ Rhizome. Rhizome. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  12. ^ Pollock, Griselda (2007). Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum. Routledge. ISBN 0415413745. 
  13. ^ http://www.ukattraction.com/southern-england/ashmolean-museum.htm

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Tony Bennett, The Birth of the Museum: History, Theory, Politics, Routledge, 1995.

External links

General:

Individual countries: Wikia (no official pronunciation[2]; originally Wikicities) is a selective wiki hosting service (or wiki farm) operated by Wikia, Inc. ... The International Council of Museums (ICOM) is an international organization of museums and museum professionals which is committed to the conservation, continuation and communication to society of the worlds natural and cultural heritage, present and future, tangible and intangible. ...


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