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Encyclopedia > Muse
Greek deities
series
Primordial deities
Titans and Olympians
Aquatic deities
Chthonic deities
Other deities
Personified concepts

In Greek mythology, the Muses (Ancient Greek οἱ μοῦσες, hoi moũses [1]: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- "think"[2]) are a sisterhood of goddesses or spirits, their number set at nine by Classical times, who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music, and dance. They were water nymphs, associated with the springs of Helicon and with Pieris, from which they are sometimes called the Pierides. The Olympian system set Apollo as their leader, Apollon Mousagetēs. Not only are the Muses explicitly used in modern English to refer to an inspiration, as when one cites his/her own artistic muse, but they are also implicit in the words "amuse" or "musing upon".[3] For other uses, see Muse (disambiguation). ... The word muse can refer to: Muse - A Greek goddess Muse (band) - A rock band from Devon, England MusE - An open-source MIDI/audio sequencer for Linux MuSE - An open-source streaming audio engine for Linux. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Asclepius (Greek , transliterated AsklÄ“piós; Latin Aesculapius) is the demigod of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... For other meanings, see Fate, a disambiguation page. ... In Greek mythology, Cratos (strength) was a son of Styx and Pallas, brother of Nike, Bia and Zelus. ... This Zelos is the Greek personification. ... This article discusses the Greek Goddess. ... In Greek mythology, Metis (wisdom or wise counsel) was a Titaness who was the first great spouse of Zeus, indeed his equal (Hesiod, Theogony 896) and the mother of Athena. ... For the game of graces, see Game of graces. ... In Greek mythology, the Oneiroi were the sons of Hypnos, the god of sleep. ... In Greek mythology, Adrasteia (inescapable; also spelled Adrastia, Adrastea, Adrestea) was a nymph who was charged by Rhea to raise Zeus in secret to protect him from his father Cronus (Krónos). ... Horae in Meyers, 1888 In Greek mythology, the Horae were three goddesses controlling orderly life. ... In Greek mythology, Bia (force) was the personification of force, daughter of Pallas and Styx. ... In Greek mythology, Eros was the god responsible for lust, love, and sex; he was also worshipped as a fertility deity. ... Daughter of Nyx in Greek mythology, Apate was the personification of deceit. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... Eris (ca. ... In Greek mythology, Thanatos (in Ancient Greek, θάνατος – Death) was the Daimon personification of Death and Mortality. ... In Greek mythology, Hypnos was the personification of sleep; the Roman equivalent was known as Somnus . ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Improvisation is the act of making something up as you go along. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... This article is about the mountain. ... Pieris is two different genera: Pieris is a plant genus in the Ericaceae family. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Ä· Look up inspiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


According to Hesiod's Theogony (seventh century BC), they are the daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, and Mnemosyne, goddess of memory. For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were even more primordial, springing from Uranus and Gaia. Pausanias records a tradition of two generations of Muses; the first being daughters of Uranus and Gaia, the second of Zeus and Mnemosyne. Another, rarer genealogy is that they are daughters of Harmonia (the daughter of Aphrodite and Ares) which contradicts the myth in which they were dancing at the wedding of Harmonia and Cadmus. Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Theogony (Greek: Θεογονία, theogonia = the birth of God(s)) is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies of the gods of the ancient Greeks, composed circa 700 BC. The title of the work comes from the Greek words for god and seed. // Hesiods Theogony is a large-scale... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Mnemosyne (Greek , IPA in RP and in General American) (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria) was the personification of memory in Greek mythology. ... Alcman (also Alkman, Greek ) (7th century BC) was an Ancient Greek choral lyric poet from Sparta. ... Mimnermus of Colophon, Greek elegiac poet, flourished about 630-600 BC. His life fell in the troubled time when the Ionic cities of Asia Minor were struggling to maintain themselves against the rising power of the Lydian kings. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Mnemosyne (Greek , IPA in RP and in General American) (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria) was the personification of memory in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Harmonia is the goddess of harmony and concord. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Harmonia is the goddess of harmony and concord. ... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908 Caddmus, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia (Modern day Lebanon) and brother of Europa. ...


Compare the Roman inspiring nymphs of springs, the Camenae, the Völva of Norse Mythology and also the apsarasa in the culture of classical India. In Roman mythology, the Camenae were originally goddesses of springs, wells and fountains, or water nymphs of Venus . ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... An apsaras from the Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang, China. ...

Contents

Muses in myth

The Muses Clio, Euterpe and Thalia, by Eustache Le Sueur
The Muses Clio, Euterpe and Thalia, by Eustache Le Sueur

According to Pausanias in the later second century AD,[4] there were three original Muses: Aoidē ("song" or "voice"), Meletē ("practice" or "occasion"), and Mnēmē ("memory"). Together, these three form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice. In Delphi three Muses were worshipped as well, but with other names: Nētē, Mesē, and Hypatē, which are the names of the three chords of the ancient musical instrument, the lyre. Alternatively they were called Cēphisso, Apollonis, and Borysthenis, whose names characterise them as daughters of Apollo. In later tradition, four Muses were recognized: Thelxinoē, Aoedē, Archē, and Meletē, said to be daughters of Zeus and Plusia (or of Uranus). One of the persons associated with the Muses was Pierus. By some he was called the father (by a Pimpleian nymph: called Antiope by Cicero) of a total of seven Muses, called Neilo, Tritone, Asopo, Heptapora, Achelois, Tipoplo, and Rhodia. [5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2029, 420 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Muse ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2029, 420 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Muse ... Eustache Le Sueur (November 19, 1617 - April 30, 1655), one of the founders of the French Academy of painting, was born at Paris, where he passed his whole life. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... “Lyres” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Pierus was the lover of Clio and father of Hyacinth. ... Antiope () can mean: Greek mythology: Antiope - sister of Hippolyte kidnapped by Theseus, during Heracles ninth labour; Antiope - associated with the mythology of Thebes, Greece. ... Achelois (she who drives away pain) is a minor goddess in Greek mythology; one of the moon goddesses. ...


The Muses judged the contest between Apollo and Marsyas. They also gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, and buried them. They blinded Thamyris for his hubris in challenging them to a contest. For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Marsyas was a satyr who challenged Apollo to a contest of music. ... For other uses, see Orpheus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the muse. ... In Greek mythology, Thamyris, son of Philammon and the nymph Argiope, was a Thracian singer who was so proud of his skill that he boasted he could outsing the Muses. ... For the supervillain, see Barry Hubris. ...

The Muses dancing with Apollo, by Baldassare Peruzzi
The Muses dancing with Apollo, by Baldassare Peruzzi

Though the Muses, when taken together, form a complete picture of the subjects proper to poetic art, the association of specific muses with specific art forms is a later innovation. The Muses were not assigned standardized divisions of poetry with which they are now identified until late Hellenistic times. The canonical nine Muses, with their fields of patronage, as established since the Renaissance, are: Image File history File links Musas. ... Image File history File links Musas. ... Baldassare Tommaso Peruzzi (7 March 1481—6 January 1537) was an Italian architect and painter, born in a small town near Siena and died in Rome. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...

This article is about the muse. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Clio—detail from The Allegory of Painting by Johannes Vermeer For other uses, see Clio (disambiguation). ... Erato - Oak panel, Simon Vouet Erato (lovely) is a Greek Muse, shown with a wreath of myrtle and roses, holding a lyre, or a small kithara (a musical instrument that she herself invented); at her feet there are 2 turtle-doves eating seeds off of the floor. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... For other uses, see Euterpe (disambiguation). ... // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ... Hesiod and the Muse, 1891 - Oil on canvas, Musee dOrsay, Paris Gustave Moreau. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... Polyhymnia, section of Roman mosaic, 240 A.D Polyhymnia by Francesco del Cossa, 1455-1460. ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... Sacred art is imagery intended to uplift the mind to the spiritual. ... Terpsichore, Muse of Music and Dance, oil on canvas by Jean-Marc Nattier 1739 Terpsichore holding an Aeolian harp. ... This article is about choirs, musical ensembles containing singers. ... For other uses, see Thalia (disambiguation). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... Simon Vouet, The Muses Urania and Calliope, c. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...

Emblems of the Muses

In Renaissance and Neoclassical art, the dissemination of emblem books such as Cesare Ripa's Iconologia (1593 and many further editions) helped standardise the depiction of muses in sculptures or paintings, who could be distinguished by certain props, together with which they became emblems readily identifiable by the viewer, who would immediately recognize the art with which they had become bound. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... Emblem books are a particular style of illustrated book developed in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries, normally containing about one hundred picture/text combinations. ... Cesare Ripa was a 16th-century Italian aesthetician and author of the Iconologia. ... An emblem consists of a pictorial image, abstract or representational, that epitomizes a concept - often a concept of a moral truth or an allegory. ...


Calliope (epic poetry) carries a writing tablet; Clio (history) carries a scroll and books; Erato (love poetry) is often seen with a lyre and a crown of roses; Euterpe (music) carries a flute; Melpomene (tragedy) is often seen with a tragic mask; Polyhymnia (sacred poetry) is often seen with a pensive expression; Terpsichore (dance) is often seen dancing and carrying a lyre; Thalia (comedy) is often seen with a comic mask; and Urania (astronomy) carries a pair of compasses and celestial globe.


Function in society

Greek mousa is a common noun as well as a type of goddess: it literally means "song" or "poem". In Pindar, to "carry a mousa" is "to sing a song". The word is probably derived from the Indo-European root men-, which is also the source of Greek Mnemosyne, and English "mind", "mental" and "memory" (or alternatively from mont-, "mountain", due to their residence on Mount Helicon, which is less likely in meaning, but somewhat more likely linguistically). For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... Mnemosyne (Greek , IPA in RP and in General American) (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria) was the personification of memory in Greek mythology. ...


The Muses were therefore both the embodiments and sponsors of performed metrical speech: mousike, whence "music", was "the art of the Muses". In the archaic period, before the wide-spread availability of books, this included nearly all of learning: the first Greek book on astronomy, by Thales, was set in dactylic hexameter, as were many works of pre-Socratic philosophy; both Plato and the Pythagoreans explicitly included philosophy as a sub-species of mousike[6] Herodotus, whose primary medium of delivery was public recitation, named each one of the nine books of his Histories after a different Muse, invoked at the outset. For the Defense and Security Company, see Thales Group. ... Dactyllic hexameter (also known as heroic hexameter) is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme. ... Pre-Socratic philosophers are often very hard to pin down, and it is sometimes very difficult to determine the actual line of argument they used in supporting their particular views. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare to call on, invoke) is: A supplication. ...


For poet and "law-giver" Solon[7] the Muses were "the key to the good life"; since they brought both prosperity and friendship. Solon sought to perpetuate his political reforms by establishing recitations of his poetry—complete with invocations to his practical-minded Muses—by Athenian boys at festivals each year. It was believed that they would help inspire people to do their best. For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ...


Function in literature

Melpomene and Polyhymnia, Palace of the Fine Arts, Mexico.
Melpomene and Polyhymnia, Palace of the Fine Arts, Mexico.

The muses are typically invoked at or near the beginning of an epic poem or classical Greek hymn. They have served as aids to an author of prose, too, sometimes represented as the true speaker, for whom an author is only a mouthpiece.[8] Originally, the invocation of the Muse was an indication that the speaker was working inside the poetic tradition, according to the established formulas. Six classic examples : Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (581x925, 104 KB) Melpomene and Polyhymnia, Palace of the Fine Arts, Mexico. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (581x925, 104 KB) Melpomene and Polyhymnia, Palace of the Fine Arts, Mexico. ...

Homer, in Book I of The Odyssey:
"Sing to me of the man, Muse, the man of twists and turns
driven time and again off course, once he had plundered
the hallowed heights of Troy." (Robert Fagles translation, 1996)
Virgil, in Book I of the Aeneid:
O Muse! the causes and the crimes relate;
What goddess was provok'd, and whence her hate;
For what offense the Queen of Heav'n began
To persecute so brave, so just a man; [...]
(John Dryden translation, 1697)
Catullus, in Carmen I:
"And so, have them for yourself, whatever kind of book it is,
and whatever sort, oh patron Muse
let it last for more than one generation, eternally."
(Student translation, 2007)
Dante Alighieri, in Canto II of The Inferno:
O Muses, O high genius, aid me now!
O memory that engraved the things I saw,
Here shall your worth be manifest to all! (Anthony Esolen translation, 2002)
John Milton, opening of Book 1 of Paradise Lost:
Of Man’s first disobedience, and the fruit
Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste
Brought death into the World, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat,
Sing, Heavenly Muse, [...]
William Shakespeare, Act 1, Prologue of Henry V:
Chorus: O for a Muse of fire, that would ascend
The brightest heaven of invention,
A kingdom for a stage, princes to act
And monarchs to behold the swelling scene!
Geoffrey Chaucer, in Book II of Troilus and Criseyde:
O lady myn, that called art Cleo,
Thow be my speed fro this forth, and my Muse,
To ryme wel this book til I haue do;
Me nedeth here noon othere art to vse.
ffor-whi to euery louere I me excuse
That of no sentement I this endite,
But out of Latyn in my tonge it write.

Modern evocations of the muses have appeared in a variety of literary and media sources. The muses are travestied in the 1980 feature film Xanadu and its 2007 Broadway musical adaptation), which place Terpsichore and Clio, respectively, in the leading role under the pseudonym 'Kira'. For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... Robert Fagles is a Professor of Comparative Literature at Princeton University. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ... Dante redirects here. ... For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Henry V, also known as The Cronicle History of Henry the fift, is a play by William Shakespeare based on the life of King Henry V of England. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... Troilus and Criseyde is Geoffrey Chaucers poem in rhyme royal re-telling the tragic love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince, and Criseyde. ... Burlesque was originally a form of art that mocked by imitation, referring to everything from comic sketches to dance routines and usually lampooning the social attitudes of upper classes. ... Xanadu is a 1980 musical/romance film directed by Robert Greenwald. ... Xanadu is a musical comedy with a book by Douglas Carter Beane, music and lyrics by Jeff Lynne and John Farrar, based on the 1980 cult classic film of the same name which was, in turn, inspired by the 1947 Rita Hayworth film Down to Earth[1]. The title is...


Cults of the Muses

When Pythagoras arrived at Croton, his first advice to the Crotoniates was to build a shrine of the Muses at the center of the city, to promote civic harmony and learning. Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... Croton may also refer to a plant genus. ...


Local cults of the Muses were often associated with springs or fountains. They were sometimes called Aganippids because of their association with a fountain called Aganippe. Other fountains, Hippocrene and Pirene, were also important haunts of the Muses. The Muses were also occasionally referred to as "Corycides", or "Corycian nymphs" after a cave on Mount Parnassos, called the Corycian Cave. Aganippe is the name of a fountain and the nymph (a Crinaea) associated with it in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Hippocrene was the name of a fountain on Mt. ... In Greek mythology, Pirene a nymph, was either the daughter of Oebalus, King of Laconia or the River God Achelous, depending on different sources. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... Mount Parnassus (formerly Mount Parnassos) is a mountain in central Greece that towers above Delphi. ... The Corycian Cave is located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus, in Greece. ...


The Muses were especially venerated in Boeotia, near Helicon, and in Delphi and the Parnassus, where Apollo became known as Mousagetes "Muse-leader". Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... This article is about the mountain. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Mount Parnassus (also Mount Parnassos) is a mountain in central Greece that towers above Delphi. ...


Muse-worship was also often associated with the hero-cults of poets: the tombs of Archilochus on Thasos and Hesiod and Thamyris in Boeotia, all played host to festivals, in which poetic recitations were accompanied by sacrifices to the Muses. Hero cult was one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion. ... Archilochus (Greek: ) (c. ... Thasos or Thassos (Greek: Θάσος, Ottoman Turkish: طاشوز Taşöz, Bulgarian: ) is an island in the northern Aegean Sea, close to the coast of Thrace and the plain of the river Nestos (during the Ottoman times Kara-Su). ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... In Greek mythology, Thamyris, son of Philammon and the nymph Argiope, was a Thracian singer who was so proud of his skill that he boasted he could outsing the Muses. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ...


The Library of Alexandria and its circle of scholars were formed around a mousaion ("museum" or shrine of the Muses) close by the tomb of Alexander the Great. Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... The Palais du Louvre in Paris, which houses the Musée du Louvre, one of the worlds most famous museums, and most certainly the largest. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Many Enlightenment figures sought to re-establish a "Cult of the Muses" in the eighteenth century. A famous Masonic lodge in pre-Revolutionary Paris was called Les Neuf Soeurs ("nine sisters", that is, the nine Muses), and was attended by Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin, Danton and other influential Enlightenment figures. One side-effect of this movement was the use of the word "museum" (originally, "cult place of the Muses") to refer to a place for the public display of knowledge. The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Freemasons redirects here. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Les Neuf Soeurs: a prominent French Masonic Lodge that was particularly influential in organising French support for the American Revolution. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... According to a biographer, Dantons height was colossal, his make athletic, his features strongly marked, coarse, and displeasing; his voice shook the domes of the halls.[1] Georges Jacques Danton (October 26, 1759 – April 5, 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and...


The Muse-poet

The British poet Robert Graves popularised the concept of the Muse-poet in modern times based on pre-twelfth century traditions of the Celtic poets, on the tradition of the medieval troubadours who celebrated the concept of courtly love and the romantic poets. Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


"No Muse-poet grows conscious of the Muse except by experience of a woman in whom the Goddess is to some degree resident; just as no Apollonian poet can perform his proper function unless he lives under a monarchy or a quasi-monarchy. A Muse-poet falls in love, absolutely, and his true love is for him the embodiment of the Muse...


But the real, perpetually obsessed Muse-poet distinguishes between the Goddess as manifest in the supreme power, glory, wisdom and love of woman, and the individual woman whom the Goddess may make her instrument...


The Goddess abides; and perhaps he will again have knowledge of her through his experience of another woman...[9]


The "Tenth Muse"

The poet Sappho of Lesbos was given the compliment of being called "the tenth Muse" by Plato. The phrase has become a somewhat conventional compliment paid to female poets since. For other uses, see Sappho (disambiguation). ... Lesbos (Modern Greek: Lesvos (Λέσβος), Turkish: Midilli), is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


In Callimachus' "Aetia", the poet refers to Queen Berenike, wife of Ptolemy II, as a "Tenth Muse", dedicating both the 'Coma Berenikes' and the 'Victoria Berenikes' in Books III-IV.


French critics have acclaimed a series of dixième Muses who were noted by William Rose Benet in The Reader's Encyclopedia (1948): Marie Lejars de Gournay (1566-1645), Antoinette Deshoulières (1633-1694), Madeleine de Scudéry (1607-1701) and Delphine Gay (1804-1855). William Rose Benét (February 2, 1886 - May 4, 1950) was an American poet, writer and editor. ... Madeleine de Scudéry (November 15, 1607 - June 2, 1701), often known simply as Mademoiselle de Scudéry, was a French writer. ...


Anne Bradstreet, a Puritan poet of New England, was honored in with this title with the publishing of her poems in London in 1650, in a volume titled by the publisher The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America.... This was also the first ever published volume of American poetry. Title page, second (posthumous) edition of Bradstreets poems, 1678 Anne Bradstreet (ca. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Emily Dickinson, one of the best known American poets. ...


Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, a Mexican poet, is well known in the Spanish literary world as the tenth muse. Sor Juana (12 November 1651 (or 1648, according to some biographers) – 17 April 1695), also known as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz or, in full, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz de Asbaje y Ramírez, was a self taught Mexican scholar, nun, and writer of the...


Gabriele D'Annunzio's 1920 Constitution for the Free State of Fiume was based around the nine muses, and invoked Energeia (energy) as "the tenth Muse". Gabriele dAnnunzio (12 March 1863, Pescara – 1 March 1938, Gardone Riviera, province of Brescia) was an Italian poet, writer, novelist, dramatist and daredevil, who went on to have a controversial role in politics as a precursor of the fascist movement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Free state of rijeka. ... Energeia is an important Greek technical term in the works of Aristotle. ...


The comic book superhero Emma Sonnet (and later Lyxandra) from the Bluewater Productions series Tenth Muse is based on the idea of a fictional muse representing justice. A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... For other fictional 10th muses, see DAnnunzios Energeia for Fiume, and Muse The Tenth Muse (also The 10th Muse) is an independent super-hero comic book series about a modern-day female daughter of Zeus. ...


Mark Twain referred to a lie as the tenth muse in his essay On the Decay of the Art of Lying. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ...


Gradiva 'the woman who walks through walls' is the muse of Surrealism. (Nadeau, Maurice, A History of Surrealism, orig.1965, various publishers) The Gradiva The Gradiva (Latin, The one who walks) is a famous bas-relief of Pompeii. ...


Shakespeare's Sonnet 38 invokes the Tenth Muse:[10]

"How can my Muse want subject to invent,
While thou dost breathe, that pour'st into my verse
Thine own sweet argument?"

the poet asks, and in the opening of the sestet calls upon his muse: [[]]A Sestet is the name given to the second division of a sonnet, which must consist of an octave, of eight lines, succeeded by a sestet, of six lines. ...

"Be thou the tenth Muse, ten times more in worth
Than those old nine which rhymers invocate."


Muse was the goddess of poetry, Brian.


References

  1. ^ Modern Greek οι μούσες, i moúses.
  2. ^ from which mind and mental are also derived; so OED
  3. ^ OED derives "amuse" from French a ("from") + muser, "to stare stupidly" or distractedly.
  4. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 9.29.1.
  5. ^ TheoiProject: Muses
  6. ^ Strabo 10.3.10.
  7. ^ Solon, fragment 13.
  8. ^ This is an ancient convention: the Mesopotamian epic Atra-Hasis is represented as dictated by the Goddess in a dream-vision.
  9. ^ Robert Graves, The White Goddess, a historical grammar of poetic myth.
  10. ^ Shakespeare, Sonnet 38.

Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The 18th century BC Akkadian Atra-Hasis epic, named after its human hero, contains both a creation and a flood account, and is one of three surviving Babylonian flood stories. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... The author and poet Robert Graves study of the nature of poetic myth-making, The White Goddess, first published in 1948, and revised, amended and enlarged in 1966, represents a tangential approach to the study of mythology from a decidedly idiosyncratic perspective. ...

External links

  • Muses in the ancient art
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Muses
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

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