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Encyclopedia > Muscovy
History of Russia
Early East Slavs
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Vladimir-Suzdal
Novgorod Republic
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Khanate of Kazan
Russian Empire
Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1917
Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation

Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. The Great Princedom of Moscow, as the state is known in Russian records, was the predecessor of the Russian Empire and the successor of Kievan Rus' in its northern and eastern lands. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The site of the Khazar fortress at Sarkel. ... Map of the the extent of Kievan Rus through the 11th century. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество) was one of major principalities within the Kievan Rus and after its collapse. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... The Golden Horde was a Mongol state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, and immediately after and because of Lenins dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly, between Communist forces known as the Red Army and loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Army. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Prince Albert of Monaco on the left represents a principality where he wields administrative authority. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... Map of the the extent of Kievan Rus through the 11th century. ...


The reign of the tsars started officially with Ivan IV of Russia (Ivan the Terrible), the first monarch to be crowned Tsar of Russia, but in practice it started with the first to use the title of tsar, Ivan III of Russia (Ivan the Great), who completed centralisation of the state (traditionally known as the gathering of the Russian lands) at the same time as Louis XI did the same in France. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 – October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of the Russian... Louis XI the hottest person Bold textalive ([ Headline text Ader is my HEROFrench: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle araigne (old French for universal spider),or the Spider King, was King of France (1461–1483). ...


The development of the Russian state can be traced from Vladimir-Suzdal' through Muscovy to Russia, and then, the Russian Empire. Muscovy drew people and wealth to the northeastern part of Kievan Rus'; established trade links to the Baltic Sea, the White Sea, and the Caspian Sea and to Siberia; and created a highly centralized and autocratic political system. Muscovite political traditions, therefore, exerted a powerful influence on Russian society. Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество) was one of major principalities within the Kievan Rus and after its collapse. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ...

Contents


Rise of Muscovy

When the Mongols invaded the lands of Kievan Rus', Moscow was an insignificant trading outpost in the principality of Vladimir-Suzdal'. Though Mongols burnt down Moscow in the winter 1238 and pillaged it in 1293 and 1382, the outpost's remote, forested location offered some security from Mongol attack and occupation, and a number of rivers provided access to the Baltic and Black Seas and to the Caucasus region. More important to Moscow's development in what became the state of Muscovy, however, was its rule by a series of princes who were ambitious, determined, and lucky. The first ruler of the principality of Muscovy, Daniil Aleksandrovich (d. 1303), secured the principality for his branch of the Rurik Dynasty. His son, Ivan I (r. 1325-1340), known as Ivan Kalita (Ivan Money Bag), obtained the title Grand Prince of Vladimir from his Mongol overlords. He cooperated closely with the Mongols and collected tribute/taxes from other Russian principalities on their behalf. This relationship enabled Ivan to gain regional ascendancy, particularly over Muscovy's chief rival, the northern city of Tver'. In 1327 the Orthodox metropolitan transferred his residency from Vladimir to Moscow, further enhancing the prestige of the new principality. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... A principality is a monarchial feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество) was one of major principalities within the Kievan Rus and after its collapse. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... The term prince (the female form is princess), from the Latin root princeps, when used for a member of the highest aristocracy, has several fundamentally different meanings - one generic, and several types of titles. ... Daniil (Daniel) Aleksandrovich (Даниил Александрович in Russian) (1261 - March 4/5, 1303), the first Grand Prince of Moscow, the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod, forefather of all the princes of Moscow. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... Rurik or Riurik (Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Rurikovo Gorodische) in Novgorod. ... Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Ivan the Moneybag) (Ива́н I Дани́лович Калита́ in Russian)(1288 - March 31, 1340), Prince of Moscow (since 1325), Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1328), son of Daniil Aleksandrovich (Prince of Moscow). ... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Tver (Russian: Тверь), formerly (1931_1990) Kalinin (Калинин) after Mikhail Kalinin, is a city in Russia, center of Tver Oblast (region). ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... ...

Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. Old Rus' (1910)
Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. Old Rus' (1910)

In the 15th century, the grand princes of Muscovy began gathering Russian lands to increase the population and wealth under their rule. The most successful practitioner of this process was Ivan III (the Great; r. 1462-1505), who conquered Novgorod in 1478 and Tver' in 1485. Muscovy gained full sovereignty over significant part of the ethnically Russian lands about 1480 when the Tatars' Golden Horde overlordship ended officially (see Great standing on the Ugra river), and by the beginning of the 16th century virtually all those lands were united. Through inheritance, Ivan obtained part of the province of Ryazan', and the princes of Rostov and Yaroslavl' voluntarily subordinated themselves to him. The northwestern city of Pskov remained independent in this period, but Ivan's son, Vasili III (r. 1505-1533), later conquered it. I. Goriushkin-Skoropudov. ... I. Goriushkin-Skoropudov. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... // Events August 5-7 - First outbreak of sweating sickness in England begins August 22 - Battle of Bosworth Field is fought between the armies of King Richard III of England and rival claimant to the throne of England Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Golden Horde was a Mongol state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Miniature in russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra)) was a bloodless standoff between Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Golden Horde, and Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia in 1480, which... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Ryazan (Ряза́нь) is a city in Central Russia federal district, an administrative center of the Ryazan Oblast. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km NE of Moscow at 57°37′ N 39°51′ E The historical part of the city is located at confluence of Volga and Kotorosl. ... Categories: Russia geography stubs | Cities in Russia ... Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479 – December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ...


In the beginning of the 16th century the Russian state set the national goal to return all Russian territories lost as a result of the Mongolian invasion and to protect the borderland against attacks of hordes. The noblemen, receiving a manor from the sovereign, were obliged to serve in the army. The manor system became a basis for the nobiliary horse army. Hordes is the name of the newest miniature wargame to be produced by Privateer Press. ...


Ivan III was the first Muscovite ruler to use the titles of tsar and "Ruler of all Rus'". Ivan competed with his powerful northwestern rival Lithuania for control over some of the semi-independent former principalities of Kievan Rus' in the upper Dnepr and Donets river basins. Through the defections of some princes, border skirmishes, and a long, inconclusive war with Lithuania that ended only in 1503, Ivan III was able to push westward, and Muscovy tripled in size under his rule. The Dnieper River (Belarusian: Дняпро/Dnyapro; Russian: Днепр/Dnepr; Ukrainian: Днiпро/Dnipro; Polish: Dniepr; Latin: Borysthenes, Danaper) is a river (2290 km length) which flows from Russia through Belarus and then Ukraine. ... The Donets River starts in Central Russia upland, north of Belgorod, in the Russian Federation. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Evolution of the Russian autocracy

Internal consolidation accompanied outward expansion of the state. By the 15th century, the rulers of Muscovy considered the entire Russian territory their collective property. Various semi-independent princes of Rurikid stock still claimed specific territories, but Ivan III forced the lesser princes to acknowledge the grand prince of Muscovy and his descendants as unquestioned rulers with control over military, judicial, and foreign affairs. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Russia from 862 to 1598. ...


Gradually, the Muscovite ruler emerged as a powerful, autocratic ruler, a tsar. By assuming that title, the Muscovite prince underscored that he was a major ruler or emperor on a par with the Greek emperor or the Mongol khan. Indeed, after Ivan III's marriage to Sophia Paleologue, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, the Muscovite court adopted Byzantine terms, rituals, titles, and emblems such as the double-headed eagle. At first, the Byzantine term autocrat connoted only the literal meaning of an independent ruler, but in the reign of Ivan IV (r. 1533-1584) it came to mean unlimited rule. Ivan IV was crowned tsar and thus was recognized, at least by the Orthodox Church, as emperor. An Orthodox monk had claimed that, once Constantinople had fallen to the Ottoman Empire in 1453, the Muscovite tsar was the only legitimate Orthodox ruler and that Moscow was the Third Rome because it was the final successor to Rome and Constantinople, the centers of Christianity in earlier periods. That concept was to resonate in the self-image of Russians in future centuries. Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is the official Slavonic title designating Emperor in the following states: Bulgaria in 913–1422 (for later usage in 1908–1946, see below) Serbia in... Zoe Palaiologina (Greek Ζωή Παλαιολόγου, Russian Софья Фоминична Палеолог, around 1455 - April 7, 1503), Grand Duchess of Moscow, was a niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI and second wife of Ivan III of Russia. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... New Rome is a term that can be applied to a city or a country. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ...


Evolution of the Russian aristocracy

Boyars were hereditary nobles of three categories: 1) Rurikid princes of Upper Oka towns, Suzdal, Rostov, Yaroslavl, etc. that lived in Moscow after their hereditary principalities had been incorporated into Muscovy (e.g., Shuisky, Vorotynsky, Repnin, Romodanovsky); 2) foreign princes from Lithuania and Golden Horde, claiming descent either from Grand Duke Gediminas or from Genghis Khan (e.g., Belsky, Mstislavsky, Galitzine, Trubetskoy); 3) ancient families of Muscovite nobility that have been recorded in the service of Grand Dukes from the 14th century (e.g., Romanov, Godunov, Sheremetev). A boyar (also spelled bojar) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Russia from 862 to 1598. ... The Upper Principalities (Russian: Верховские княжества) is a term traditionally applied in Russian historiography to about dozen tiny and ephemeral polities situated along the upper course of the Oka River at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. ... St. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... A public building in Yaroslavl Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Shuisky (Шуйские) was a Rurikid family of boyars descending from Grand Dukes of Vladimir-Suzdal. ... Vorotynsky was one of the most eminent Rurikid princely houses of Muscovite Russia. ... Coat of arms of the Repnin family Repnin (Russian: Репнин), the name of an old Russian princely family of Rurikid stock. ... Romodanovsky (Russian: Ромодановские) was a Rurikid princely family descending from sovereign rulers of Starodub-on-the-Klyazma. ... The Golden Horde was a Mongol state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... , (c. ... Belsky (Russian: Бельский, pl. ... Peter I permitted the Galitzines to take an emblem of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as their coat of arms The Galitzines, more correctly the Golitsyns (Russian: Голицын), are one of the largest and noblest princely houses of Russia. ... Troubetzkoy Coat of Arms PogoÅ„ Litewska Coat of Arms Trubetskoy, or Troubetzkoy, or Trubetsky, or Trubecki, or Trubchevsky , is a typical Ruthenian Gedyminid gentry family of Black Ruthenian stock, like many other princely houses of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later prominent in Russian history, science, and arts. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Boris Petrovich Sheremetyev (Russian: Борис Петрович Шереме́тьев), born 1692, died 1719. ...


Rurikid and Gediminid boyars, whose fathers and grandfathers were independent princelings, felt that they are kin to tsar and hence almost equal to him. During the times of dynastic troubles (such as the years of Ivan IV's minority), boyardom constituted an internal force which was a permanent threat to the throne. An early form of Tsar's conflict with boyarstvo was oprichnina of Ivan the Terrible. The Oprichnina (Russian: Опричнина) formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ...


During such conflicts, Ivan the Terrible, Boris Godunov, and some later tsars felt the necessity to counterbalance the boyardom by creating a new kind of nobility, based on personal devotion to tsar and merits earned by faithful service, rather than by heredity. Later these new nobles were called dvoryans (singular: dvoryanin). The name comes from the Russian word dvor in the meaning of tsar's dvor, i.e., The Court. Hence the expression pozhalovat ko dvoru, i.e., to be called to (serve) The Court. Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Dvoryanstvo (Russian: дворянство) refers to a category of Russian nobility. ...


Ivan IV

The development of the tsar's autocratic powers reached a peak during the reign of Ivan IV, and he became known as the Terrible (his Russian epithet, groznyy, means "thunderous"). Ivan strengthened the position of the tsar to an unprecedented degree, demonstrating the risks of unbridled power in the hands of a mentally unstable individual. Although apparently intelligent and energetic, Ivan suffered from bouts of paranoia and depression, and his rule was punctuated by acts of extreme violence.


Ivan IV became grand prince of Muscovy in 1533 at the age of three. The Shuisky and Belsky factions of the boyars competed for control of the regency until Ivan assumed the throne in 1547. Reflecting Muscovy's new imperial claims, Ivan's coronation as tsar was an elaborate ritual modeled after those of the Byzantine emperors. With the continuing assistance of a group of boyars, Ivan began his reign with a series of useful reforms. In the 1550s, he promulgated a new law code, revamped the military, and reorganized local government. These reforms undoubtedly were intended to strengthen the state in the face of continuous warfare. Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Shuisky (Шуйские) was a Rurikid family of boyars descending from Grand Dukes of Vladimir-Suzdal. ... Belsky (Russian: Бельский, pl. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... Events and Trends Categories: 1550s ...

Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. Market Day at the Old Town (1910).
Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. Market Day at the Old Town (1910).

During the late 1550s, Ivan developed a hostility toward his advisers, the government, and the boyars. Historians have not determined whether policy differences, personal animosities, or mental imbalance caused his wrath. In 1565 he divided Russia into two parts: his private domain and the public realm. For his private domain, Ivan chose some of the most prosperous and important districts of Russia. In these areas, Ivan's agents attacked boyars, merchants, and even common people, summarily executing some and confiscating land and possessions. Thus began a decade of terror in Russia. As a result of this policy, called the oprichnina, Ivan broke the economic and political power of the leading boyar families, thereby destroying precisely those persons who had built up Muscovy and were the most capable of administering it. Trade diminished, and peasants, faced with mounting taxes and threats of violence, began to leave Russia. Efforts to curtail the mobility of the peasants by tying them to their land brought Russia closer to legal serfdom. In 1572 Ivan finally abandoned the practices of the oprichnina. Image File history File links Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. ... Image File history File links Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. ... Events The pencil is first documented by Conrad Gesner March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... The Oprichnina (Russian: Опричнина) formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ...


Despite the domestic turmoil of Ivan's late period, Russia continued to wage wars and to expand. Ivan defeated and annexed the Kazan Khanate on the middle Volga in 1552 and later the Astrakhan Khanate, where the Volga meets the Caspian Sea. These victories gave Russia access to the entire Volga River and to Central Asia. Russia's eastward expansion encountered relatively little resistance. In 1581 the Stroganov merchant family, interested in fur trade, hired a Cossack leader, Yermak Timofeyevich, to lead an expedition into western Siberia. Yermak defeated the Siberia Khanate and claimed the territories west of the Ob' and Irtysh rivers for Russia. Categories: Historical stubs | Former countries | Tatars | Tatarstan history | History of Mongolia ... The Volga river in Western Russia, Europes longest river, with a length of 3,690 km (2,293 miles), provides the core of the largest river system in Europe. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... Stroganovs or Strogonovs (Строгановы, Строгоновы in Russian), also spelled in French manner as Stroganoffs, was a family of highly successful Russian merchants, industrialists, landowners, and statesmen of the 16th - 20th centuries that eventually earned nobility. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Yermak Timofeyevich (Russian: Ерма́к Тимофе́евич, also Ermak) (born between 1532 and 1542 — August 5 or 6, 1585), Cossack leader and explorer of Siberia. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Siberia Khanate is an anachronistic rendering of its actual name Khanate of Sibir, a Tatar khanate in the later Russian Siberia. ... Ob River ... Irtysh (Иртыш ; Kazakh: Ertis / Эртiс ; Tatar: Ä°rteÅŸ / Иртеш ; Chinese: Erqisi / 额尔齐斯河) a river in Central Asia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ...


Expanding to the northwest toward the Baltic Sea proved to be much more difficult. In 1558 Ivan invaded Livonia, eventually embroiling himself in a twenty-five-year war against Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden, and Denmark. Despite occasional successes, Ivan's army was pushed back, and the nation failed to secure a coveted position on the Baltic Sea. Hoping to make profit from Russia's concentration on the Livonian affairs, Devlet I Giray of Crimea, accompanied by as many as 120 thousand horsemen, repeatedly devastated Moscow region, until the Battle of Molodi put a stop to such northward incursions. But for decades to come, the southern borderland was annually pillaged by the Nogai Horde and the Crimean Khanate, who took local inhabitants with them as slaves. Tens of thousands of soldiers protected the Great Abatis Belt -- a heavy burden for a state whose social and economic development stagnated. The wars drained Russia. Some historians even believe that the oprichnina was started by Ivan in order to mobilize resources for the wars and to quell opposition to it. Regardless of the reason, Ivan's domestic and foreign policies had a devastating effect on Russia, and they led to a period of social struggle and civil war, the so-called Time of Troubles (Smutnoye vremya, 1598-1613). Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Swedish: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Lifljandija) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day... The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Devlet I Giray (Crimean Tatar: I Devlet Geray) (1512–1577) — a khan of the Crimean Khanate in 1551–1577. ... The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: Кримське ханство - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Crimean Khanate Muscovite Russia Commanders Khan Devlet Ghiray Voyevoda Mikhail Vorotynsky Strength 80,000 Crimean Tatars, 33,000 Turks, 7,000 elite janissaries 60,000 - 70,000 Casualties 100,000 - 115,000 unknown {{{notes}}} The Battle of Molodi (Russian: Молодинская битва) was one of the key battles of Ivan the Terrible... The Nogai Horde was the Tatar horde that controlled the Caucasus Mountain region after the Mongol invasion. ... The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: Кримське ханство - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Great Abatis Border (Russian: ) is a chain of fortification lines, created by Muscovy to protect it from the rides of the Mongolo-Tatars. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ...


Time of Troubles

Ivan IV was succeeded by his son Fedor, who was mentally deficient. Actual power went to Fedor's brother-in-law, the boyar Boris Godunov (who is credited with abolishing Yuri's Day, the only time of the year when serfs were free to move from one landowner to another). Perhaps the most important event of Fedor's reign was the proclamation of the patriarchate of Moscow in 1589. The creation of the patriarchate climaxed the evolution of a separate and totally independent Russian Orthodox Church. In 1598 Fedor died without an heir, ending the Rurik Dynasty. Boris Godunov then convened a Zemsky Sobor, a national assembly of boyars, church officials, and commoners, which proclaimed him tsar, although various boyar factions refused to recognize the decision. Widespread crop failures caused a famine between 1601 and 1603, and during the ensuing discontent, a man emerged who claimed to be Dmitriy, Ivan IV's son who had died in 1591. This pretender to the throne, who came to be known as False Dmitriy I, gained support in Poland and marched to Moscow, gathering followers among the boyars and other elements as he went. Historians speculate[1] that Godunov would have weathered this crisis, but he died in 1605. As a result, False Dmitriy I entered Moscow and was crowned tsar that year, following the murder of Tsar Fedor II, Godunov's son. Feodor presents a golden chain to Boris Godunov. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Yuris Day or Saint George Day is a Russian Orthodox feast celebrated twice a year - in spring and in autumn. ... The following is a list of Russian Orthodox metropolitans and patriarchs of Moscow along with when they served: Metropolitans Maximus (1283_1305) Peter (1308_1326) Theognostus (1328_1353) Alexius (1354_1378) Cyprian (1381_1382), (1390_1406) Pimen (1382_1384) Dionysius I (1384_1385) Photius (1408_1431) Isidore the Apostate (1437_1441) Jonas (1448_1461) Theodosius (1461_1464) Philip I (1464_1473) Gerontius (1473_1489... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Rurik or Riurik (Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Rurikovo Gorodische) in Novgorod. ... The zemsky sobor (Russian: зе́мский собо́р) was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. ... Events February 8 - Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Elizabeth I of England - revolt is quickly crushed February 25 - Robert Devereux beheaded Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China Bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer Dutch troops drive Portuguese from Málaga Battle of Kinsale, Ireland Births... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Events June - Capture of Zutphen by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau. ... False Dmitriy I, Cyrillic Дмитрий (other transliterations: Dmitry, Dmitri, Dmitrii), (ruled 1605-1606) was one of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevich Dmitriy Ivanovich, who had supposedly miraculously escaped the assassination attempt. ... // Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ... Assassination of Feodor II (1862). ...

Monks successfully defended the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra against the Poles from September 1609 to January 1611.
Monks successfully defended the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra against the Poles from September 1609 to January 1611.

Subsequently, Russia entered a period of continuous chaos, known as The Time of Troubles (Смутное Время). It included a civil war in which a struggle over the throne was complicated by the machinations of rival boyar factions, the intervention of regional powers Poland and Sweden, and intense popular discontent. False Dmitriy I and his Polish garrison were overthrown, and a boyar, Vasiliy Shuyskiy, was proclaimed tsar in 1606. In his attempt to retain the throne, Shuyskiy allied himself with the Swedes. False Dmitriy II, allied with the Poles, appeared. In 1610 that heir apparent was proclaimed tsar, and the Poles occupied Moscow. The Polish presence led to a patriotic revival among the Russians, and a new army, financed by northern merchants and blessed by the Orthodox Church, drove the Poles out. In 1609 Poland intervened officially (previous invasions were by private armies). Russian boyars signed in 1610 a treaty of peace, recognising Ladislaus IV of Poland, son of Polish king Sigismund III Vasa, as tzar (which was opposed by his father, however who wanted the throne for himself). Opponents were defeated by Polish army at Kluszyn. In 1611, False Dmitriy III appeared, but was soon apprehended and executed. In 1612, troops under command of prince Dmitry Pozharsky finally drove Poles out. In 1613 a new zemsky sobor proclaimed the boyar Mikhail Romanov as tsar, beginning the 300-year reign of the Romanov family. The Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618) was ended with Truce of Deulino in 1618, restoring temporarily Polish and Lithuanian rule over some territories, including Smolensk lost by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1509. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (833x509, 117 KB)Sergey Miloradovich (1851-1943). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (833x509, 117 KB)Sergey Miloradovich (1851-1943). ... View of the lavra in the 1890s. ... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... Vasili IV of Russia (1552 – September 12, 1612) was the last Rurikid tsar of Russia between 1606 and 1610. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... False Dmitry II (Russian: Лжедимитрий II), also called the thief of Tushino, was the second of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevich Dmitry. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Reign in Poland From November 8, 1632 until May 20, 1648 Reign in Russia From 1610 until 1635 Elected in Poland On November 8, 1632 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Elected in Russia In 1610 Coronation On February 6, 1633 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House... Reign in Poland From September 18, 1587 until April 19, 1632 Reign in Sweden From November 17, 1592 until July 24, 1599 Elected in Poland On September 18, 1587 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation in Poland On December 27, 1587 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Coronation... Conflict Dymitriads - Polish-Muscovite War of 1609-1618 Date July 4, 1610 Place Village of Kluszyn, between Vyazma and Mozhaysk Result Polish victory The Battle of Kluszyn (Klushino) was fought on July 4th, 1610, between forces of the Russia during Russias Time of Troubles. ... False Dmitriy III, also called Pseudo-Demetrius III (Russian: Лжедимитрий III), was the last and most enigmatic of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevich Dmitry. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Pozharsky and Minin monument (1804-16) in front of Saint Basils Cathedral Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky (Russian: Дми́трий Миха́йлович Пожа́рский, Polish: Dymitr Pożarski) (November 1, 1578 - April 30, 1642) was a Rurikid prince who obtainted from the tsar an unprecedented title of the Saviour of Motherland. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... The zemsky sobor (Russian: зе́мский собо́р) was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. ... Mikhail at the Ipatiev Monastery by Grigory Ugryumov Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov (In Russian Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов) (July 12, 1596 – July 13, 1645) was the first Russian tsar of the house of Romanov, being the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov, afterwards the Patriarch Filaret, and Xenia (of disputed family), afterwards the great nun Martha. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Muscovite Russia Commanders Strength Casualties The Polish-Muscovite War (1605–1618) is the name of the series of wars (1605–1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovite Russia (or Muscovy), in the background of the Russian dynastic crisis known as the Time of Troubles (1598... Truce of Deulino (also known as Peace or Treaty of Dywilino), was signed in December 1618 and concluded the Dymitriad wars (also known as Polish-Muscovy War of 1605-1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: ) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River at 54. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Russia was in chaos for more than a decade, but the institution of the autocracy remained intact. Despite the tsar's persecution of the boyars, the townspeople's dissatisfaction, and the gradual enserfment of the peasantry, efforts at restricting the power of the tsar were only halfhearted. Finding no institutional alternative to the autocracy, discontented Russians rallied behind various pretenders to the throne. During that period, the goal of political activity was to gain influence over the sitting autocrat or to place one's own candidate on the throne. The boyars fought among themselves, the lower classes revolted blindly, and foreign armies occupied the Kremlin in Moscow, prompting many to accept tsarist absolutism as a necessary means to restoring order and unity in Russia. The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin ( Russian citadel). ...


Romanovs

The immediate task of the new dynasty was to restore order. Fortunately for Russia, its major enemies, Poland and Sweden, were engaged in a bitter conflict with each other, which provided Russia the opportunity to make peace with Sweden in 1617 and to sign a truce with Poland in 1619. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the city of Smolensk (the Smolensk War) from Poland in 1632, Russia made peace with Poland in 1634. Polish king Wladyslaw IV, whose father and predecessor Sigismund III Vasa had been elected by Russian boyars as tsar of Russia during the Time of Troubles, renounced all claims to the title as a condition of the peace treaty. Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: ) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River at 54. ... The Smolensk War was a conflict fought in the years 1632- 1634 between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... Reign in Poland From November 8, 1632 until May 20, 1648 Reign in Russia From 1610 until 1635 Elected in Poland On November 8, 1632 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Elected in Russia In 1610 Coronation On February 6, 1633 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House... Reign in Poland From September 18, 1587 until April 19, 1632 Reign in Sweden From November 17, 1592 until July 24, 1599 Elected in Poland On September 18, 1587 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation in Poland On December 27, 1587 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Coronation...


The early Romanovs were weak rulers. Under Mikhail, state affairs were in the hands of the tsar's father, Filaret, who in 1619 became patriarch of the Orthodox Church. Later, Mikhail's son Aleksey (r. 1645-1676) relied on a boyarin, Boris Morozov, to run his government. Morozov abused his position by exploiting the populace, and in 1648 Aleksey dismissed him in the wake of the Salt Riot in Moscow. Patriarch Filaret may refer to: Patriarch Filaret of Moscow and All Rus (Feodor Nikitich Romanov), a father of Tzar Michael I of Russia. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (In Russian Алексей Михаилович Романов) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid_17th century. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Boris Ivanovich Morozov (Борис Иванович Морозов in Russian) (1590 - 1661), Russian statesman and boyar, head of the government in mid 17th century. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Salt Riot in Kolomenskoe, by N. Nekrasov The Salt Riot, also known as the Moscow Uprising of 1648 (Соляной бунт, Московское восстание 1648 in Russian), was a riot in Moscow in 1648, triggered by the governments substitution of different taxes with a universal direct salt tax for the purpose of replenishing the state...


The autocracy survived the Time of Troubles and the rule of weak or corrupt tsars because of the strength of the government's central bureaucracy. Government functionaries continued to serve, regardless of the ruler's legitimacy or the boyar faction controlling the throne. In the 17th century, the bureaucracy expanded dramatically. The number of government departments (prikazy ; sing., prikaz ) increased from twenty-two in 1613 to eighty by mid-century. Although the departments often had overlapping and conflicting jurisdictions, the central government, through provincial governors, was able to control and regulate all social groups, as well as trade, manufacturing, and even the Orthodox Church. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Prikaz (Russian: ) was an administrative (palace, civil, military, or church) or judicial office in Muscovy and Russia of 15th-18th centuries. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ...

Andrei Ryabushkin. Muscovite women at the church service.
Andrei Ryabushkin. Muscovite women at the church service.

The comprehensive legal code introduced in 1649 illustrates the extent of state control over Russian society. By that time, the boyars had largely merged with the new elite, who were obligatory servitors of the state, to form a new nobility, the dvoryanstvo. The state required service from both the old and the new nobility, primarily in the military because of permanent warfare on southern and western borders and attacks of nomads. In return, the nobility received land and peasants. In the preceding century, the state had gradually curtailed peasants' rights to move from one landlord to another; the 1649 code officially attached peasants to their domicile. The state fully sanctioned serfdom, and runaway peasants became state fugitives. Landlords had complete power over their peasants . Peasants living on state-owned land, however, were not considered serfs. They were organized into communes, which were responsible for taxes and other obligations. Like serfs, however, state peasants were attached to the land they farmed. Middle-class urban tradesmen and craftsmen were assessed taxes, and, like the serfs, they were forbidden to change residence. All segments of the population were subject to military levy and to special taxes. By chaining much of Muscovite society to specific domiciles, the legal code of 1649 curtailed movement and subordinated the people to the interests of the state. Andrey P. Ryabushkin (1861-1904). ... Andrey P. Ryabushkin (1861-1904). ... Andrei Ryabushkin by Vasily Mathe Andrei Petrovich Ryabushkin (Russian: ; October 29 [O.S. October 17] 1861 - May 10 [O.S. April 27] 1904) was a Russian painter. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Under this code, increased state taxes and regulations exacerbated the social discontent that had been simmering since the Time of Troubles. In the 1650s and 1660s, the number of peasant escapes increased dramatically. A favorite refuge was the Don River region, domain of the Don Cossacks. A major uprising occurred in the Volga region in 1670 and 1671. Stenka Razin, a Cossack who was from the Don River region, led a revolt that drew together wealthy Cossacks who were well established in the region and escaped serfs seeking free land. The unexpected uprising swept up the Volga River valley and even threatened Moscow. Tsarist troops finally defeated the rebels after they had occupied major cities along the Volga in an operation whose panache captured the imaginations of later generations of Russians. Razin was publicly tortured and executed. Significant Events and Trends World Leaders King Frederick III of Denmark (1648 - 1670). ... Events and Trends Samuel Pepys begins his famous diary in 1660 and ends it, due to failing eyesight in 1669. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Stepan (Stenka) Timofeyevich Razin (Степан (Стенька) Тимофеевич Разин in Russian) (1630 - 6. ...


Expansion

Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century. In the south-west, it acquired eastern Ukraine, which had been under Polish rule. The Ukrainian Cossacks, warriors organized in military formations, lived in the frontier areas bordering Poland, the Tatar lands, and Russia. Although they had served in the Polish army as mercenaries, the Cossacks of the Zaporozhian Host remained fiercely independent and staged a number of rebellions against the Poles. In 1648, the peasants of Ukraine joined the Cossacks in rebellion during the Khmelnytsky Uprising, because of the social and religious oppression they suffered under Polish rule. Initially, Ukrainians were allied with Tatars, which had helped them to throw off Polish rule. Once the Poles convinced the Tartars to switch sides, the Ukrainians needed military help to maintain their position. In 1654 the Ukrainian leader, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, offered to place Ukraine under the protection of the Muscovite tsar, Aleksey I. Aleksey's acceptance of this offer, which was ratified in the Treaty of Pereyaslav, led to a protracted war between Poland and Russia. The Treaty of Andrusovo, which ended the war in 1667, split Ukraine along the river Dnieper, reuniting the western sector (or Right-bank Ukraine) with Poland and leaving the eastern sector (Left-bank Ukraine) as the Cossack Hetmanate, self-governing under the suzerainty of the tsar. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Chmielnicki Uprising or Chmielnicki Rebellion is the name of a civil war in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the years 1648–1654. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Ukrainian, commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bogdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Bohdan Khmelnitsky) ( 1595 – August 6, 1657) was a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth noble of Polish or Ruthenian origin, leader of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate, hetman of Ukraine, noted for... Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (In Russian Алексей Михаилович Романов) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid_17th century. ... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... The Russo-Polish War of 1654-1667, also called the War for Ukraine, was the last major conflict between Muscovite Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Treaty of Andrusovo, 1667 (Polish Rozejm w Andruszowie, Russian Андрусовское перемирие, Ukrainian Андрусівське перемиря), a truce for 13,5 years between Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which were at war since 1654 over the territories of modern day Ukraine and Belarus. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... This article is about the river. ... Right-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Правобережна Україна Russian: Правобережная Украина; Polish: Prawobrzeżna Ukraina), a historical name of a part of Ukraine on the right bank of the Dnipro, consisting of the modern day Volyn, Rivne, Vinnitsa, Zhytomyr, Kirvohrad and Kyiv region as well as part of the Cherkaska and Ternopil region. ... Left-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Лівобережна Україна Russian: Левобережная Украина, Polish: Lewobrzeżna Ukraina ): historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnipro River, comprising the modern-day regions of Chernihiv, Poltava and Sumy and the eastern part of the Kyiv and Cherkasy regions, in Russian histories... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey. ...


In the east, Russia had obtained western Siberia in the sixteenth century. From this base, merchants, traders, and explorers pushed eastward from the Ob' River to the Yenisey River, then to the Lena River and to the Coast of Pacific. In 1648 Cossack Semyon Dezhnev opened the passage between America and Asia. By the middle of the 17th century, Muscovites had reached the Amur River and the outskirts of the Chinese Empire. After a period of conflict with the Manchu Dynasty, Russia made peace with China in 1689. By the Treaty of Nerchinsk, Russia ceded its claims to the Amur Valley, but it gained access to the region east of Lake Baikal and the trade route to Beijing. Peace with China consolidated the initial breakthrough to the Pacific that had been made in the middle of the century. Ob River ... Енисей Length 5,550 (4,102) km Elevation of the source m Average discharge 19,600 m³/s Area watershed 2,580,000 km² Origin  ? Mouth Arctic Ocean Basin countries Russia The Yenisei basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Yenisei (Енисе́й) is a river... The Lena River (Russian: Ле́на) in Siberia is the 10th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed. ... Semion Ivanovich Dezhnev (Семён Ива́нович Дежнёв) (circa 1605 – 1673), Russian explorer who led the expedition that doubled the known extent of the easternmost promontory of the Eurasian continent in 1648, discovering that Asia is not connected to Alaska. ... The Amur (Russian: Амур) (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hēilóng Jiāng, literally meaning Black Dragon River) (Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River) (Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is one of the worlds ten longest rivers, located between the Russian Far East and Manchuria of... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Nerchinsk Treaty was the first treaty between Russia and China. ... Lake Baikal The Yenisei River basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Lake Baikal is the largest (by volume), deepest and oldest freshwater lake in the world. ... Beijing (Chinese: ; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; ; IPA: ), a city in northern China (formerly spelled in English as Peking or Peiking), is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Russia's southwestern expansion, particularly its incorporation of eastern Ukraine, had unintended consequences. Most Ukrainians were Orthodox, but their close contact with the Roman Catholic and the Polish Counter-Reformation also brought them Western intellectual currents. Through the Academy in Kiev, Russia gained links to Polish and Central European influences and to the wider Orthodox world. Although the Ukrainian link stimulated creativity in many areas, it also undermined traditional Russian religious practices and culture. The Russian Orthodox Church discovered that its isolation from Constantinople had caused variations to creep into its liturgical books and practices. The Russian Orthodox patriarch, Nikon, was determined to bring the Russian texts back into conformity with the Greek originals. But Nikon encountered fierce opposition among the many Russians who viewed the corrections as improper foreign intrusions, or perhaps the work of the devil. When the Orthodox Church forced Nikon's reforms, a schism resulted in 1667. Those who did not accept the reforms came to be called the Old Believers (starovery ); they were officially pronounced heretics and were persecuted by the church and the state. The chief opposition figure, the archpriest Avvakum, was burned at the stake. The split subsequently became permanent, and many merchants and peasants joined the Old Believers. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Nikon redirects here; there is also a leader of the Russian Orthodox Church named Patriarch Nikon. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Detail of the painting Boyarynya Morozova by Vasily Surikov depicting a defiant Old Believer arrested by Czarist authorities in 1671. ... Old Believer icon depicting Avvakum surrounded by other martyrs of the Old Faith Avvákum Petróv (November 20, 1620 or 1621 - April 14, 1682) was a Russian archpriest of Kazan Cathedral on Red Square who led the opposition to Patriarch Nikons reforms of the Russian Orthodox Church. ...


The tsar's court also felt the impact of Ukraine and the West. Kiev was a major transmitter of new ideas and insight through the famed scholarly academy that Metropolitan Mohyla founded there in 1631. Among the results of this infusion of ideas into Russia were baroque styles of architecture, literature, and icon painting. Other more direct channels to the West opened as international trade increased and more foreigners came to Russia. The tsar's court was interested in the West's more advanced technology, particularly when military applications were involved. By the end of the 17th century, Ukrainian, Polish, and West European penetration had undermined the Muscovite cultural synthesis--at least among the elite--and had prepared the way for an even more radical transformation. Peter Mogila Peter Mogila (Ukrainian: Петро Могила, Petro Mohyla; Romanian: Petru Movilă; Russian: Pyotr Mogila; December 21, 1596 â€“ December 22, 1646) was a Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia from 1633 until his death. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The Assumption church in Pokrovka Street, Moscow (1696-99) Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Stroganov School (Строгановская школа in Russian) is a conventional name of one of the Russian icon-painting schools of the late 16th - early 17th century. ...


Western European knowledge of Muscovy

Apollinary Vasnetsov. Arrival of heralds to the Kremlin.
Apollinary Vasnetsov. Arrival of heralds to the Kremlin.

Muscovy remained a fairly unknown society in western Europe until Baron Sigismund von Herberstein published his Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii (literally Notes on Muscovite Affairs) in 1549. This provided a comprehensive view of what had been a rarely visited and poorly reported state. In the 1630s, Muscovy was visited by Adam Olearius, whose lively and well-informed writings were soon translated into all major languages of Europe. Apollinary Vasnetsov (1856-1933). ... Apollinary Vasnetsov (1856-1933). ... Mikhail Nesterov: Portrait of Apollinary Vasnetsov. ... Siegmund (Sigismund) Freiherr von Herberstein, (or Baron Sigismund von Herberstein), (August 23, 1486—March 28, 1566), Austrian diplomat, writer and historian. ... Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii (1549) (literally Notes on Muscovite Affairs) was a book in Latin by Baron Sigismund von Herberstein on the geography, history and customs of Muscovy (the 16th century Russian state). ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Adam Olearius (born Adam Oehlschlaeger) (1603–1671), German scholar, mathematician, geographer and librarian. ...


Further exploration of the Russian lands was conducted by English and Dutch merchants. One of them, Richard Chancellor, sailed to the White Sea in 1553 and continued overland to Moscow. Upon his return to England, the Muscovy Company was formed by him, Sebastian Cabot, Sir Hugh Willoughby, and several London merchants. Ivan the Terrible used these merchants to exchange letters with Elizabeth I and probably even made a proposal to her. Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Richard Chancellor ( birth date unknown — 1556) was an English seaman. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Ivan IV of Russia demonstrates his treasures to the English ambassador (1875) Muscovy Company (also called Russian Company or Muscovy Trading Company, Polish Kompania Moskiewska, Russian: Московская компания), was a trading company chartered in 1555. ... Sebastian Cabot (c. ... Hugh Willoughby is the name of a number of historically notable men: Sir Hugh Willoughby, sea captain Hugh Willoughby, twelfth Baron Willoughby of Parham Hugh Willoughby, fifteenth Baron Willoughby of Parham This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of England from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


Early Imperial Russia

Main article: Imperial Russia. Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


The following article in the series describes how in the 18th century, Russia was transformed from a static, somewhat isolated, traditional state into the more dynamic, partially Westernized, and secularized Russian Empire. This transformation was in no small measure a result of the vision, energy, and determination of Peter the Great. Historians disagree about the extent to which Peter himself transformed Russia, but they generally concur that he laid the foundations for empire building over the next two centuries. The era that Peter initiated signaled the advent of Russia as a major European power. But, although the Russian Empire would play a leading political role in the next century, its retention of serfdom precluded economic progress of any significant degree. As West European economic growth accelerated during the Industrial Revolution, which had begun in the second half of the eighteenth century, Russia began to lag ever farther behind, creating new problems for the empire as a great power. Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... Portrait of Peter by Paul Delaroche Peter I (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич or Pyotr I Alekseyevich) (Peter Alexeyevich Romanov) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672– 28 January 1725 O.S.] [1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ...


See also

List of Russian rulers At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Muscovy/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ...


References

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Manuscript of Kotoshikhins book Grigory Karpovich Kotoshikhin (Григорий Карпович Котошихин in Russian) (c. ... Russian merchant family at the Domostroy times Domostroy (Russian: Домострой), loosely translated as The Household Management, is a 16th-century Muscovite set of household rules, instructions and advices pertaining to various religious, social, domestic, and family matters. ...

Further reading

  • Marshall Poe, Foreign Descriptions of Muscovy: An Analytic Bibliography of Primary and Secondary Sources, Slavica Publishers, 1995, ISBN 0-89357-262-4
  • Jarmo Kotilane, Marshall Poe (ed.), Modernizing Muscovy: Reform and Social Change in Seventeenth Century Russia, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30751-1

Marshall Tillbrook Poe is an American historian and the author of many works on early modern Russia (Muscovy). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ruslan Skrynnikov. Boris Godunov. Moscow: Nauka, 1983. Reprinted 2003. ISBN 5-17-010892-3.

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