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Encyclopedia > Murugan
Image:Example.of.complex.text.rendering.svg This article contains Indic text.
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Indic characters; or irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts.
Murugan

Lord Murugan (Kartikeya)
God of War (in North Indian tradition)
Tamil script: முருகன்
Weapon: Bow, Vel
Consort: Valli and Devayani
Mount: Peacock

Murugan (also Murugan) (Tamil: முருகன்) is a popular Hindu deity amongst Tamil Hindus. He is popular throughout India and abroad. He is known by many other names, including Kartikeya (or son of the Kartika), Kumaran, Shanmukha, Skanda and Subramanian. He is the God of war and the patron deity of the Tamil land. As the late Tamil devotional work - the Tiru-pukazh would have it, "Murugan never hesitates to come to the aid of a devotee when called upon in piety or distress". Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... Image File history File links Murugan1. ... This image depicts a typical bow, as made by the Huns, lying against a tree. ... Valli is the name of prominent Hindu god Skanda according to Tamil traditions. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are an ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Kaartika (Hindi: कातिक kaatik or कार्तिक kaartik) is a month of the Hindu calendar. ...


Ratna Navaratnam in her Karttikeya, the divine child:the Hindu testament of wisdom published in 1973 by the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan explores the antecedents of the concept of Murugan. The Atharva Veda describes Kumaran as Agnibhuh or son of Agni - the fire god. The Satapatha Brahmana depicts him as the son of Rudra and the ninth form of Agni. The Taittiriya Aranyaka includes the Gayatri mantra for Shanmukha. The Chandogya Upanishad refers to Skanda as the "way that leads to wisdom". The Baudhayana Dharma Sutra mentions Skanda as Mahasena and Subrahmanya. The Aranya Parva of the Mahabharata alludes to Kartikeya Skanda where the legend is retold in considerable detail. The Skanda Purana is devoted to the narrative of Kartikeya. The Atharva Veda is a sacred text of Hinduism, part of the four books of the Vedas. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Skanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled over a long period, from 6th century to 15th century, is the largest Purana, and is devoted mainly to the life and deed of Kartikeya (also called Skanda), a son of Shiva...


The references to Murugan in Sanskrit literature could therefore be traced back to the first millennium BCE and the thereafter. Ratna Navaratnam alludes to the reference to Subrahmanya in Kautilya's Arthashastra, the works of Patanjali and to Kalidasa's epic poem the Kumara Sambhava. The Kushanas who governed from what is today Peshawar had struck coins that featured Skanda or Mahasena. The Yaudheyas, a republican clan in the Punjab, issued coins with the Skanda image as well. The Iskhvakus, an Andhra dynasty, and the Guptas did venerate the deity. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Coin of the Yaudheyas. ... Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455) CE. The Gupta Empire was an Indian empire ruled by the Gupta dynasty in ancient India from around 320 to 550 CE. // Origins The origins of the Guptas are shrouded in obscurity. ...


Sir Ponnambalam Arunachalam in his Studies and Translations: Philosophic and Religious published in Colombo in 1937 translates from the old Tamil poem the Tiru-murukaarupadai:


"In the face of fear His face of comfort shows.
In the fierce battle field, with 'Fear not' His lance shows.
Think of Him once, twice He shows
to those who chant Muruga"


"Far shining dazzling Light, as of the many praised Sun in the sea beheld, who riseth for the world's joy and goeth circling; might feet crushing folly, upholding them that cling to Him; strong arms that like thunder-bolt wipe out foes; hath He the Spouse of the bright-browed Lady of perfect love".

Contents

Legend

Murugan slaying the demon Surapadman
Murugan slaying the demon Surapadman

Sati, the consort of Shiva immolated herself at the Daksha Yagna, which was later destroyed by Shiva. Shakti was reborn as Uma, or Parvati the daughter of the mountain king Himavaan (the Himalayas). Shiva withdrew himself from the universe and engaged himself in yogic meditation in the Himalayas. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Surapadman getting slained by Murugan Surapadman is a demon of Sri Lanka who was slained by Lord Muruga in Hindu mythology. ... Sati may refer to any of the following: The Hindu Goddess Sati, daughter of Daksha and wife of Shiva A social practise in some parts of India in past centuries, often spelt Suttee The Buddhist Sati; see mindfulness. ... This article is about the deity Shiva. ... In Hinduism, Daksha, the skilled one, is an ancient creator god, one of the Prajapatis, the Rishis and the Adityas, and a son of Aditi and Brahma. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


In the meanwhile, the demon Surapadman ravaged the earth and tormented its beings. It was realized by the gods that only the son born of Shiva could lead the gods to victory over Tarakasuran, Surapadman and their demon companions. They plotted with Kamadeva, the Indic cupid, to shoot a flower arrow at Shiva, as he sat in meditation, so as to make him fall in love with Parvati. When Kama aimed his arrow at Shiva, he opened his third eye and burned him to ashes instantly. Surapadman getting slained by Murugan Surapadman is a demon of Sri Lanka who was slained by Lord Muruga in Hindu mythology. ... In Hinduism, Kamadeva (Kama - carnal pleasure, deva - god), also known just as Kama(The love) and Ananga (the bodyless), is the god of love and a son of Lakshmi. ...


The sparks of the fiery seed of Shiva were unbearable; even the fire God Agni could not bear them; this fire was then transported by the river Ganga into the Sara Vana forest, where Sara Vana Bhava was born. He was raised by the six Krittika or Kartika - the stars that make up the Pleiades, earning the name Kartikeya. Parvati combined these six babies into one with six faces, ie. Shanmukha. Shanmukha, the supreme general of the devas, led the army of the devas to victory against the demons. The six sites at which Kartikeya sojourned while leading his armies against Surapadman are Tiruttanikai, Swamimalai, Tiruvavinankudi (Palani), Pazhamudirsolai, Tirupparamkunram and Tiruchendur. All these sites have ancient temples glorified by the Tamil poems of Tirumurugaatruppadai of the Sangam period (circa the 3rd century CE) The nakshatra corresponding to the open star cluster Pleiades is known as Krittika in Indian Astrology. ...


In the Hindu epics

The first elaborate account of Kartikeya's origin occurs in the Mahabharata. In a complicated story, he is said to have been born from Agni and Svaha, after the latter impersonated the six of the seven wives of the Saptarshi (Seven Sages). The actual wives then become the Pleiades. Kartikeya is said to have been born to destroy the Asura Mahisha. (In later mythology, Mahisha became the adversary of Durga.) Indra attacks Kartikeya as he see the latter as a threat, until Shiva intervenes and makes Kartikeya the commander-in-chief of the army of the Devas. He is also married to Devasena, Indra's daughter. The origin of this marriage lies probably in the punning of 'Deva-sena-pati'.It can mean either lord of Devasena or Lord of the army(sena) of Devas. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... In Hinduism, Svaha is a minor goddess, wife of Agni. ... Saptaŗişhi or Saptarşi (सप्तर्षि, pronounced as səptərŞhi) in Sanskrit means the Seven Sages or rishis who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and other Hindu literature. ... // In Hinduism In Hindu mythology, the Asura (Sanskrit: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... Mahisha or Mahishaka was a kingdom in ancient India, ruled by the Asura king Mahisha. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: , Bengali: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ...


The Ramayana version is closer to the stories told in the Puranas discussed below. For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...

Raja Ravi Varma's impression
Raja Ravi Varma's impression

Image File history File links RaviLord-Muruga. ... Image File history File links RaviLord-Muruga. ...

In the Puranas

Though slightly varying versions occur in the Puranas, they broadly follow the same pattern. (By this period, the identification of Shiva/Rudra with Agni, that can be traced back to the Vedas and Brahmanas, had clearly made Kartikeya the son of Shiva.) This article is about the deity Shiva. ... Rudra (Sanskrit: रुद्रः) (Howler) is a Rigvedic God of the storm, the hunt, death, Nature and the Wind. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ...


The Skanda Purana narrates that Shiva, was married earlier to Dakshayani (also known as Sati), the granddaughter of Brahma, and the daughter of Daksha. Daksha never liked Shiva (Shiva begs for food, lives in a graveyard covered with ashes being the Destructor, and has no possessions, not even good clothes for himself - symbolising detachment but disliked by Daksha) and insults Shiva in front of Dakshayini in a Yagna. Dakshayani self-immolates herself, unable to bear the humiliation. Having thus incurred Shiva's wrath, the Yagna is destroyed even though it was protected by all the other Gods & Rishis. Taraka believed that, since Shiva was an ascetic and his earlier marriage was itself conducted with great difficulty, his remarriage was out of the question, hence his boon of being killed by Shiva's son alone would give him invincibility. Skanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled over a long period, from 6th century to 15th century, is the largest Purana, and is devoted mainly to the life and deed of Kartikeya (also called Skanda), a son of Shiva... This 14th century statue depicts Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right}. It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. In Hinduism, Gowri or Dakshayani is the Goddess of marital felicity and longevity, who is worshipped particularly by ladies to seek the long life of...


The Devas manage to get Shiva married to Parvati (who was Dakshayani, reborn) by having Manmatha (also known as Kama), the god of love awaken him from his penance, incurring his wrath by opening his third eye of destruction, and being destroyed & resurrected. Shiva hands over his effulgence of the third eye used to destroy Manmatha to Agni, as he alone is capable of handling it till it becomes the desired offspring. But even Agni, tortured by its heat, hands it over to Ganga who in turn deposits it in a lake in a forest of reeds (shara). The child is finally born in this forest (vana) with six faces-eesanam, sathpurusham, vamadevam, agoram, sathyojatham and adhomugam. He is first spotted and cared for by six women representing the Pleiades - Kritika in Sanskrit. He thus gets named Kartikeya. As a young lad, he destroys Taraka. As this youthful saviour he is called Kumara (Sanskrit for "youth"). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... In Hinduism, the Ganges River (called locally as the Ganga) is personified as a goddess, who holds an important place in the Hindu pantheon. ...


Early mention in Sangam literature

Classical Tamil representation of Murugan with Deivanai and Valli

Tamil Sangam Literature (early centuries CE) mentions Murugu as a nature spirit worshipped with animal sacrifices and associated with a non-Brahmanical priest known as a Velan , a name later used to refer to the deity himself. The worship of Murugu often occurred in the woods or in an open field, with no particular associated structure. The rituals practiced included the Veriyaattu, a form of ritual-trance-dancing, which is still a common part of Murugan worship in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Malaysia. Murugu was believed to hold power over the chaotic and could be appeased by sacrifices and Veriyaattu to bring order and prosperity. Image File history File links Tirutani_murugan. ... Image File history File links Tirutani_murugan. ... Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


The Sangam era works in Tamil that refer to Murugan in detail include the Tiru-murukaarupadai, the Tolkapiyam - the earliest Tamil grammar, the Paripadal, the Ahanaanooru and the Puranaanooru.


One poem in the Paripadal describes the veneration of Murugan thus:


"We implore thee not for boons of enjoyment or wealth, But for thy grace beatific, love and virtuous deeds".


Architectural findings of pottery in several places in Tamil Nadu and elsewhere had ideographic inscriptions of this name as far back as 3rd century BCE.[1] According to noted epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, the ideographs signify a brave warrior capable of killing evil demons to save the devoted. Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Epigraphy (Greek, επιγραφή - written upon) is the study of inscriptions engraved into stone or other permanent materials, or cast in metal, the science of classifying them as to cultural context and date, elucidating them and assessing what conclusions can be deduced from them. ... Iravatham Mahadevan is an Indian epigraphist, National Fellow of the Indian Council of Historical Research, an expert on the Indus script and Early Tamil epigraphy and the Dravidian substrate in Vedic Sanskrit. ...


Lord Muruga was worshipped for giving the meaning of the Pranava Mantra ( OM ) to Lord Shiva himself.


Skandan in The Gita and a theological perspective

Muruga is also mentioned in the Gita. In chapter 10 (stanza 24), Krishna says of generals he is sKandan. This description very well fits into the core concepts of Hinduism - "Brahman" and its panentheistic theology. Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


As per strict definition of Hinduism, there is only one god - identified as the Brahman (not to be confused with Brahmin or Brahma). As per Gita, Brahman is the infinite or absolute perfection in every sense. Brahman is the Absolute reality. Brahman does not exist; it is existence itself. It is not all-knowing; it is knowledge itself. In some places it is said Brahman is any thing and every thing that will exist at any time. Brahman is where every thing originated from and every thing will end up. It is said in Gita that only a very few will be able to attach (or devote) themselves to this "formless" or "unlimited purity form" of Brahman. The mortals are encouraged to devote (or attach) themselves to Brahman through a form that is appropriate for them (For example, during the discourse of the Gita to Arjuna, Krishna shows up in his full form. Arjuna is afraid and can not relate that form. Krishna then appears as just another human being, that is more appropriate for Arjuna). These multiple human forms of god are considered to be "less abstract" or "personal forms" that human being can use to visualize "Brahman". Skanda or Murugan represents one such less abstract or personal form of "Brahman". The devotees see Skanda as the absolute Brahman itself. Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Murugan and the Tamil liturgy

Murugan is venerated through out the Tamil year. There is a six day period of fast and prayer in the Tamil month of Karthikai known as the Skanda Shasti. He is worshipped at Thai Poosam, celebrated by Tamil communities worldwide near the full moon of the Tamil month Thai. This commemorates the day he was given a Vel or lance by his mother in order to vanquish the demons. Vaikasi Visakam or the full moon of the Tamil month of Vaikasi is signifies his birth. Each Tuesday of the Tamil month of Adi is also dedicated to the worship of Murugan. Tuesday in the Hindu tradition connotes Mars, the planet of war. This reveals the link between Skanda and Kujan or Mars. Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are an ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... The term lance (Greek: λόγχη, Latin: lancea, German: Lanze, French: lance, Spanish: lanza, Italian: lancia) has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ...


The Tamil version of Skanda Purana, called Kandha Purānam, was written by Kacchiappa Sivachariyar(1350-1420 CE.) of Kumara Kottam in the city of Kanchipuram. He was a scholar in Tamil & Sanskrit literature, and a votary of the Shaiva Siddhanta philosophy. Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Skanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled over a long period, from 6th century to 15th century, is the largest Purana, and is devoted mainly to the life and deed of Kartikeya (also called Skanda), a son of Shiva... , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


According to legend, Kachiappa Sivacharyar would leave each day's compositions in the sanctum sanctorum or mūlasthānam of the Murugan shrine at Kumarakkottam, to find it returned in the morning with corrections, presumed to be made by the deity himself. Hence, the Kanda Purānam is widely considered to be an authoritative account of Murugan.


The adoration of Kartikeya

Historically, Kartikeya enjoyed immense popularity in the Indian subcontinent. One of the major Puranas, the Skanda Purana is dedicated to him. In the Bhagavad-Gita (Ch.10, Verse 24), in the middle of the battlefied "Kurukshetra", Krishna explaining his omnipresence and revealing the most perfect being, mortal or divine, in each category, says - "Of generals I am Skanda, the lord of war." Skanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled over a long period, from 6th century to 15th century, is the largest Purana, and is devoted mainly to the life and deed of Kartikeya (also called Skanda), a son of Shiva... Statue representing the discourse of Krishna and Arjuna, located in Tirumala The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit , Song of God) is a Sanskrit text from the Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata epic. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ...


His presence in the religious and cultural sphere can be seen at least from the Gupta age. Two of the Gupta kings, Kumaragupta and Skandagupta were named after him. He is seen in the Gupta sculptures and in the temples of Ellora and Elephanta. As the commander of the divine armies, he became the patron of the ruling classes. His youth, beauty and bravery was much celebrated in the Sanskrit works like the Katha-Saritsagara. The great Sanskrit poet, Kalidasa chose his birth as the subject of one of his epics - Kumaarasambhavam. Gupta (Sanskrit: Goptri meaning military governor) is one of the most common surnames in northern India. ... Silver coin of King Kumaragupta (414-455 CE). ... Skandagupta was a ruler of northern India under the Gupta dynasty. ... Kailasanatha Temple Ellora is an ancient village 30 km from the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra famous for its magnificent rock cut architecture comprising of Buddhist, Hindu and Jaina cave temples and monasteries built between the 6th and 10th century A.D. These structures were excavated... Picture of a cave Elephanta Caves are located one and one-half hours (by boat) out of Mumbai on Elephanta Island in the Bombay Harbour. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


In ancient India, he was also regarded as the patron deity of thieves, as can be seen in famed Sanskrit play of Shudraka - Mrichchakatikam (the little clay cart) and the medieval collection of tales,Vetala-panchvimshati. This association is linked to the fact that Kartikeya had dug through the Krauncha mountain to kill the demon Taraka and his brothers. (In Mrichchakatikam, Sarivilaka prays to him before tunnelling into the hero's house) Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


However, his popularity in north India saw a great erosion from the Middle Ages. He slowly vanished from the scene and is today virtually unknown in these areas except in scholarly circles.The last vestiges can be seen in Bengal where he is worshipped during the Durga Puja along with Durga or at Achaleshwar, near Batala in Punjab. Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Durga Puja (Bengali: দুর্গাপুজা Durgā Pūjā) is the biggest festival of Bengali Hindus. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: , Bengali: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... The history of the town Gurdaspur, the district headquarter,dates back to early seventeenth century. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ...


This surprising change may perhaps be attributed to the fact that he was strongly associated with the ruling classes and from the Middle Ages most of the ruling houses were Muslims.


Popularity in the Tamil Nadu

In North India, the popularity of Skanda receded. In South India, Muruga continued to enjoy a popularity with all classes of society right from the Sangam age. This lead to the more elaborate accounts of his mythology in the Tamil language. South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... now. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...


He married two deities, Valli, a daughter of a tribal chief and Devayani (identical to Devasena). However, other Hindu legends state he is unmarried, and call him Kumaraswami, Kumara meaning a bachelor and Swami meaning God. Valli is the name of prominent Hindu god Skanda according to Tamil traditions. ... http://www. ...


Muruga rides a peacock and wields a bow in battle. The lance called Vel in Tamil is a weapon closely associated with him. The Vel was given to him by his mother, Parvati, and embodies her energy and power. The flag of his army depicts a rooster. In the war, Shoorapadman was split into two, and was granted a boon by Murugan, to become the peacock, and the rooster. Peacock re-directs here; for alternate uses see Peacock (disambiguation). ... This image depicts a typical bow, as made by the Huns, lying against a tree. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Rooster crowing during daylight A Barred Plymouth Rock cockerel crowing A rooster or cock is a male chicken, (Gallus gallus) the female being a hen. ... Rooster crowing during daylight A Barred Plymouth Rock cockerel crowing A rooster or cock is a male chicken, (Gallus gallus) the female being a hen. ...


As Muruga is worshipped predominantly in south India, many of his names are of Tamil origin. These include Senthil the "Red" or formidable one; Arumuga the six-faceted one; Muruga; Guha; Maal-Marugan nephew of Vishnu and many others. South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ...


The Lord Subramanya is worshipped with utmost devotion in districts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi in state of Karnataka.There are many rituals like nagaradhane which are unique practised in these districts of India. Location of Dakshina Kannada district with respect to the other districts of Karnataka. ... Udupi (Kannada:ಉಡುಪಿ) is a temple town located in Udupi District, near Mangalore, Karnataka state, on the southwest coast of India. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Nagaradhane or snake worship, along with Bhuta Kola is one of the unique traditions, prevalent in coastal districts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi in Karnataka. ...


Differences in Northern and Southern traditions

The North Indian and South Indian traditions differ with respect to Murugan.

  • Order of birth
The Sanskrit epics and Puranas seem to indicate that he was the eldest son of Shiva, as the tale of Shiva's marriage to Parvati indicates. In the Shiva Purana, he is seen helping Shiva fight the newly born Ganesha, Shiva's other son, when Ganesha stopped Shiva from entering his home in Kailasa. In the Brahmavaivarta Puranam in the Ganapathi Khandam, Karthikeya is technically the first born from Shiva, and Ganesha is born next.
The south has all along maintained that he was the younger of the two.
A Puranic story has Ganesha obtain a divine mango of knowledge from Narada winning a contest with Murugan. While Murugan speeds around the world thrice to win the contest for the mango, Ganesha circumambulates Shiva and Parvati thrice as an equivalent and is given the mango. After winning it, he offers to give the mango to his upset brother. After this event, Ganesha was considered the elder brother owing as a tribute to his wisdom.
  • Marital status
In the north, he is generally seen as a bachelor, even a misogynist. The southern tradition has him married to two wives.

// The Shiva Purana has twenty-four thousand shlokas. ... For other uses, see Ganesha (disambiguation). ... Kailasa (also called Kailash) is believed to be the home of Lord Shiva by Hindus, and is a pilgrimage site. ...

Kartikeya worship in Sri Lanka

Kartikeya or Murugan is adored by both Tamil Hindus and Sinhalese Buddhists in Sri Lanka. Numerous temples exist throughout the island. He is a favorite deity of the common folk everywhere and it is said he never hesitates to come to the aid of a devotee when called upon. Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ...


In the deeply Sinhalese south of Sri Lanka, Kartikeya is worshipped at the temple in Kataragama (Kathirkamam), where he is known as Katragama Deviyo (Lord of Katragama) or Kathiravel. This temple is next to an old Buddhist place of worship. Local legend holds that Lord Murugan alighted in Kataragama and was smitten by Valli, one of the local aboriginal lasses. After a courtship, they were married. This event is taken to signify that Lord Murugan is accessible to all who worship and love him, regardless of their birth or heritage. The Nallur Kandaswamy temple, the Maviddapuram temple and the Sella channithy temple near Valvettiturai are the three foremost Murukan temples in Jaffna. The Chitravelautha temple in Verukal on the border between Trincomalee and Batticaloa is also noteworthy as is the Mandur Kandaswamy temple in Batticaloa. The late medieval-era temple of the tooth in Kandy, dedicated to the tooth relic of the Buddha, has a Kataragama deiyo shrine adjacent to it dedicated to the veneration of Skanda in the Sinhalese tradition. Kataragama also Katharagama,and Katirkamam (Tamil கதிர்காமம்) is a regionally popular place of pilgrimage to Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim and indigenous Vedda communities of Sri Lanka and South India. ... Jaffna District. ... The Temple of the Tooth Relic in Kandy Kandy (මහනුවර/ සෙංකඩගල in Sinhala, கண்டி in Tamil) is the name used by British invaders for the city of Senkadagala (Mahanuwara) in the centre of Sri Lanka. ...


Other names

In Tamil Nadu and other parts of India, Murugan is also known by the following names:

  • Azhagan
  • Arumugan
  • Balamurugan
  • Balasubramanian
  • Dhandayudhapani
  • Gangeya/Gangeyan
  • Guhan
  • Guruparan
  • Kartikeya/Kartikeyan
  • Kumara/Kumaran
  • Kandan
  • Kadamban
  • Kanagavel
  • Kuravimanavaalan
  • Kathirvelan
  • Maruthachala murthi
  • Muthukumaran
  • Mayavan Marugan
  • Mayuresan
  • Mayilon
  • Palaniappan
  • Padayappan
  • Rathnavel
  • Subramanian
  • Shanmugan
  • Saravanan
  • Senniappan
  • Swaminathan
  • Skanda/Skandan
  • Senthilkumaran
  • Singaravelan
  • Thangavel
  • Thagappanswami
  • Thirumurugan
  • Vajravel
  • Vadivelan
  • Velayudhan
  • Velan
  • Velavan
  • Vetrivel
  • Veeravel

For a more complete alphabatized list, visit [1]


Major Temples

The main temples of Murugan are located in Southern Tamilnadu. They include the Aru Padaiveedu - Thiruchendur, Swamimalai, Pazhamudircholai, Thirupparangunram, Palani, Thiruthani and other important shrines like Sikkal, Marudamalai, Vayalur, Kukke Subramanya. The key temples in Sri Lanka include the sylvan shrine in Kataragama or Kathirkamam in the deep south, the temple in Tirukovil in the east, the shrine in Embekke in the Kandyan region and the famed Nallur Kandaswamy temple in Jaffna. There are several temples in his honor in Malaysia, the most famous being the Batu Caves near Kuala Lumpur. . The Arupadiveedu (the six abodes) are the most important shrines for the devotees of Lord Muruga in Tamilnadu. ... Thiruchendur is a town in the district of Tirunelveli of Tamil Nadu, located 55 km south-east of Tirunelveli and 75 km north-east of Kanyakumari. ... Swamimalai is a small town near Kumbakonam in Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu, India. ... One of Arupadaiveedu of Lord Muruga. ... ... Palani is a city and a municipality in Dindigul district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... It is one of the Arupadaiveedu of Lord Muruga. ... This article is about the village of Sikkal. ... There are six PadaiVeedugal (Fort-Houses) for Lord Murugan. ... The Vayalur Murugan Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Muruga, located near the city of Tiruchirapalli (Trichy) in Tamil Nadu, India. ... Kukke Subramanya is a famous Hindu cave temple dedicated to Subramanya (Lord Murugan) located in Subramanya, Karnataka,about 105 km from Mangalore. ... Batu Caves is a limestone hill to the north of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia which has a series of caves and cave temples. ...


See also

Skanda (Wei Tuo) Bodhisattva Skanda Bodhisattva (Ch. ... Kataragama also Katharagama,and Katirkamam (Tamil கதிர்காமம்) is a regionally popular place of pilgrimage to Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim and indigenous Vedda communities of Sri Lanka and South India. ... Katirkamam also Kathirgamam and Katirgamam (Tamil கதிர்காமம்) is the name of the Hindu temple dedicated to lord Murukan in Sri Lanka. ... Kukke Subramanya is a famous Hindu cave temple dedicated to Lord Murugan located in Subramanya, Karnataka,about 105 km from Mangalore. ...

References

  1. ^ "Muruga in Indus Script" - a note by the renowned epigraphist, Iravatham Mahadevan.

Iravatham Mahadevan is an Indian epigraphist, National Fellow of the Indian Council of Historical Research, an expert on the Indus script and Early Tamil epigraphy and the Dravidian substrate in Vedic Sanskrit. ...

External links

Famous Murugan temples
PalaniThiruchendurSwamimalaiThiruthaniPazhamudircholaiThiruparamkunramSubramanyaMarudamalaiSikkalVayalurViralimalaiKunrakudy



Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... It is one of the most famous Murugan temples in India. ... Thiruchendur Murugan temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Muruga and one of the Arupadaiveedu six major abodes of Lord Muruga. ... One of the Aru Padaiveedu, the six main abodes of Lord Muruga, Swamimalai is where Lord Muruga preached his own father Lord Shiva at a tender age. ... Tiruthani Murugan temple is one of the famous Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Muruga. ... One of Arupadaiveedu of Lord Muruga. ... One of the Aru Padaiveedu, the six main abodes of Lord Muruga, Tiruparankunram offers a mystic beauty. ... Kukke Subramanya is a famous Hindu cave temple dedicated to Lord Murugan located in Subramanya, Karnataka,about 105 km from Mangalore. ... There are six PadaiVeedugal (Fort-Houses) for Lord Murugan. ... Sikkal Singara Velan Temple is one of the most popular Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Muruga and a contendor for a the unofficial seventh Padaiveedu of Muruga, along with the popular Arupadaiveedu (six bodes of Lord Muruga). ... The Vayalur Murugan Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Muruga, located near the city of Tiruchirapalli (Trichy) in Tamil Nadu, India. ... It is one of the famous Hindu temples dedidate to Lord Muruga, located in the town of Viralimalai about 30 km from Trichi and 40 km from Pudukottai in Tamilnadu. ... It is a famous murugan temple, atop a small hill near Madurai, India. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Murukan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (820 words)
Murukan (also Murugan) is the most popular Hindu deity amongst Tamils of Tamil Nadu state in India and in the Tamil diaspora.
According to legend, Kachiappa Sivacharyar would leave each day's compositions in the sanctum sanctorum or mūlasthānam of the Murugan shrine at Kumara Kottam, to find it returned in the morning with corrections, presumed to be made by the deity himself.
In the war, Shoorapadman was split into two, and was granted a boon by Murugan, to become the peacock, and the rooster.
Kartikeya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1107 words)
In Tamil Nadu state he is known as Murukan (or Murugan) and he is married to two deities and is the younger son of Shiva.
Kartikeya, or Murugan is adored in the large Tamil population in Sri Lanka, and numerous Murugan temples exist in the North and East of Sri Lanka, as well as in the capital city of Colombo.
In southern Sri Lanka, Kartikeya, or Murugan, is worshipped by both Hindus and Buddhists alike at the temple in Kataragama (Kathirkamam), where he is known as Katragama Deviyo (Lord of Katragama), or Kathiravel.
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