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Encyclopedia > Muromachi period
History of Japan

Paleolithic
Jomon
Yayoi
Yamato period
Kofun period
Asuka period
Nara period
Heian period
Kamakura period
Kemmu restoration
Muromachi period
– North-South Court
Warring States period
Azuchi-Momoyama period
Nanban trade period
Edo period
Late Tokugawa shogunate
Meiji period
Taishō period
Japan in WWI
Shōwa period
Japanese expansionism
Occupied Japan
– Post-Occupation Japan
Heisei
The history of Japan probably started around 100,000 BCE, date when the earliest stone tool implements have been found. ... The Japanese Paleolithic (Japanese: 日本の旧石器時代, Nihon no kyÅ«-sekki-jidai) covers a period from around 100,000 to 30,000 BCE, when the earliest stone tool implements have been found, to around 12,000 BCE, at the end of the last Ice-age, which corresponds to the beginning of the Mesolithic... The Jomon period (Japanese: 縄文時代 Jōmon-jidai) is the time in Japanese history from about 10,000 BC to 300 BC. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BC glaciation had connected the islands with the mainland. ... The Yayoi period (Japanese: 弥生時代, Yayoi-jidai) is an era in Japan from 300 BC to AD 250. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Yamato period (大和) (better known as the Kofun... Kofun period (Japanese: 古墳時代, Kofun-jidai) is an era in the history of Japan from around AD 250 to 538. ... The Asuka period is the period in Japanese history occurring from 538 A.D. - 710 A.D. The arrival of Buddhism marked a change in Japanese society and it affected the Yamato government as well. ... The Nara period (Japanese: 奈良時代, Nara-jidai) of the History of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 794. ... The Heian period (Japanese: 平安時代, Heian-jidai) is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. ... The Kamakura period (Japanese: 鎌倉時代, Kamakura-jidai; 1185–1333) is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance of the Kamakura Shogunate; officially established in 1192 by the first Kamakura shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo. ... The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo re-established Imperial control. ... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... The Sengoku period (Japanese: 戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) or Warring States period, is a period of civil war in the history of Japan that spans from the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (安土桃山時代) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... The Nanban Trade Period (Jp:南蛮貿易時代, Lit. ... The Edo period (Japanese: 江戸時代, Edo-jidai), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1600 to 1867. ... The late Tokugawa shogunate or last shogun (幕末; Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... The Meiji period (Japanese: 明治時代, Meiji-jidai) denotes the 45-year reign of the Meiji Emperor, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912. ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... Japan entered World War I in 1914, seizing the opportunity of Germanys distraction with the European War and wanting to expand its sphere of influence in China. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Surrender Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender Japan surrendered to the Allies on August 14, 1945, when Emperor Hirohito accepted the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Following the end of the Allied occupation in 1952... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period – Kofun period – Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period – Nanban contacts Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period – Japanese expansionism – Occupied Japan – Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Heisei (平成) is the current era name in Japan. ...

Glossary The history of Japans economy is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth, first in the period from the late nineteenth century that saw Japan become a world power and then again after the devastation of the Second World War when the island nation rose to become... The history of education in Japan dates back at least to the sixth century, when Chinese learning was introduced at the Yamato court. ... The military history of Japan, like that of most nations, is characterized by a long and fierce period of feudal wars, followed by a long period of domestic stability. ... The naval history of Japan traces back to early interactions with states on the Asian continent at the beginning of the medieval period, and reached a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th century at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Nanban trade period. ... This is the glossary of Japanese history including historical figures, events, places, policies and others. ...

The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. The period marks the governance of the Muromachi shogunate, also known as the Ashikaga shogunate, which was officially established in 1336 by the first Muromachi shogun Ashikaga Takauji. The period ended in 1573 when the 15th and last shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki was driven out of the capital in Kyoto by Oda Nobunaga. The history of Japan probably started around 100,000 BCE, date when the earliest stone tool implements have been found. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Events January - articles of Warsaw Confederation signed, sanctioning religious freedom in Poland. ... The Ashikaga shogunate (Jp. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... In Japanese history, a shogun (将軍 shōgun) was the practical ruler of Japan for most of the time from 1192 to the Meiji Era beginning in 1868. ... Ashikaga Takauji (Japanese: 足利尊氏) (1305–June 7, 1358) was the founder and first shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate. ... Ashikaga Yoshiaki (足利 義昭 Ashikaga Yoshiaki, December 5, 1537–October 9, 1597) was the 15th, and last, shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate in Japan who reigned from 1568 to 1573. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Oda Nobunaga Oda Nobunaga (織田 ä¿¡é•· â–¶ (help· info), June 23, 1534 - June 21, 1582) was a major daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japanese history. ...


The early years of 1336 to 1392 of the Muromachi period is also known as the Nanboku-chō or Northern and Southern Court period. The later years of 1467 to the end of the Muromachi period is also known as the Sengoku period. Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... Events October 29 - Battle of Brusthem: Charles the Bold defeats Liege Beginning of the Sengoku Period in Japan. ... The Sengoku period (Japanese: 戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) or Warring States period, is a period of civil war in the history of Japan that spans from the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ...

Contents


Ashikaga Bakufu

The ensuing period of Ashikaga rule (1336–1573) was called Muromachi for the district of Kyoto in in which its headquarters were located after the third shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu established his residence there in 1378. What distinguished the Ashikaga bakufu from that of Kamakura was that, whereas Kamakura had existed in equilibrium with the Kyōto court, Ashikaga took over the remnants of the imperial government. Nevertheless, the Ashikaga bakufu was not as strong as the Kamakura had been and was greatly preoccupied with civil war. Not until the rule of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (as third shogun, 1368–94, and chancellor, 1394–1408) did a semblance of order emerge. Kinkaku, the Golden Pavilion at Kinkaku-ji, originated as the villa of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. ... For the James Clavell novel, see Shogun or for the TV Miniseries. ...


Yoshimitsu allowed the constables, who had had limited powers during the Kamakura period, to become strong regional rulers, later called daimyo. In time, a balance of power evolved between the shogun and the daimyo; the three most prominent daimyo families rotated as deputies to the shogun at Kyoto. Yoshimitsu was finally successful in reunifying the Northern Court and the Southern Court in 1392, but, despite his promise of greater balance between the imperial lines, the Northern Court maintained control over the throne thereafter. The line of shoguns gradually weakened after Yoshimitsu and increasingly lost power to the daimyo and other regional strongmen. The shogun's decisions about imperial succession became meaningless, and the daimyo backed their own candidates. In time, the Ashikaga family had its own succession problems, resulting finally in the Onin War (14671477), which left Kyoto devastated and effectively ended the national authority of the bakufu. The power vacuum that ensued launched a century of anarchy (see Provincial Wars and Foreign Contacts). Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Marker at location of outbreak of Onin War The Onin War (応仁の乱 Ōnin no Ran) was a civil war from 1467 to 1477 during the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Events October 29 - Battle of Brusthem: Charles the Bold defeats Liege Beginning of the Sengoku Period in Japan. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ...


Economic and cultural developments

Contact with Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) China was renewed during the Muromachi period after the Chinese sought support in suppressing Japanese pirates in coastal areas of China. Japanese pirates of this era and region were referred to as 倭寇, wokou, by the Chinese (Japanese wakō). Wanting to improve relations with China and to rid Japan of the wokou threat, Yoshimitsu accepted a relationship with the Chinese that was to last for half a century. In 1401 he restarted the tribute system, describing himself in a letter to the Chinese Emperor as "Your subject, the King of Japan". Japanese wood, sulphur, copper ore, swords, and folding fans were traded for Chinese silk, porcelain, books, and coins, in what the Chinese considered tribute but the Japanese saw as profitable trade. The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ... 16th century Japanese pirate raids. ... Events The Lollards, a religious sect taught by John Wycliffe, were persecuted for their beliefs. ...


During the time of the Ashikaga bakufu, a new national culture, called Muromachi culture, emerged from the bakufu headquarters in Kyoto to reach all levels of society. Zen Buddhism played a large role in spreading not only religious but also artistic influences, especially those derived from painting of the Chinese Song (960-1279), Yuan, and Ming dynasties. The proximity of the imperial court to the bakufu resulted in a commingling of imperial family members, courtiers, daimyo, samurai, and Zen priests. Art of all kinds—architecture, literature, Noh drama, comedy, poetry, the tea ceremony, landscape gardening, and flower arranging—all flourished during Muromachi times. Noh performance at Itsukushima Shrine, Miyajima, Hiroshima Noh or No (Japanese: 能, nō) is a major form of classical Japanese musical drama that has been performed since the 14th century. ...


Shintoism

There also was renewed interest in Shinto, which had quietly coexisted with Buddhism during the centuries of the latter's predominance. In fact, Shinto, which lacked its own scriptures and had few prayers, as a result of syncretic practices begun in the Nara period, had widely adopted Shingon Buddhist rituals. Between the eighth and fourteenth centuries, Shintoism was nearly totally absorbed by Buddhism, becoming known as Ryōbu Shinto (Dual Shinto). The Mongol invasions in the late thirteenth century, however, evoked a national consciousness of the role of the kamikaze in defeating the enemy. Less than fifty years later (1339-43), Kitabatake Chikafusa (1293-1354), the chief commander of the Southern Court forces, wrote the Jinnōshōtōki (神皇正統記, 'Chronicle of the Direct Descent of the Divine Sovereigns'). This chronicle emphasized the importance of maintaining the divine descent of the imperial line from Amaterasu to the current emperor, a condition that gave Japan a special national polity (kokutai). Besides reinforcing the concept of the emperor as a deity, the Jinnōshōtōki provided a Shinto view of history, which stressed the divine nature of all Japanese and the country's spiritual supremacy over China and India. As a result, a change gradually occurred in the balance between the dual Buddhist–Shinto religious practice. Between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries, Shinto reemerged as the primary belief system, developed its own philosophy and scripture (based on Confucian and Buddhist canons), and became a powerful nationalistic force. Shinto (Kanji: 神道 Shintō) (sometimes called Shintoism) is a native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... BAAAAAAAAAAAJSBAJSBAJSBAJSBAJSBAAAAAAAAAAAAAJS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! <html><img src=http://216. ... Located in Kyoto, Japan, Daigoji is the head temple of the Ono branch of Shingon. ... A kamikaze, a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... Kitabatake Chikafusa (北畠親房)(d. ... Kokutai (Japanese kanji: 国体, lit. ...


Provincial wars and foreign contacts

The Onin War led to serious political fragmentation and obliteration of domains: a great struggle for land and power ensued among bushi chieftains until the mid-sixteenth century. Peasants rose against their landlords and samurai against their overlords as central control virtually disappeared. The imperial house was left impoverished, and the bakufu was controlled by contending chieftains in Kyoto. The provincial domains that emerged after the Onin War were smaller and easier to control. Many new small daimyo arose from among the samurai who had overthrown their great overlords. Border defenses were improved, and well fortified castle towns were built to protect the newly opened domains, for which land surveys were made, roads built, and mines opened. New house laws provided practical means of administration, stressing duties and rules of behavior. Emphasis was put on success in war, estate management, and finance. Threatening alliances were guarded against through strict marriage rules. Aristocratic society was overwhelmingly military in character. The rest of society was controlled in a system of vassalage. The shoen were obliterated, and court nobles and absentee landlords were dispossessed. The new daimyo directly controlled the land, keeping the peasantry in permanent serfdom in exchange for protection. Marker at location of outbreak of Onin War The Onin War (応仁の乱 Ōnin no Ran) was a civil war from 1467 to 1477 during the Muromachi period in Japan. ... A shōen (荘園 or 庄園, shōen) was a fief or manor in Japan. ...


Economic effect of wars between states

Most wars of the period were short and localized, although they occurred throughout Japan. By 1500 the entire country was engulfed in civil wars. Rather than disrupting the local economies, however, the frequent movement of armies stimulated the growth of transportation and communications, which in turn provided additional revenues from customs and tolls. To avoid such fees, commerce shifted to the central region, which no daimyo had been able to control, and to the Inland Sea. Economic developments and the desire to protect trade achievements brought about the establishment of merchant and artisan guilds.


Western influence

Main article:Nanban trade period The Nanban Trade Period (Jp:南蛮貿易時代, Lit. ...

Nanban ships arriving for trade in Japan. 16th century painting.
Nanban ships arriving for trade in Japan. 16th century painting.

By the end of the Muromachi period, the first Europeans had arrived. The Portuguese landed in southern Kyushu in 1543 and within two years were making regular port calls, initiated the century-long Nanban trade period. The Spanish arrived in 1587, followed by the Dutch in 1609. The Japanese began to attempt studies of European civilization in depth, and new opportunities were presented for the economy, along with serious political challenges. European firearms, fabrics, glassware, clocks, tobacco, and other Western innovations were traded for Japanese gold and silver. Significant wealth was accumulated through trade, and lesser daimyo, especially in Kyushu, greatly increased their power. Provincial wars became more deadly with the introduction of firearms, such as muskets and cannons, and greater use of infantry. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x507, 134 KB) Summary Nanban ships arriving in Japan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x507, 134 KB) Summary Nanban ships arriving in Japan. ... The period of Nanban (Southern Barbarian) contacts in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under the promulgation of the Seclusion Laws. ... Kyushu region, Japan Kyushu (九州) is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ... The Nanban Trade Period (Jp:南蛮貿易時代, Lit. ...


Christianity

Main article: Kirishitan Kirishitan (吉利支丹, 切支丹) meant Christian(s) in Japanese and is today used as a historiographic term for Christians in Japan in the 16th and 17th centuries. ...

A Japanese votive altar, Nanban style. End of 16th century. Guimet Museum.
A Japanese votive altar, Nanban style. End of 16th century. Guimet Museum.

Christianity had an impact on Japan, largely through the efforts of the Jesuits, led first by Saint Francis Xavier (1506–1552), who arrived in Kagoshima in southern Kyushu in 1549. Both daimyo and merchants seeking better trade arrangements as well as peasants were among the converts. By 1560 Kyoto had become another major area of missionary activity in Japan. In 1568 the port of Nagasaki, in northwestern Kyushu, was established by a Christian daimyo and was turned over to Jesuit administration in 1579. By 1582 there were as many as 150,000 converts (two per cent of the population) and 200 churches. But bakufu tolerance for this alien influence diminished as the country became more unified and openness decreased. Proscriptions against Christianity began in 1587 and outright persecutions in 1597. Although foreign trade was still encouraged, it was closely regulated, and by 1640 the exclusion and suppression of Christianity had become national policy (see Tokugawa Period, 1600–1867, this ch.; Religious and Philosophical Traditions, ch. 2). ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1019x823, 182 KB) Summary A Japanese Votive Altar. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1019x823, 182 KB) Summary A Japanese Votive Altar. ... The period of Nanban (Southern Barbarian) contacts in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under the promulgation of the Seclusion Laws. ... Guimet in his museum. ... The Society of Jesus (Societas Iesu/Jesu (S.J.) in Latin) is a Christian religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in direct service to the Pope. ... Memorial to St. ... Kyushu region, Japan Kyushu (九州) is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki â–¶(?) (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Edo period (江戸時代) is a division of Japanese...


References


[ Nanboku-cho | Sengoku ] The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... The Sengoku period (Japanese: 戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) or Warring States period, is a period of civil war in the history of Japan that spans from the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ...


< Kemmu restoration | History of Japan | Azuchi-Momoyama period > The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo re-established Imperial control. ... The history of Japan probably started around 100,000 BCE, date when the earliest stone tool implements have been found. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (安土桃山時代) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Muromachi period - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1485 words)
The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573.
The period marks the governance of the Muromachi shogunate, also known as the Ashikaga shogunate, which was officially established in 1336 by the first Muromachi shogun Ashikaga Takauji.
The ensuing period of Ashikaga rule (1336–1573) was called Muromachi for the district of Kyoto in in which its headquarters were located after the third shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu established his residence there in 1378.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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