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Encyclopedia > Murad II
Image:20pxOttomanicon.png Murad II
Ottoman Period
Preceded by
Mehmed I
Ottoman Sultan
1421–44
Succeeded by
Mehmed II
Preceded by
Mehmed II
Ottoman Sultan
1446–51
Succeeded by
Mehmed II

Murad II (June 1404, AmasyaFebruary 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). Image File history File links 20pxOttomanicon. ... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... Murad the Second - Ottoman Emperor This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Sultan Mehmet I Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Osmanli Dynasty, also the House of Osman, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Ottoman houses and a Pontic tomb in Amasya Amasya (formerly Amaseia or Amasia from Greek: Αμάσεια) is a town in northern Turkey, the capital of Amasya Province with approximately 80,000 inhabitants. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne (Greek: Αδριανούπολη, Bulgarian: Одрин) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Events March 21 - Battle of Baugé. A small French force surprises and defeats a smaller English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ...


Murad II's reign was marked by the long war he fought against the Christian peoples of the Balkans and the Turkish emirates in Anatolia, a conflict that lasted 25 years. He was brought up in Amasya, and ascended the throne on the death of his father. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Ottoman houses and a Pontic tomb in Amasya Amasya (formerly Amaseia or Amasia from Greek: Αμάσεια) is a town in northern Turkey, the capital of Amasya Province with approximately 80,000 inhabitants. ...


Biography

Murad II, when called from his vice-royalty in Asia Minor to become the sovereign of the Ottoman Empire, was only eighteen years of age. He was solemnly recognized as sultan, girded with the sabre of Osman at Bursa and the troops and officers of the state willing paid homage to him as their sovereign. Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ...


But his reign was soon troubled by insurrection. The Byzantine emperor, released the pretender Mustafa Çelebi (known as Düzmece Mustafa) from confinement and acknowledged him as the legitimate heir to the throne of Bayezid I (1389 - 1402). The Byzantine Emperor, Manuel II, had first secured a stipulation, that Mustafa should, if successful, repay him for his liberation by giving up a large number of important cities. The pretender was landed by the Byzantine galleys in the European dominion of the sultan and for a time made rapid progress. Many Turkish soldiers joined him, he defeated and killed the veteran general Beyazid Pasha whom Murad had sent to fight him. Mustafa defeated Murad's army and declared himself Sultan of Adrianople (modern Edirne). He then crossed the Dardanelles to Asia with a large army; but the young Sultan showed in this emergency that he possessed military and political abilities worthy of his best ancestors. Mustafa was out-manoeuvered in the middle of the field and his troops, whose confidence in his person and cause he had lost by his violence and incapacity, passed over in large numbers to Murad II. Mustafa took refuge in the city of Gallipoli but the sultan, who was greatly aided by a Genoese commander named Adorno, besieged him there and stormed the place. Mustafa was taken and put to death by the sultan who then turned his arms against the Greek emperor and declared his resolution to punish the Palaiologos for their unprovoked enmity by the capture of Constantinople. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Emperor Manuel II Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, ManouÄ“l II Palaiologos) (June 27, 1350 – July 21, 1425) was Byzantine emperor from 1391 to 1425. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne (Greek: Αδριανούπολη, Bulgarian: Одрин) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Gallipoli peninsula (Turkish: ) is located in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles straits to the east. ... Genoa (Genova [] in Italian - Zena [] in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... The double-headed eagle, emblem of the Paleologus dynasty and the Byzantine Empire The Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Παλαιολόγος, pl. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


Murad II then formed a new army called Azeb in 1421 and marched through the Byzantine Empire and laid siege to its capital Constantinople. While Murad was besieging the city, the Byzantines, in league with some independent Turkish Anatolian states, sent the sultan's younger brother Mustafa (who was only 13 years old) to rebel against the sultan and besiege Bursa. Murad had to abandon the siege of Constantinople in order to deal with his rebellious brother. He caught Prince Mustafa and executed him. The Anatolian states that had been constantly plotting against him — Aydın, Germian, Menteshe and Teke were annexed and henceforth became part of the Ottoman Empire. Events March 21 - Battle of Baugé. A small French force surprises and defeats a smaller English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Mustafa (also Mostafa; Arabic: ‎) is a male Arabic given name that means the chosen one. ... Aydın (Greek: Αϊδίνιο) is a city in western Turkey and the seat of the Turkish province of the same name (Aydın Province). ... The Anatolian Turkish Beylik of Menteshe with its capital in Milas was one of the frontier principalities established by Oghuz Turkish clans after the decline of Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate. ... Teke can also refer to Telekinesis as in George R.R. Martinss Nightflyers The Teke are a tribe of southern Turkmenistan most famous for their horses, the Akhal-Teke desert horse. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...


Murad II then declared war against Venice, the Karamanid Emirate, Serbia and Hungary. The Karamanids were defeated in 1428 and Venice withdrew in 1432 following the defeat at the second Siege of Salonika in 1430. In the 1430s Murad captured vast territories in the Balkans and succeeded in annexing Serbia in 1439. In 1441 the Holy Roman Empire, Poland and Albania joined the Serbian-Hungarian coalition. Murad II won the Battle of Varna in 1444 against János Hunyadi but lost the Battle of Jalowaz and was forced to abdicate. Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Flag of Karaman according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... Events October 12 - English forces under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury besiege Orléans. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... Combatants Ottoman Empire Venice Commanders Strength Casualties The Siege of Salonika was fought in 1423 between Venice and the Ottoman Empire. ... // Events May 23 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne The Ottoman Empire captures Thessalonica from the Venetians First use of optical methods in the creation of Art A map of Europe in 1430. ... Events and Trends A map of Europe in the 1430s. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... Combatants Hungary, Poland and others Ottoman Empire Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw III of Poland † Janos Hunyadi Murad II Strength ~ 20,000-30,000 ~ 60,000[1][2] Casualties ~ 11,000 ~ 8,000 The Battle of Varna took place on November 10, 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. ... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... John Hunyadi John Hunyadi (Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi, Hungarian: Hunyadi/Hunyady János, Romanian: Iancu (or Ioan Corvin) de Hunedoara, Slovak: Ján Huňadi, Serbian: Sibinjanin Janko) (c. ...


In 1446 he regained command through the interference of the janissaries and in 1448 he defeated the Christian coalition at the Second Battle of Kosovo (the first one took place in 1389). When the Balkan front was secured, Murad II turned east to defeat Timur's son, Shah Rokh, and the emirates of Karamanid and Çorum-Amasya. Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... The Janissaries comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a... In the second Battle of Kosovo in 1448, the Hungarian Catholic coalition under John Hunyadi was defeated by the Ottoman Turkish-led coalition under Murad II. The battle was fought between October 7th and 10th in the Kosovo Field (Kosovo Polje). ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... Shah Rukh Mirza (also known as Shahrukh or Shah Rokh) (August 30, 1377 - March 12, 1447), was the ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by Timur (Tamerlane), governing most of Persia and Transoxiana between 1405 and 1447. ... Flag of Karaman according to the Catalan Atlas c. ...


In 1450 Murad II lead his army into Albania and unsuccessfully besieged the Castle of Kruje in an effort to defeat the resistance lead by Skanderbeg. In the winter of 14501451, Murad II fell ill, and died in Edirne. He was succeeded by his son Mehmed II (1451–81). // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... Categories: Albania geography stubs | Cities in Albania ... Skanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Krujë, Albania. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne (Greek: Αδριανούπολη, Bulgarian: Одрин) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...


He married Mara Branković, the daughter of Đurađ Branković{George Brankovich} of Serbia [1]. Mara Branković (1412-1487) (also known as Mara Hatun, Despina Hatun, or Amerissa) was the daughter of Serbian monarch ĐuraÄ‘ Branković. She married Sultan Murad II of the Ottoman Empire. ... Despot ĐuraÄ‘ Branković, Cyrillic: Ђурађ Бранковић, Hungarian: György Brankovics, ruled 1427 - 1456) was a Serbian monarch who built Smederevo. ...


References

  • Incorporates text from "History of Ottoman Turks" (1878)

External links

  • Encyclopædia Britannica

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mehmed II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1327 words)
Mehmed II was born in Edirne, then the capital city of the Ottoman state, on March 30, 1432.
His father was Sultan Murad II (1421–51) and his mother Huma Hatun was a daughter of Abd'Allah of Hum, Huma meaning a girl/woman from Hum.
Mehmed II advanced toward Eastern Europe as far as Belgrade, and attempted to conquer the city from John Hunyadi at the Siege of Belgrade in 1456.
ninemsn Encarta - Search Results - Murad II (108 words)
Murad II (1404-1451), sultan (1421-1444 and 1446-1451) of the Ottoman Empire, the son of Muhammad I. Murad spent the early years of his reign...
Murad III (1546-1595), sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1574-1595), son and successor of Selim II.
Bayazid II (1448-1512), Ottoman sultan of Turkey (1481-1512), son and successor of Muhammad II, the conqueror of Constantinople.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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