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Encyclopedia > Munshi Premchand

Munshi Premchand (July 31, 1880 - October 8, 1936) (pen name: Premchand) was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi and Urdu literature. Premchand can refer to many people. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ...

Contents

Biography

Premchand (Hindi: प्रेमचंद, Urdu: پریمچںد),whose original name was Dhanpat Rai Srivastava, was born on 31 July 1880, in village Lamahi near Varanasi, where his father was a clerk in the post office. Premchand's parents died young - his mother when he was seven and his father while he was fourteen and still a student. Premchand was left responsible for his step-mother and step-siblings. Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... , VārāasÄ« ( , Hindi: , IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras ( , Hindi: , , IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi ( , Hindi: , ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


Early in life, Premchand faced immense poverty. He earned five rupees a month tutoring a lawyer's child. He was married at the early age of fifteen but that marriage failed, later he married again, to Shivrani Devi, a balavidhava, (child widow), and had several children, she supported him through life struggles.


Premchand passed his matriculation exam with great effort in 1898, and in 1899 he took up school-teaching job, with a monthly salary of eighteen rupees.


Later, Premchand worked as the deputy sub-inspector of schools in what was then the United Provinces. United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ...


In 1910, he was hauled up by the District Magistrate in Jamirpur for his anthology of short stories Soz-e-Watan (Dirge of the Nation), which was labelled seditious. The first story of the anthology was Duniya ka Sabse Anmol Ratan (The Most Precious Jewel in the World), which according to him was "the last drop of blood shed in the cause of the country's freedom". All the copies of Soz-e-Watan were confiscated and burnt. Initially Premchand wrote in Urdu under the name of Nawabrai. However, after the confiscation of Soz-e-Watan. he started writing under the pseudonym Premchand. Before Premchand, Hindi literature consisted mainly of fantasy or religious works. Premchand brought realism to Hindi literature. He wrote over 300 stories, a dozen novels and two plays. The stories have been compiled and published as Maansarovar. Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Literary realism most often refers to the trend, in early 19th century French literature, towards depictions of contemporary life and society as it is, in the spirit of general Realism, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. ...


In 1921, he answered Mahatma Gandhi's call and resigned from his government job. Then he worked as the proprietor of a printing press, editor of literary and political journals (Jagaran and Hans). Briefly, he also worked as the script writer for the Bombay film world. He didn't think much of the film world and once remarked about film Mazdoor (The Labourer)- "The director is the all in all in cinema. The writer may be the king of his pen, but he is an ordinary subject in the director's empire...Idealism creeps into the plots I conceive and I am told there is no entertainment value in them." Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ...


Premchand's first marriage was a disaster. The second time, he married a child widow, Shivarani Devi, which was a considered a taboo in India at that time. Premchand had three children - Sripat Rai, Amrit Rai and Kamla Devi Srivastava.


Premchand lived a life of financial struggle. Once he took a loan of two-and-a-half rupees to buy some clothes. He had to struggle for three years to pay it back. It has been suggested that History of the rupee be merged into this article or section. ...


When asked why he doesn't write anything about himself, he answered: "What greatness do I have that I have to tell anyone about? I live just like millions of people in this country; I am ordinary. My life is also ordinary. I am a poor school teacher suffering family travails. During my whole lifetime, I have been grinding away with the hope that I could become free of my sufferings. But I have not been able to free myself from suffering. What is so special about this life that needs to be told to anybody?".


Premchand chaired the first all-India conference of the Indian Progressive Writers' Association in April 1936 at Lucknow. The Anjuman Tarraqi Pasand Mussanafin-e-Hind or Progressive Writers Movement was a literary movement in the pre-partition British India, consisting of a few different writers groups around the world. ...


During his last years,he became terribly ill. The money his wife used to give for his treatment was used in running his press "The Saraswati". He was also writing a book "Mangalsutra" which would never be completed. All this had serious impact on his health leading to his early death on 8th October 1936, at the age of 52. [1]


Writing style

The main characteristic of Premchand's writings is his interesting story-telling and use of simple language. His novels describe the problems of the rural peasant classes. He avoided the use of highly Sanskritized Hindi (as was the common practice among Hindi writers), but rather he used the dialect of the common people. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Premchand called literature a work that expresses the truths and experiences of life impressively. Presiding over the Progressive Writers' Conference in Lucknow in 1936, he said that attaching the word "Progressive" to writer was redundant, because "A writer or an artist is progressive by nature, if this was not his/her nature, he/she would not be a writer at all." The Anjuman Tarraqi Pasand Mussanafin-e-Hind or Progressive Writers Movement was a progressive literary movement in the pre-partition British India, consisting of a few different writers groups around the world. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ...


Before Premchand, Hindi literature was confined to the raja-rani (king and queen) tales, the stories of magical powers and other such escapist fantasies. It was flying in the sky of fantasy, until Premchand brought it on the grounds of reality. Premchand wrote on the realistic issues of the day - communalism, corruption, zamindari, debt, poverty, colonialism etc. In many parts of the world, communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range of social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community. ... Zamindar, also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, or the Zamindari System (Persian: زمیندار) were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Some criticize Premchand's writings as full of too many deaths and too much of misery. They believe Premchand does not stand anywhere near contemporary literary giants of India - Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay and Rabindranath Tagore. But it should be noted, that many of Premchand's stories were influenced by his own experiences with poverty and misery. His stories represented the ordinary Indian people as they were, without any embellishments. Unlike many other contemporary writers, his works didn't have any "hero" or "Mr. Nice" - they described people as they were. Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay (Bangla: শরত্চন্দ্র চট্টোপাধ্যায় Shôrotchôndro Chôţţopaddhae), also known as Saratchandra Chattopadhyay or Sharat Chandra Chatterjee (15 September 1876 - 16 January 1938) was an author from India. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


Premchand was a contemporary of some other literary giants of that era like Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla and Jaishankar Prasad. Ram Chandra Shukla better known as Acharya Shukla (October 4, 1882 - 1942) is regarded as the first codifier of the history of Hindi literature in a scientific system by efforting great research with scanty resources and published ‘Hindi Sahitya Ka Itihaas’(1928-29). ... Jaishankar Prasad (January 30, 1889 - January 14, 1937) (Hindi: जयशंकर प्रसाद) was one of the most famous figures in modern Hindi literature. ...


Literary works

Premchand has written about 300 short stories, several novels as well as many essays and letters. He has also written some plays. He also did some translations. Many of Premchand's stories have been translated into English and Russian.


Godaan (The Gift of a Cow), his last novel, is considered the finest Hindi novel of all times. [2] The protagonist, Hori, a poor peasant, desperately longs for a cow, a symbol of wealth and prestige in rural India. Hori gets a cow but pays with his life for it. After his death, the village priests demand a cow from his widow to bring his soul to peace. Godaan (गोदान) is one of the best Hindi novels. ...


In Kafan (Shroud), a poor man collects money for the funeral rites of his dead wife, but spends it on food and drink. A shroud is typically something, usually a cloth, that covers or protects some other object. ...


Famous stories

Image:Example.of.complex.text.rendering.svg This article contains Indic text.
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Indic characters; or irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts.
  • Panch Parameshvar (पंच परमेश्वर پںچ پرمیشور)
  • Idgah (ईदगाह اِیدگاہ)
  • Nashaa (नशा نشا)
  • Shatranj ke khiladi (शतरंज के ख़िलाडी شترںج کے خِلاڈی) (The chess players)
  • Poos ki raat (पूस की रात پُوس کی رات)
  • Atmaram (आत्माराम آتمارام)
  • Boodhi Kaki (बूढी काकी بُوڈھی کاکی) (The Old Aunt)
  • Bade Bhaisahab (बडे भाईसाब بڈے بھائیساب) (The big brother)
  • Bade ghar ki beti (बडे घर की बेटी بڈے گھر کی بیٹی) (The girl of an affluent family)
  • Kafan (कफ़न کفن) (Shroud)
  • Dikri Ke Rupai (दिक्रि के रुपै دِکرِ کے رُپے)
  • Udhar Ki Ghadi (उधार की घडी اُدھار کی گھڈی)
  • Namak Ka Daroga (नमक का दरोगा نمک کا دروگا)

Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the Brāhmī script of Mauryan India. ... Shatranj Ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) is a 1977 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, based on the short story of the same name by Munshi Premchand, featuring the actors Sanjeev Kumar, Saeed Jaffrey, David Abraham and Tom Alter. ...

Novels

Image:Example.of.complex.text.rendering.svg This article contains Indic text.
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Indic characters; or irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts.
  • Gaban (गबन)
  • Sevasadan
  • Godaan (गोदान)
  • Karmabhoomi (कर्मभूमी)
  • Kaayakalp (कायाकल्प)
  • Manorma (मनोरमा)
  • Mangalsootra (मंगलसूत्र), incomplete
  • Nirmala (निर्मला)
  • Pratigya (प्रतिज्ञा)
  • Premashram (प्रेमाश्रम)
  • Rangbhoomi (रंगभूमी)
  • Vardaan (वरदान)

Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the Brāhmī script of Mauryan India. ... Godaan (गोदान) is one of the best Hindi novels. ...

Films based on Premchand's work

Satyajit Ray filmed two of Premchand's works — Sadgati and Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Sadgati (Salvation) is a short story revolving around poor Dukhi, who gets exhausted to death while hewing wood for a paltry favor. Shatranj ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) revolved around the decadence of nawabi Lucknow, where the obsession with a game consumes the players, making them oblivious of their responsibilities in the midst of a crisis. Satyajit Ray (Bengali:  ) (May 2, 1921–April 23, 1992) was a Bengali Indian filmmaker and polymath. ... Shatranj Ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) is a 1977 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, based on the short story of the same name by Munshi Premchand, featuring the actors Sanjeev Kumar, Saeed Jaffrey, David Abraham and Tom Alter. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ...


Sevasadan (first published in 1918) was made into a film with M.S. Subbulakshmi in the lead role. The novel is set in Varanasi, the holy city of Hindus. Sevasadan ("House of Service") is an institute built for the daughters of courtesans. The lead of the novel is a beautiful, intelligent and talented girl called Suman. She belongs to high caste. She is married to a much older, tyrannical man. She realizes that marriage is just like prostitution except that there is only one client. Bholi, a courtesan, lives opposite Suman. Suman realizes that Bholi is "outside purdah", while she is "inside it". Suman leaves her husband and becomes a successful entertainer of gentlemen. But after a brief period of success, she ends up as a victim of a political drama played out by self-righteous Hindu social reformers and moralists. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Madurai Shanmukhavadivu Subbulakshmi, மதுரை சண்முகவடிவு சுப்புலட்சுமி (popularly known as M.S. or M.S.S./M.S. Maami. ... , Vārāasī ( , Hindi: , IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras ( , Hindi: , , IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi ( , Hindi: , ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Ladies of Caubul (1848 lithograph, by James Rattray) showing the lifting of purdah in zenana areas. ...


He also worked with the film director Himanshu Rai of Bombay Talkies, one of the founders of Bollywood. Himanshu Rai (1892-1940), one of the pioneers of Indian cinema, is best known as the founder of the Bombay Talkies in 1934. ... The Bombay Talkies Limited (commonly known as Bombay Talkies), founded in 1934 in Malad, Bombay (now Mumbai), India by Himanshu Rai and Devika Rani, was a high-tech movie studio of its time, with sound and echo-proof stages, laboratories and editing rooms, and preview theatre. ...


Films and TV serials

  • Sadgati (1981) (TV)
  • Shatranj Ke Khilari (1977)
  • Godhuli (1977)
  • Oka Oori Katha (1977)
  • Gaban (1966)
  • Godaan (1963)
  • Seva Sadan (1938) (based on the novel Bazaar-e-Husn)
  • Mazdoor (1934)
  • Nirmala (TV Series, 1980s)

References

  1. ^ Premchand at Indiaheritage
  2. ^ Finest Hindi novel

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Munshi Premchand

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Sunday Tribune - Books (398 words)
S the nation prepares itself to mark the birth centenary of renowned short story writer and novelist Munshi Premchand, at least 11 popular artistes from different parts of the country have arrived in Lamahi (Varanasi) to bring alive some of the characters from his most appreciated stories.
Ahead of the 125th birth centenary celebrations of the legendary Hindi writer Munshi Premchand in July, renovation work is being done in his ancestral village of Lamahi as the nation prepares to celebrate the renowned short story writer.
Munshi Premchand (July 31, 1880-October 8, 1936) (pen name: Premchand) was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi and Urdu literature.
Munshi Premchand - Definition, explanation (303 words)
Munshi Premchand (July 31, 1880-October 8, 1936) ("Premchand") was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi literature.
Premchand was born Dhanpat Rai in Lamahi near Varanasi where his father was a clerk in the post office.
Premchand was a great social reformer too; he married a widow, Shivarani Devi, which was a courageous thing to do in India at that times.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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