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Encyclopedia > Munich Agreement

The Munich Agreement (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; German: Münchner Abkommen) was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland Crisis among the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich, Germany, in 1938 and signed in the early hours of September 30. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the future of Czechoslovakia in the face of territorial demands made by German dictator Adolf Hitler. The agreement, signed by Nazi Germany, France, Britain, and Italy permitted German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. The Sudetenland was of immense strategic importance to Czechoslovakia, as most of its border defenses were situated there. Historically, large populations of ethnic Germans have been concentrated in Central and Eastern Europe. ... This article is about the 1871 German Empire. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Silesian Uprisings (German: ; Polish: ) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles of Upper Silesia, from 1919–1921, against Weimar rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War... Polish Corridor (German: ; Polish: ) was the term used between the World Wars to refer to the Polish territory which separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the German province of Pomerania. ... The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of the Saarland, was from governed by the League of Nations under the Treaty of Versailles from 1920 until a plebicite in 1935, when it was returned to Germany. ... The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... National assembly meeting in St. ... Reichsgau and General Governement in 1941 At the beginning of World War II, significant Polish areas were annexed by Nazi Germany. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Former eastern territories of Germany (German: ) describes collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder-Neisse line which were internationally recognised as part of the territory of Germany after the formation of the German Empire in 1871. ... // Part of the motivation behind the territorial changes is based on events in the history of Germany and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... The Treaty of Zgorzelec (Full title The Agreement Concerning the Demarcation of the Established and the Existing Polish-German State Frontier, also known as the Treaty of Görlitz and Treaty of Zgorzelic) was signed on 6 July 1950 in Zgorzelec by Otto Grotewohl Prime Minister of the provisional government... The Treaty of Warsaw is a treaty between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... On 11 December 1973, in Prague, the Federal Republic of Germany and Czechoslovakia signed a treaty in which the two States recognised each other diplomatically and declared the 1938 Munich Agreements to be null and void by acknowledging the inviolability of their common borders and abandoning all territorial claims. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... The Treaty between the Republic of Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany on the Confirmation of the Existing Border between Them was signed on November 14, 1990. ... Main article: History of Poland In the period following its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christianity, created a strong Central European state and integrated Poland into European culture. ... Recovered Territories, Regained Territories or Western and Northern Territories (Polish: ) were the official terms used by Polish post-war authorities to denote those former German territories, which were in the past part of Polish state and over centuries became lost and Germanised, and which were returned to Poland after the... The Munich Conference on Security Policy was founded in 1962 by German publisher Ewald von Kleist under the title Wehrkundetagung. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Because the state of Czechoslovakia was not invited to the conference, the Munich Agreement is commonly called the Munich Dictate by Czechs and Slovaks (Czech: Mnichovský diktát; Slovak: Mníchovský diktát). The phrase Munich betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Slovak: Mníchovská zrada) is also frequently used because military alliances between Czechoslovakia and France were not honored.

Contents

Background

The Sudetenland was an area of Czechoslovakia where ethnic Germans formed a majority of the population. The Sudeten Germans had attempted to prevent the German-language border areas that had formerly been part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from becoming part of Czechoslovakia in 1918. They had proclaimed the German-Austrian province Sudetenland in October 1918, voting to join the newly declared Republic of German Austria in November 1918. This had been forbidden by the victorious allied powers of the First World War (the Treaty of Saint-Germain) and by the Czechoslovak government, partly with force of arms in 1919. Many Sudeten Germans rejected affiliation with Czechoslovakia because they had been refused the right to self-determination promised by US president Woodrow Wilson in his Fourteen Points of January 1918. The Sudetenland became part of Czechoslovakia due to the fact it had always formed part of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which was the main portion of Czechoslovakia in the same sense England is the primary home-nation of the UK, and many German-speakers felt themselves to be German-speaking Czechoslovaks rather than Germans or Austrians living in Czechoslovakia. Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... The Republic of German Austria (German: ) was the initial rump state successor to Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I for areas with a predominantly ethnic German population. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new Republic of Austria on the other. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


Hitler's demands

Neville Chamberlain holding the paper containing the agreement. He is showing the piece of paper to a crowd at Heston Aerodrome on 30 September 1938.
Neville Chamberlain holding the paper containing the agreement. He is showing the piece of paper to a crowd at Heston Aerodrome on 30 September 1938.

In March 1938 Germany had annexed Austria with the Anschluss. It was widely expected that Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland, with its substantial German population led by the Nazi politician Konrad Henlein, would be Hitler's next demand. Indeed, as Hitler increasingly gave inflammatory speeches demanding for the German minority in Czechoslovakia to be reunited with their homeland, war seemed more and more likely. Many thought war was inevitable and that a peace agreement that would satisfy everyone would be impossible to attain. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... Heston Aerodrome, in the west of London, UK, was operational between 1929 and 1946. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Konrad Henlein as SS-Gruppenführer Konrad Henlein (May 6, 1898 - May 10, 1945) was the most important pro-Nazi politician in Czechoslovakia and leader of Sudeten German separatists. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


The Czechoslovaks were counting on political and military assistance from the French government, as they had an alliance with France. France under the leadership of Édouard Daladier was however unprepared militarily and politically for war, and the French government was dedicated to solving the crisis without entering a state of war. Czechoslovakia also had a treaty with the Soviet Union, and Stalin indicated willingness to cooperate with France and Great Britain if they decided to come to Czechoslovakia's defense. French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ...


None of the powers in western Europe wanted war. They severely overestimated German dictator Adolf Hitler's military ability at the time, and while Britain and France had superior forces to the Germans they felt they had fallen behind, and were undergoing massive military rearmament to catch up. Hitler, on the other hand, was in just the opposite position. He far exaggerated German power at the time and was desperately hoping for a war with the west which he thought he could easily win. He was pushed into holding the conference, however, by Italian leader Benito Mussolini who was unprepared for a Europe-wide conflict, and was also concerned about the growth of German power. The German military leadership also knew the state of their armed forces and did all they could to avoid war. Hitler redirects here. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Mussolini redirects here. ...


Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, met with Hitler in his retreat at Berchtesgaden on September 15-16; he reached a preliminary agreement with Hitler who agreed to take no military action without further discussion, while Chamberlain promised to persuade his Cabinet and the French to accept the results of a plebiscite to be held in the Sudetenland. The French premier, Édouard Daladier, and his foreign minister, Georges Bonnet, met with the British diplomats in London, and issued a joint statement that all areas with a population that was more than 50 percent Sudeten German were to be given to Germany. The Czechoslovak government which was not consulted initially rejected the proposal but was forced to accept it reluctantly on September 21. This however proved not enough for Hitler; when on September 22 Chamberlain met Hitler at Godesberg he was told that now wanted the Sudetenland occupied by the German army and the Czechoslovaks evacuated from the area by September 28. Chamberlain agreed to submit the new proposal to the Czechoslovaks, who rejected it, as did the British Cabinet and the French. On September 24 the French ordered a partial mobilization: the Czechoslovaks had ordered a general mobilization one day earlier. It was the first French mobilization since World War I. In a last attempt to avoid war, Chamberlain proposed that a four-power conference be convened immediately to settle the dispute. Hitler agreed and on September 29, Hitler, Chamberlain, Daladier, and Mussolini met in Munich. This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... Georges-Étienne Bonnet (July 22/23, 1889 - June 18, 1973) was a French politician who served as Foreign Minister under Édouard Daladier at the time of the Munich Conference in 1938. ... Godesberg (roughly gods mountain), a hill in the Eifel mountains in the Rhineland, Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Resolution

1. Germany occupies the Sudetenland (autumn 1938) 2. Hungary occupies border areas (southern third of Slovakia and southern Carpathian Ruthenia) with Hungarian minorities 3. Carpathian Ruthenia received autonomy (autumn 1938). 4. Poland occupies Zaolzie area with Polish minority (autumn 1938). 5. In March 1939 the remaining Czech territories becomes the German satellite, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. 6. From remainder Czechoslovakia Slovakia is created, becoming another German satellite.
1. Germany occupies the Sudetenland (autumn 1938)
2. Hungary occupies border areas (southern third of Slovakia and southern Carpathian Ruthenia) with Hungarian minorities
3. Carpathian Ruthenia received autonomy (autumn 1938).
4. Poland occupies Zaolzie area with Polish minority (autumn 1938).
5. In March 1939 the remaining Czech territories becomes the German satellite, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
6. From remainder Czechoslovakia Slovakia is created, becoming another German satellite.
From left to right: Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured before signing the Munich Agreement.

A deal was reached on September 29, and at about 1:30am on September 30,[1] Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini and Édouard Daladier signed the Munich Agreement. The agreement was officially introduced by Mussolini although in fact the so-called Italian plan had been prepared in the German Foreign Office. It was nearly identical to the Godesberg proposal: the German army was to complete the occupation of the Sudetenland by October 10, and an international commission would decide the future of other disputed areas. Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... Zaolzie (Czech: , Polish: , literally: Trans-Olza River Silesia) was an area disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia, west of Cieszyn. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... Image File history File links Munich_agreement. ... Image File history File links Munich_agreement. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Gian Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944), was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Benito Mussolinis son-in-law. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ...


Czechoslovakia was informed by Britain and France that it could either resist Germany alone or submit to the prescribed annexations. The Czechoslovak government, realizing the hopelessness of fighting Germany alone, reluctantly capitulated (September 30) and agreed to abide by the agreement. The settlement gave Germany the Sudetenland starting October 10, and de facto control over the rest of Czechoslovakia as long as Hitler promised to go no further. On September 30th after some rest, Chamberlain went to Hitler and asked him to sign a peace treaty between the United Kingdom and Germany. After Hitler's interpreter translated it for him, he happily agreed. is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Announcing the deal at Heston Aerodrome, Chamberlain said:

...the settlement of the Czechoslovakian problem, which has now been achieved is, in my view, only the prelude to a larger settlement in which all Europe may find peace. This morning I had another talk with the German Chancellor, Herr Hitler, and here is the paper which bears his name upon it as well as mine (waves paper to the crowd - receiving loud cheers and "Hear Hears"). Some of you, perhaps, have already heard what it contains but I would just like to read it to you ...

The Führerbau, in which the Agreement was signed, is today a school, the Hochschule für Musik und Theater München

Later that day he stood outside Number 10 Downing Street and again read from the document and concluded: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixels, file size: 3. ... The Munich College for Music and Theatre (in German, Hochschule für Musik und Theater München) is one of the most respected traditional universities in Germany specialising in the performing arts. ... 10 Downing Street (commonly known as Number 10), is the most famous London street address. ...

My good friends, for the second time in our history, a British Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace with honour. I believe it is peace for our time. Chamberlain holding the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ...

Reactions

Chamberlain received an ecstatic reception upon his return to Britain. At Heston Aerodrome, west of London, he made the now famous "Peace for our time" speech and waved the Anglo-German peace treaty to a delighted crowd. Though the British and French were pleased, as were the German military and diplomatic leadership, Hitler was furious. He felt as though he had been forced into acting like a bourgeois politician by his diplomats and generals. Heston Aerodrome, in the west of London, UK, was operational between 1929 and 1946. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Chamberlain holding the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ...


Although the initial British reaction was generally positive, as the population had expected war, it quickly turned sour. Despite royal patronage - Chamberlain was greeted as a hero by the royal family and invited on the balcony at Buckingham Palace before he had presented the agreement to Parliament - opposition was present from the start and Clement Attlee and the Labour Party opposed the agreement in alliance with what had been seen, up to then, as the die hard and reactionary element of the Conservative Party. Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... This article is about the 1988 action film. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ...


Winston Churchill denounced the Agreement in the House of Commons: Churchill redirects here. ...

1930s-era Soviet poster by Kukryniksy showing Western powers giving Hitler Czechoslovakia on a dish. Inscription in the flag:"On towards the East!"

We have suffered a total and unmitigated defeat...you will find that in a period of time which may be measured by years, but may be measured by months, Czechoslovakia will be engulfed in the Nazi régime. We are in the presence of a disaster of the first magnitude...we have sustained a defeat without a war, the consequences of which will travel far with us along our road...we have passed an awful milestone in our history, when the whole equilibrium of Europe has been deranged, and that the terrible words have for the time being been pronounced against the Western democracies: "Thou art weighed in the balance and found wanting". And do not suppose that this is the end. This is only the beginning of the reckoning. This is only the first sip, the first foretaste of a bitter cup which will be proffered to us year by year unless by a supreme recovery of moral health and martial vigour, we arise again and take our stand for freedom as in the olden time. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (583x700, 43 KB)Sovit poster of 1930-s by Kukryniksy showing the Munich agreement. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (583x700, 43 KB)Sovit poster of 1930-s by Kukryniksy showing the Munich agreement. ... World War 2 Cartoon by Kukryniksy Kukriniksy (Russian: ) was one of the great cartoonists in the USSR with a recognizable style. ...

In later years Chamberlain was excoriated for his role as one of the Men of Munich - perhaps most famously in the 1940 squib Guilty Men. Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Guilty Men was a polemic book published in the summer of 1940 in the United Kingdom, which attacked the leading politicians of the 1930s for failing to confront Nazi Germany. ...


Hitler now regarded Chamberlain with utter contempt. A British diplomat in Berlin was informed that Hitler viewed Chamberlain as "an impertinent busybody who spoke the ridiculous jargon of an outmoded democracy." The umbrella, which to the ordinary German was a symbol of peace, was in Hitler's view only a subject of derision".[2] Also, Hitler had been heard saying: "If ever that silly old man comes interfering here again with his umbrella, I'll kick him downstairs and jump on his stomach in front of the photographers".[3]


Unlike Chamberlain, Daladier was under no illusions about Hitler's ultimate goals. In fact, he told the British in a late April 1938 meeting that Hitler's real aim was to eventually secure "a domination of the Continent in comparison with which the ambitions of Napoleon were feeble." He went on to say "Today it is the turn of Czechoslovakia. Tomorrow it will be the turn of Poland and Romania. When Germany has obtained the oil and wheat it needs, she will turn on the West. Certainly we must multiply our efforts to avoid war. But that will not be obtained unless Great Britain and France stick together, intervening in Prague for new concessions but declaring at the same time that they will safeguard the independence of Czechoslovakia. If, on the contrary, the Western Powers capitulate again they will only precipitate the war they wish to avoid." [4]. Nevertheless, perhaps discouraged by the pessimistic and defeatist attitudes of both military and civilian members of the French government as well as traumatized by France's blood bath in the First World War that he was personally a witness to, Daladier ultimately let Chamberlain have his way. On his return to Paris, Daladier, who was expecting a hostile crowd, was acclaimed. He then told his aide, Alexis Léger: "Ah, les cons (the fools) ![5]. Saint-John Perse (pseudonym of Alexis Leger) (May 31, 1887 – September 20, 1975) was a French poet and diplomat who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1960 for the soaring flight and evocative imagery of his poetry. ...


Joseph Stalin was also very upset by the results of the Munich conference. The Soviets had not been represented at the conference and felt they should be acknowledged as a major power. The British and French, however, mostly used the Soviets as a threat to dangle over the Germans. Stalin concluded that the West had actively colluded with Hitler to hand over a country to the Nazis, causing reasonable concern that they might do the same to the Soviet Union in the future, allowing the partition of the USSR between the western betrayal powers and the fascist powers. This supposition influenced Stalin's decision to sign the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany in 1939. Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...


The Czechoslovaks were also very angry with the Munich settlement. With Sudetenland gone to Germany and later southern Slovakia (one third of Slovak territory) occupied by Hungary and the area of Zaolzie by Poland (the disputed area west of the Olza River - 801.5 km² with a population of 227,399), Czecho-Slovakia (as the state was now renamed) lost its border defences with Germany and without them its independence became more nominal than real. In fact, Edvard Beneš, the then-President of Czechoslovakia, had the military print the march orders for his army and put the press on standby for a declaration of war. Czechoslovakia also lost 70% of its iron/steel, 70% of its electrical power, 3.5 million citizens and the famous Škoda Works to Germany as a result of the settlement.[6] Zaolzie (Czech: , Polish: , literally: Trans-Olza River Silesia) was an area disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia, west of Cieszyn. ... Olza (Czech Olše, German Olsa) is a river in Central Europe, right tributary of Oder. ... Edvard BeneÅ¡ with wife 1921, autochrome portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl Edvard BeneÅ¡ with his wife 1934 Edvard Benes meeting with Munkacs Wonder-Rabbi Chaim Elazar Spira Statue of Edvard BeneÅ¡ in front of headquarters of Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Prague Edvard BeneÅ¡ (IPA: ) (May 28, 1884... Å koda Works (Czech: Å kodovy závody; today Å koda Holding, a. ...


Invasion of the remainder of Czechoslovakia

Map of the Sudetenland Reichsgau.
Map of the Sudetenland Reichsgau.

Germany stated that the incorporation of Austria into the Reich resulted in borders with Czechoslovakia that were a great danger to German security, and that this allowed Germany to be encircled by the Western Powers.[7] In 1937, the Wehrmacht had formulated a plan called Operation Green (Fall Grün) for the invasion of Czechoslovakia[8] which was implemented as Operation Southeast on 15 March 1939--Churchill's prediction was fulfilled as Nazi armies entered Prague and proceeded to occupy the remainder of Bohemia and Moravia, which was transformed into a protectorate of the Reich. The eastern half of the country, Slovakia, became a separate pro-Nazi state. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1298x575, 27 KB) [edit] Summary Map of Sudetenland created by w:en:user:Clevelander. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1298x575, 27 KB) [edit] Summary Map of Sudetenland created by w:en:user:Clevelander. ... A Reichsgau was a province within the Greater Germany of 1938 to 1945 (from the start of territorial annexation to the fall of the Third Reich). ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Before World War II, Fall Grün (Case Green) was a German plan for an aggressive war against Czechoslovakia in 1938. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... The Munich Agreement and the first Vienna Award After the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitlers next target. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... The Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika) was an independent national Slovak state and ally of National Socialist (Nazi) Germany during World War II on the territory of present-day Slovakia (with the exception of the southern and eastern parts of present-day Slovakia. ...


Prime Minister Chamberlain felt betrayed by the Nazi seizure of Czechoslovakia, realising his policy of appeasement towards Hitler had failed, and began to take a much harder line against the Nazis. Among other things he immediately began to mobilize the British Empire's armed forces on a war footing. France did the same. Italy saw itself becoming a second-rate member of the Axis, and started its own Italian invasion of Albania in April 1939. Although no immediate action followed, Hitler's move on Poland in September started World War II in Europe. Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Combatants Italy Albania Commanders Alfredo Guzzoni Zog I The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7 – April 12, 1939) was a military campaign by Fascist Italy against the Albanian Kingdom. ... For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In Chamberlain's own words

  • "My good friends, for the second time in our history a British Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace with honour. I believe it is peace for our time." Chamberlain's reference is to Beaconsfield's return from the Congress of Berlin in 1878.
  • "I asked Hitler about one in the morning while we were waiting for the draftsmen whether he would care to see me for another talk….I had a very friendly and pleasant talk, on Spain, (where he too said he had never had any territorial ambitions) economic relations with S.E. Europe, and disarmament. I did not mention colonies, nor did he. At the end I pulled out the declaration which I had prepared beforehand and asked if he would sign it. As the interpreter translated the words into German Hitler said Yes I will certainly sign it. When shall we do it? I said "now", and we went at once to the writing table and put our signatures to the two copies which I had brought with me." (Chamberlain in a letter to his sister Hilda Chamberlain, 2 October 1938)

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (December 21, 1804 – April 19, 1881), born Benjamin DIsraeli was a British Conservative statesman and literary figure. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Gilbert, Martin and Gott, Richard, The Appeasers (Weidenfeld Goldbacks, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1967), p. 178.
  2. ^ Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick, The Inner Circle (Macmillan, 1959), p. 122.
  3. ^ Ibid, p. 135.
  4. ^ Shirer, William The Collapse Of The Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940, 1969, De Capo Press, pages 339-340.
  5. ^ Jean-Paul Sartre, Le Sursis
  6. ^ Shirer, William L., The Rise and Fall of The Third Reich
  7. ^ Reinhard Müller, Deutschland. Sechster Teil (München and Berlin: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 1943), pp. 116-130.
  8. ^ Herzstein, Robert Edwin The Nazis (Time-Life Books World War II Series) New York:1980 Time-Life Books Page 184

Shirer (at far left) after winning a National Book Award in 1961 for his The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, pictured with fellow authors and award winners Conrad Richter and Randall Jarrell. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ...

References

  • Krejčí, Oskar: "Geopolitics of the Central European Region. The view from Prague and Bratislava" Bratislava: Veda, 2005. 494 p. (Free download)
  • Lukes, Igor & Erik Goldstein (editors) The Munich crisis, 1938 : prelude to World War II, London ; Portland, OR : Frank Cass Inc, 1999.
  • Shirer, William L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, New York: Touchstone Press, 1959.
  • Wheeler-Bennett, Sir John Munich: prologue to tragedy, New York: Viking Press, 1965.

Shirer (at far left) after winning a National Book Award in 1961 for his The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, pictured with fellow authors and award winners Conrad Richter and Randall Jarrell. ... Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett, GCVO, MCG, OBE, FRSL, FBA, (October 13, 1902-December 9, 1975) was a conservative British historian of German and diplomatic history. ... Viking Press was founded on March 1, 1925, in New York City, by Harold K. Guinzburg and George S. Oppenheim. ...

See also

The Munich Agreement and the first Vienna Award After the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitlers next target. ... The appeasement of Adolf Hitler by the British and French governments between 1933 and 1939 is the best-known case of appeasement, and one of the major causes of the negative connotations now attached to the word. ... Western betrayal is a popular term in many Central European nations (including Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries which violated allied pacts and agreements during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through... In international relations, the Lesson of Munich asserts that adversaries will interpret restraint as indicating a lack of capability or political will or both. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Munich Agreement

  Results from FactBites:
 
Munich Agreement (582 words)
The Munich Agreement was an agreement regarding the Munich Crisis between the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich in Germany in 1938 and concluded on September 29.
The purpose of the conference was to discuss the future of Czechoslovakia and it ended up surrendering much of that state to Nazi Germany.
A deal was reached, however, and on September 29, Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Edouard Daladier and Benito Mussolini signed the Munich Agreement.
Talk:Munich Agreement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3735 words)
The term Munich betrayal (Mnichovská zrada in Czech) is frequently used to denote the Munich Agreement.
In early November 1938, under the Vienna Award, which was a result of the Munich agreement, Czechoslovakia (and later Slovakia) was forced by Germany and Italy to cede southern Slovakia (1/3 of Slovak territory) to Hungary, and Poland obtained small territorial cessions shortly thereafter.
Beneš, who always had been something of a "Fellow traveller," felt deeply betrayed by the Munich Agreement, and came to the conclusion that the West could never be relied upon to defend Czechoslovakia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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