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Encyclopedia > Munda languages

Munda Languages are spoken in north east India. Mundari and Kolh are famous languages of this group. Munda languages are spoken by about 9,000,000 people in east-central and central India. Most linguists classify the Munda languages together with the Mon-Khmer languages of Southeast Asia into the Austroasiatic language family. The origins of the Munda languages are not firmly established; it is generally thought that the Munda languages are autochthonous languages of eastern India. The Mundari language is a member of the Munda language family group which includes the Austro-Asiatic language group, closely related to Santali. ... The Mon-Khmer languages are the autochthonous languages of Indo-China. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ...

Elements of the Munda languages influenced other Indian languages like Sanskrit and the Dravidian languages. Some scholars divide the languages into two subfamilies: the North Munda (spoken in the Chota Nagpur Plateau of Jharkhand, Bengal, and Orissa) including Korku, Santhali, Mundari, Bhumij, and Ho; and the South Munda (spoken in central Orissa and along the border between Andhra Pradesh and Orissa). The latter family is further split into Central Munda, including Kharia and Juang, and Koraput Munda, including Gutob, Remo, Sora (Savara), Juray, and Gorum. The classification of these languages is controversial. The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, and eastern and central India. ... The Chota Nagpur Plateau (also Chhota Nagpur) is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, Bihar, and Chhattisgarh. ... Jharkhand (झारखंड in Devanagari) is a state of India. ... A database query syntax error has occurred. ... Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା) is a state situated in the east coast of India. ... Santali is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari. ... The Mundari language is a member of the Munda language family group which includes the Austro-Asiatic language group, closely related to Santali. ... Ho is an Austroasiatic language spoken primarily in India by about 1,077,000 people. ... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశం)(Āndhra Prādesh), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ... Kharia, one of the tribal (adivasi) group of people, living in Jharkhand , and Orissa states, India. ...

North Munda (of which Santhali is the chief language) is the more important of the two groups; its languages are spoken by about nine-tenths of Munda speakers. After Santhali, the Mundari and Ho languages rank next in number of speakers, followed by Korku and Sora. The remaining Munda languages are spoken by small, isolated groups of people and are little known.

Characteristics of the Munda languages include three numbers (singular, dual, and plural), two gender classes (animate and inanimate) for nouns, and the use of either suffixes or auxiliaries for indicating the tenses of verb forms. In Munda sound systems, consonant sequences are infrequent, except in the middle of a word. Except in Korku, where syllables show a distinction between high and low tone, accent is predictable in the Munda languages.

Munda languages

  • North Munda languages
    • Kherwari languages
    • Korku language
  • South Munda languages
    • Kharia-Juang languages
      • Kharia language
      • Juang language
    • Koraput Munda languages
      • Gutob-Remo-Geta languages
        • Gata language
        • Bondo language
        • Bodo Gadaba language
      • Sora-Juray-Gorum languages
        • Parenga language
        • Sora language
        • Juray language
        • Lodhi language

  Results from FactBites:
Munda languages - Encyclopedia.com (796 words)
Munda languages, group of languages generally regarded as a subfamily of the Southeast Asian family of languages.
Among the Munda languages, Korku takes a special position because it is the westernmost of all the Munda languages, and because it lost contact with the...
The principal languages are Marathi, Gujarati, Urdu, Hindi, Konkani, Telugu, Sindhi, Tamil, and Kanarese.
Indian Languages - Hindi, marathi, kannada, tamil, telugu, assamese, malayalam, punjabi, guarati, konkani (877 words)
The oldest documented Dravidian Indian language is Tamil, with a substantial body of literature, particularly the Cankam poetry, going back to the first century A.D. Kannada and Telugu developed extensive bodies of literature after the sixth century, while Malayalam split from Tamil as a literary language by the twelfth century.
In spite of the profound influence of the Sanskrit language and Sanskritic culture on the Dravidian languages, a strong consciousness of the distinctness of Dravidian languages from Sanskrit remained.
Languages entering South Asia were "Indianized." Scholars cite the presence of retroflex consonants, characteristic structures in verb formations, and a significant amount of vocabulary in Sanskrit with Dravidian or Austroasiatic origin as indications of mutual borrowing, influences, and counterinfluences.
  More results at FactBites »



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