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Encyclopedia > Mummy
An Egyptian mummy kept in the Vatican Museums.

A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or incidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air when bodies are submerged in bogs. Mummies of humans and animals have been found throughout the world, both as a result of natural preservation through unusual conditions, and as cultural artifacts to preserve the dead. Look up mummy, Mummy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (972x1836, 350 KB) Source: Joshua Sherurcij File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (972x1836, 350 KB) Source: Joshua Sherurcij File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Entrance to the museum Staircase of the Vatican Museum The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the public art and sculpture museums in the Vatican City, which display works from the extensive collection of the Roman Catholic Church. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Look up Flesh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... The term humidity is usually taken in daily language to refer to relative humidity. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ...

Contents

Etymology

Mummy (sˁḥ)
in hieroglyphs


The English word mummy is derived from medieval Latin mumia, a borrowing of the Persian or Arabic word mūmiyyah (مومية), which means "bitumen". Because of the blackened skin of mummies, bitumen was once thought to be used extensively in ancient Egyptian embalming procedures. A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ...


Deliberately embalmed mummies

Main article: Embalming

The best-known mummies are those that have been deliberately embalmed with the specific purpose of preservation, particularly those in ancient Egypt, where not only humans but also crocodiles and cats were mummified. Ancient Greek historians record that the Persians sometimes mummified their kings and nobility in wax, though this practice has never been documented in Egypt. The body of a Persian Princess which surfaced in 2004 in Pakistan turned out to have been forged. In China, preserved corpses have been recovered from submerged cypress coffins packed with medicinal herbs. Although Egyptian mummies are the most famous, the oldest mummies recorded are the Chinchorro mummies from northern Chile and southern Peru. Also among the oldest is Uan Muhuggiag which is a place in the central Sahara, and the name of the mummy of a small boy found there in 1958 by Professor Fabrizio Mori. The mummy displays a highly sophisticated mummification technique, and at around 5,500 years old is older than any comparable Ancient Egyptian mummy. The monks of Palermo in Sicily began mummifying their dead in 1599, and gradually other members of the community wished to have their bodies preserved as a status symbol. The last person to be mummified there died in the 1920s. The Capuchin catacombs of Palermo contain thousands of bodies, many which are clothed and standing, however in many cases the preservation was not successful with only the skeleton and clothing surviving. Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Persian Mummy The Persian Princess or Persian Mummy is a mummy of an alleged Persian princess that surfaced in Pakistani Baluchistan in October 2000. ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Uan Muhuggiag is a place in the central Sahara, and the name of the mummy of a small boy found there in 1958 by Professor Fabrizio Mori. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Location of the city of Palermo (red dot) within Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Ancient Egypt

A mummy in the British Museum.

Although mummification existed in other cultures, eternal life was the main focus of all Ancient Egyptians, which meant preserving the body forever. Egyptian culture believed the body was home in the afterlife to a person's Ka and Ba, without which it would be condemned to eternal wandering. Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummification and burial rituals. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 297 pixelsFull resolution (1644 × 610 pixel, file size: 227 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A mummy Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux Template:Cc-by-sa-2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 297 pixelsFull resolution (1644 × 610 pixel, file size: 227 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A mummy Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux Template:Cc-by-sa-2. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... The Fountain of Eternal Life in Cleveland, Ohio Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an infinite length of time, or in a state of timelessness. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... Akh redirects here. ...


The earliest known Egyptian "mummified" individual dates back to approximately 3300 BC. This individual, nicknamed 'Ginger' because of the colour of his hair, is not internationally renowned despite being older than other famous mummies, such as Rameses II or Seti I. Currently on display in the British Museum, Ginger was discovered buried in hot desert sand. Desert conditions can naturally preserve bodies so it is uncertain whether the mummification was intentional or not. However, since Ginger was buried with some pottery vessels it is likely that the mummification was a result of preservation techniques of those burying him. Stones might have been piled on top to prevent the corpse from being eaten by jackals and other scavengers and the pottery might have held food and drink which was later believed to sustain the deceased during the journey to the other world. While there are no written records of religion from that time, the beliefs of those who buried Ginger could have resembled the later religion to some extent.[citation needed] Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Species Canis aureus Canis adustus Canis mesomelas A jackal (from Turkish çakal, via Persian shaghal ultimately from Sanskrit sṛgālaḥ [1][2]) is any of three (sometimes four) small to medium-sized members of the family Canidae, found in Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. ...


The earliest technique of deliberate mummification, as used ca. 3000 BC, was minimal and not yet mastered. The organs were eventually removed (with the exception of the heart) and stored in canopic jars, allowing the body to be more well-preserved as it rested. Occasionally embalmers would break the bone behind the nose, and break the brain into small pieces in order that it could be pulled out through the nasal passage. The embalmers would then fill the skull with thick plant-based resin or plant resin sawdust.[citation needed] 19th Dynasty canopic jars of alabaster (Berlin) Among the ancient Egyptians, canopic jars were covered funerary vases, intended to keep the viscera of mummified corpses. ...


It also wasn’t until the Middle Kingdom that embalmers used natural salts to remove moisture from the body. The salt-like substance natron dried out and preserved more flesh than bone. Once dried, mummies were ritualistically anointed with oils and perfumes. The 21st Dynasty brought forth its most advanced skills in embalming and the mummification process reached its peak. The bodies' abdomens were opened and all organs, except for the heart, were removed and preserved in Canopic jars. The brain, thought to be useless, was pulled out through the nose with hooks, then discarded. It was also drained through the nose after being liquefied with the same hooks. The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... Natron is a white, crystalline hygroscopic mineral salt, primarily a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (common baking soda) and sodium carbonate (soda ash) with small amounts of sodium chloride (table salt) and sodium sulfate. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-First Dynasty. ... Among the ancient Egyptians, canopic jars were covered funerary vases, normally composed of clay, intended to keep the viscera of mummified corpses. ...


The emptied body was then covered in natron, to speed up the process of dehydration and prevent decomposition. Natron dries the body up faster tham desert sand, preserving the body better. Often finger and toe protectors were placed over the mummies fingers and toes to prevent breakage. They were wrapped with strips of white linen that protected the body from being damaged. After that, they were wrapped in a sheet of canvas to further protect them. Many sacred charms and amulets were placed in and around the mummy and the wrappings. This was meant to protect the mummy from harm and to give good luck to the Ka of the mummy. Once preserved, the mummies were laid to rest in a sarcophagus inside a tomb, where it was believed that the mummy would rest eternally. In some cases the mummy's mouth would later be opened in a ritual designed to symbolize breathing, giving rise to legends about revivified mummies.[1] Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... The Opening of the mouth ceremony (or ritual) was an ancient Egyptian ritual described in funerary texts such as the Pyramid Texts. ...


Egyptian mummies as a commodity

  • In the Middle Ages, based on a mis-translation from Arabic it became common practice to grind mummies preserved in bitumen into a powder to be sold and used as medicine. When actual mummies became unavailable, the sun-desiccated corpses of criminals, slaves and suicidal people were substituted by mendacious merchants.[2] The practice developed into a wide-scale business which flourished until the late 16th century. Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicinal properties against bleeding, and were sold as pharmaceuticals in powdered form as in Mellified Man.[3]
  • Artists also made use of Egyptian mummies; the brownish paint known as Caput mortuum (Latin for death's head) was originally made from the wrappings of mummies. It was most popular in the 17th century but was discontinued in the early 19th century when its composition became generally known to artists.
  • In the 19th century, European aristocrats would occasionally entertain themselves by purchasing mummies, having them unwrapped, and holding observation sessions.[4] These sessions destroyed hundreds of mummies, because the exposure to the air caused them to disintegrate.
  • An urban myth of mummies being used as fuel for locomotives was popularized by Mark Twain,[5] but the truth of the story remains a debate.
  • During the American Civil War, mummy-wrapping linens were said to have been used to manufacture paper.[5][6] Evidence for the reality of these claims is still equivocal.[7][8]
  • Many thousands of mummified cats were sent from Egypt to England to be processed for use in fertilizer.[9]

The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Mellified Man, or human mummy confection, refers to a legendary medicinal substance from Arabia described by 16th-century Chinese pharmacologist Li Shizhen in his Bencao Gangmu. ... Caput Mortuum is a Latin term meaning deaths head. In alchemy, it signified a useless substance left over from a chemical operation such as sublimation. ... An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...

Scientific study of Egyptian mummies

Mummy in the British Museum

Egyptian mummies became much sought-after by museums worldwide in the 19th and early 20th centuries and many exhibit mummies today. Notably fine examples are exhibited at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, at the Ägyptisches Museum in Berlin, and at the British Museum in London. The Egyptian city of Luxor is also home to a specialized Mummification Museum. The mummified remains of what turned out to be Ramesses I ended up in a "Daredevil Museum" near Niagara Falls on the United StatesCanada border; records indicate that it had been sold to a Canadian in 1860 and exhibited alongside displays such as a two-headed calf for nearly 140 years, until a museum in Atlanta, Georgia, which had acquired the mummy along with other artifacts, determined it to be royal and returned it to Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities. It is currently on display in the Luxor Museum. Download high resolution version (2725x1978, 341 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2725x1978, 341 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Bust of Nefertiti, Ägyptisches Museum The Egyptian Museum of Berlin (German: Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung) is home to one of the worlds most important collections of Ancient Egyptian artefacts. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... The Mummification Museum is located in the Egyptian city of Luxor. ... Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (commonly abbreviated SCA) is responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in the Arab Republic of Egypt. ... Luxor Museum Luxor Museum is located in the Egyptian city of Luxor (ancient Thebes). ...


More recently, science has also taken interest in mummies. Dr. Bob Brier, an Egyptologist, has been the first modern scientist attempted to recreate a mummy using the ancient Egyptian method. Mummies have been used in medicine to calibrate CAT scan machines at levels of radiation that would be too dangerous for use on living people. In fact, mummies can be studied without unwrapping them using CAT scan and X-ray machines to form a digital image of what's inside. They have been very useful to biologists and anthropologists, as they have provided a wealth of information about the health and life expectancy of ancient people. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... // Background Dr. Robert Brier (b. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... Radiation hazard symbol. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... This article is about the social science. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ...


Scientists interested in cloning the DNA of mummies have recently reported findings of clonable DNA in an Egyptian mummy dating to circa 400 BC.[10] Although analysis of the hair of Ancient Egyptian mummies from the Late Middle Kingdom has revealed evidence of a stable diet,[11] Ancient Egyptian mummies from circa 3200 BC show signs of severe anaemia and hemolytic disorders.[12] For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... The Middle Kingdom is: a old name for China a period in the History of Ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom of Egypt This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. ...


Natural mummies

A naturally mummified seahorse

Mummies that are formed as a result of naturally-occurring environmental conditions, such as extreme coldness (Ötzi the Iceman, the Ice Maiden), acid (Tollund Man), salinity (Salt Man), or desiccating dryness (Tarim mummies), have been found all over the world. More than a thousand Iron Age corpses, so called bog bodies, have been found in bogs in northern Europe, such as the Yde Girl and the Lindow Man.[13] Natural mummification of other animal species also occurs; this is most common in species from shallow saline water environments, especially those with a body structure which is particularly favourable to this process, such as seahorses and starfish. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Note: this edit is a sharpened version of Image:Seahorse Skeleton Macro 8. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Note: this edit is a sharpened version of Image:Seahorse Skeleton Macro 8. ... This article is about the animal. ... “Ötzi” redirects here. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... Preserved full length corpse of the Tollund Man, with rope around neck The Tollund Man is the naturally mummified corpse of a man who lived during the 4th century BC, during the time period characterised in Scandinavia as the Pre-Roman Iron Age. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... The Salt Man was discovered in Iran, in the Chehrabad salt mines located on the southern part of the Hamzehlu village, on the west side of the city of Zanjan, in the Zanjan Province. ... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Grauballe man at Mosegaard-Museum, Denmark Bog bodies, also known as bog people, are preserved human bodies found in sphagnum bogs in Northern Europe, Great Britain and Ireland. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ... The girl of Yde is a bog body found in a peat bog near the little village of Yde in the Netherlands. ... Lindow Man is the name given to the naturally-preserved bog body of an Iron Age man, discovered in a peat bog at Lindow Moss, Wilmslow, Cheshire, northwest England, on 1 August 1984 by commercial peat-cutters. ... This article is about the animal. ... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[2]) Paxillosida (255 species[3]) Notomyotida (75 species[4]) Spinulosida (120 species[5]) Valvatida (695 species[6]) Velatida (200 species[7]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ...


Europe

Italy

Main article: Ötzi the Iceman

Natural mummification is fairly rare, requiring specific conditions to occur, but it has produced some of the oldest known mummies. The most famous ancient mummy is Ötzi the Iceman, frozen in a glacier in the Ötztal Alps around 3300 BC and found in 1991. “Ötzi” redirects here. ... “Ötzi” redirects here. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... The Ötztal Alps (Ger. ...


Bog bodies

Main article: Bog bodies

The United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Denmark have all produced a number of bog bodies, mummies of people deposited in sphagnum bogs, apparently as a result of murder or ritual sacrifices. In such cases, the acidity of the water, cold temperature and lack of oxygen combined to tan the body's skin and soft tissues. The skeleton typically disintegrates over time. Such mummies are remarkably well-preserved on emerging from the bog, with skin and internal organs intact; it is even possible to determine the contents of last meal was by examining the stomach. A famous case is that of the Haraldskær Woman, who was discovered by labourers in a bog in Jutland in 1835. She was erroneously identified as an early medieval Danish queen, and for that reason was placed in a royal sarcophagus at the Saint Nicolai Church, Vejle, where she currently remains. Bog bodies, also known as bog people, are preserved human bodies found in sphagnum bogs. ... Bog bodies, also known as bog people, are preserved human bodies found in sphagnum bogs. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Haraldskær Woman in glass covered coffin, Velje, Denmark The Haraldskær Woman (or Haraldskaer Woman) is a well-preserved Iron Age bog body naturally preserved in a bog in Jutland, Denmark. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... Vejle as seen from Vejle Fjord Bridge Vejle – in IPA: – town in Denmark and site of the council of both Vejle municipality (kommune) and Vejle County (amt), located in southeast of Jutland peninsula. ...


In South America

Peruvian mummy at the Carmo Convent (Lisbon).
Main article: Chinchorro mummies

Some of the best-preserved mummies date from the Inca period in Peru and Chile some 500 years ago, where children were ritually sacrificed and placed on the summits of mountains in the Andes. Also found in this area are the Chinchorro mummies, which are among the oldest mummified bodies ever found. The cold, dry climate had the effect of desiccating the corpses and preserving them intact. In 1995, the frozen body of a 12- to 14-year-old Inca girl who had died some time between 1440 and 1450 was discovered on Mount Ampato in southern Peru. Known as "Mummy Juanita" ("Momia Juanita" in Spanish) or "The Ice Maiden", some archaeologists believe that she was a human sacrifice to the Inca mountain god Apus. Ruins of the nave of the church of the Carmo Convent. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... Juanitas 500-year-old, well-preserved hand. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... Inca mythology includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological and helps explain or symbolizes Inca beliefs. ...


In Russia

In the summer of 1993, a team of Russian archaeologists led by Dr. Natalia Polosmak discovered the Siberian Ice Maiden in a sacred area known as the Pastures of Heaven, on the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the Altay Mountains near the Mongolian border. Mummified, then frozen by unusual climatic conditions in the fifth century B.C. along with six decorated horses and a symbolic meal for her last journey, she is believed to have been a shaman of the lost Pazyryk culture. Her body was covered with vivid blue tattoos of mythical animal figures. The best preserved tattoos were images of a donkey, a mountain ram, two highly stylized deer with long antlers and an imaginary carnivore on the right arm. A man found with her (nicknamed "Conan") was also discovered, with tattoos of two monsters resembling griffins decorating his chest and three partially obliterated images which seem to represent two deer and a mountain goat on his left arm. The Ice Maiden has been a source of controversy, as alleged improper care after her removal from the ice resulted in rapid decay of the body; and since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Altai Republic has demanded the return of various "stolen" artifacts, including the Ice Maiden, who is currently stored in Novosibirsk in Siberia.[14][15] Ice Princess mummy Natalia Polosmak is a Russian archaeologist specialising in the Eurasian Nomads, especially those known as the Pazyryk, an ancient people who lived in the Altai Mountains in Siberian Russia. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... The steppe extends roughly from the Dniepr to the Ural or 30 to 55 degrees eastern longitude, and from the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south to the temperate forest and taiga in the north, or 45 to 55 degrees northern latitude. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ovis ammon (Linnaeus, 1758) The mountain sheep (species Ovis ammon) is the globally endangered wild sheep, which roams the highlands of Central Asia (Himalaya, Tibet, Altay). ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... The Altai Republic (Russian: ; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Novosibirsk (Russian: , pronounced ) is Russias third largest city, after Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


In North America

In 1972, eight remarkably preserved mummies were discovered at an abandoned Inuit settlement called Qilakitsoq, in Greenland. The "Greenland Mummies" consisted of a six-month old baby, a four year old boy, and six women of various ages, who died around 500 years ago. Their bodies were naturally mummified by the sub-zero temperatures and dry winds in the cave in which they were found.[16][17] The oldest preserved mummy in North America is Kwäday Dän Ts’ínchi ("Long ago person found" in the Southern Tutchone language of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations), found in August 1999 by three First Nations hunters at the edge of a glacier in Tatshenshini-Alsek Park. It was determined that he had died about 550 years ago and that his preserved remains were the oldest ever discovered in North America.[18] For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Qilakitsoq is an archaeological site in Greenland, formally a settlement, it is famous for the discovery of eight mummified bodies in 1972. ... The term baby can refer to: an infant a very early computer—the Small-Scale Experimental Machine, nicknamed Baby a musician – Brian Williams – who performs under the name Baby. ... The Southern Tutchone are a First Nations people living mainly in the southern Yukon in Canada. ... The Champagne and Aishihik First Nations is a First Nation in the Yukon Territory in Canada. ... Tatshenshini-Alsek Park Tatshenshini-Alsek Park or Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Wilderness Park in British Columbia, Canada (9,580 km2) was established in 1993 after an intensive campaign by Canadian and American conservation organizations to halt mining exploration and development in the area and protect the area for its strong natural...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Self-mummification

Main article: Sokushinbutsu

Buddhist monks are said to have been able to prevent their bodies from postmortem corruption. Victor H. Mair claims that hundreds of mummified bodies of Tibetan monks were destroyed in Chinese during the Cultural Revolution or were cremated by the Lamaists in order to prevent their desecration. Also according to Mair, the self-mummification of a Tibetan monk, who died ca. 1475 and whose body was retrieved relatively incorrupt in the 1990s, was achieved by the sophisticated practices of meditation, coupled with prolonged starvation and slow self-suffocation using a special belt that connected the neck with his knees in a lotus position. Sokushinbutsu (即身仏) were Buddhist monks or priests who allegedly caused their own deaths in a way that resulted in their being mummified. ... Victor H. Mair is Professor of Chinese Language and Literature in the Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... Kodo Sawaki in lotus position practices meditation in Zen The first pictorial representation of the lotus position is seen in the ancient Indian depiction of Shiva as Pashupati, Lord of Beasts, in Harappa The lotus position (Sanskrit: Padmasanam -- lotus posture) is a cross-legged sitting posture which originated in representations...


The monks whose bodies remain incorrupt without any traces of deliberate mummification are venerated by some Buddhists who believe they successfully were able to mortify their flesh to death. "Buddhists say that only the most advanced masters can fall into some particular condition before death and purify themselves so that his dead body could not decay."[19] Bodies purported to be those of self-mummified monks are exhibited in several Japanese shrines, and it has been claimed that the monks, prior to their death, stuck to a sparse diet made up of salt, nuts, seeds, roots, pine bark, and urushi tea.[20] Some of them were buried alive in a pine-wood box full of salt. The Siberian Buryat lama Dashi-Dorzho Itigilov (1852–1927) aroused considerable interest in recent years, as his body was retrieved in a perfect state of mummification in 2002. The Buryats, numbering approximately 436,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia and are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic. ... Dashi-Dorzho Itigilov (1852-1927) Dashi-Dorzho Itigilov (Russian: ) (1852–1927) was a Buryat Buddhist lama of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, best known for the lifelike state of his body, which is not exposed to decay. ...


In the 1830s, Jeremy Bentham, the founder of utilitarianism, left instructions to be followed upon his death which led to the creation of a sort of modern-day mummy. He asked that his body be displayed to illustrate how the "horror at dissection originates in ignorance"; once so displayed and lectured about, he asked that his body parts be preserved, including his skeleton (minus his skull, for which he had other plans), which were to be dressed in the clothes he usually wore and "seated in a Chair usually occupied by me when living in the attitude in which I am sitting when engaged in thought." His body, outfitted with a wax head created because of problems preparing it as Bentham requested, is on open display in the University College London. Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ...


During the early 20th century the Russian movement of Cosmism, as represented by Nikolaj Fedorov, envisioned scientific resurrection of dead people. The idea was so popular that, after Lenin's death, Leonid Krasin and Alexander Bogdanov suggested to cryonically preserve his body and brain in order to revive him in the future.[21] Necessary equipment was purchased abroad, but for a variety of reasons the plan was not realized.[22] Instead his body was embalmed and placed on permanent exhibition in the Lenin Mausoleum in Moscow, where it is displayed to this day. The mausoleum itself was modeled by Aleksey Shchusev on the Pyramid of Djoser and the Tomb of Cyrus. Russian cosmism is a philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century. ... Nikolai Fyodorov by Leonid Pasternak Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov (Russian: ; surname also Anglicized as Fedorov) (June 9, 1829–December 28, 1903) was a Russian Orthodox Christian philosopher, who was part of the Russian cosmism movement and philosophy of Transhumanism. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Krasin Leonid Borisovich Krasin (Russian: , 1870 – 1926) was a Russian Bolshevik leader. ... Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov Russian: (born Alyaksandr Malinouski, Belarusian: ) August 22 (Old Style), 1873, Hrodna, Russia (today Belarus) - April 7, 1928, Moscow) was a Russian physician, philosopher, economist, science fiction writer, and revolutionary of Belarusian ethnicity whose scientific interests ranged from the universal systems theory to the possibility of human rejuvenation... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... Lenins Tomb, with wall of the Kremlin and the former Soviet Parliament building behind An entrance to Lenins Mausoleum Lenins Mausoleum (Russian: ) (Transliteration: Mavzoley Lenina) also known as Lenins Tomb, situated in Red Square in Moscow, is the mausoleum that serves as the final resting place... Aleksey Viktorovich Shchusev (Russian: ) (September 26, 1873, Chisinau, now in Republic of Moldova - May 24, 1949, Moscow) was an acclaimed Russian architect whose works may be regarded as a bridge connecting Revivalist architecture of Imperial Russia with Stalins Empire Style. ... The Pyramid of Djoser, or step pyramid or kbhw-ntrw, was built for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser-Netjerikhet by his Vizier Imhotep. ...


In the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, mummies were discovered in a cemetery of a city named Guanajuato northwest of Mexico City (near León). They are accidental modern mummies and were literally "dug up" between the years 1896 and 1958 when a local law required relatives of the deceased to pay a kind of grave tax. The Guanajuato mummies are on display in the Museo de las momias, high on a hill overlooking the city. Another notable example of natural mummification in modern times is Christian Friedrich von Kahlbutz (1651-1702), whose body is on exhibit in his native Kampehl. Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... A view of downtown Guanajuato from one of its many hills. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Mummy of Christian Friedrich von Kahlbutz Christian Friedrich von Kahlbutz (born 1651 in Kampehl, Brandenburg; died 1702 in Kampehl) was a Prussian knight, who is today most famous because of the state of preservation of his body; no noticeable mummification process was used upon his death. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


In 1994 265 mummified bodies were found in the crypt of a Dominican church in Vác, Hungary from the 1729-1838 period. The discovery proved to be scientifically important, and by 2006 an exhibition was established in the Museum of Natural History in Budapest.[23] In March 2006, the body of the Greek Orthodox Monk Vissarion Korkoliacos was found intact in his tomb, after fifteen years in grave. The event has led to a dispute between those who believe the preservation to be a miracle and those who claimed the possibility of natural mummification. Vác (pronounced: ), (approximate pronunciation, Vats), (sometimes spelled Väcz; Slovak: Vacov, German: Waitzen, Latin: Vacium) is a city in Pest county in Hungary with approximately 33,000 inhabitants. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Vissarion Korkoliacos (Greek: Βησσαρίων Κορκολιάκος), also spelled as Visarion/Vissarion Korkoliakos, (1908 - 1991), was a Greek Orthodox monk of the Agathonos Monastery, close to Lamia, Central Greece. ... Incorruptibility is the property of a (usually human) body that doesnt decompose after death. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ...


Summum

A cat being mummified by Summum

In 1975, an esoteric organization by the name of Summum introduced "Modern Mummification", a form of mummification that Summum claims uses modern techniques along with aspects of ancient methods. The service is available for spiritual reasons. Summum considers animals and people to have an essence that continues following the death of the body, and their mummification process is meant to preserve the body as a means to aid the essence as it transitions to a new destination. Summum calls this "transference," and the concept seems to correlate with ancient Egyptian reasons for mummification. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2154x1803, 1560 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mummy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2154x1803, 1560 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mummy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... For other uses of Summum, see Summum (disambiguation). ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... For other uses of Summum, see Summum (disambiguation). ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Essence (disambiguation). ...


Rather than using a dehydration process that is typical of ancient mummies, Summum uses a chemical process that is supposed to maintain the body's natural look. The process includes leaving the body submerged in a tank of preservation fluid for several months. Summum claims its process preserves the body so well that the DNA will remain intact far into the future, leaving open the possibility for cloning should science perfect the technique on humans. For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ...


According to news stories,[24] Summum has mummified numerous pets such as birds, cats, and dogs. People were mummified early on when Summum developed its process and many have made personal, "pre-need" arrangements. Summum has been included in television programs by National Geographic and the British Broadcasting Corporation, and is also discussed in the book The Scientific Study of Mummies by Arthur C. Aufderheide.[25][26] [27] The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ...


Plastination

Main article: Plastination

Plastination is a technique used in anatomy to conserve bodies or body parts. The water and fat are replaced by certain plastics, yielding specimens that can be touched, do not smell or decay, and even retain most microscopic properties of the original sample. Plastination is a technique used in anatomy to preserve bodies or body parts. ... Plastination is a technique used in anatomy to preserve bodies or body parts. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ...


The technique was invented by Gunther von Hagens when working at the anatomical institute of the University of Heidelberg in 1978. Von Hagens has patented the technique in several countries and is heavily involved in its promotion, especially with his travelling exhibition Body Worlds[citation needed], exhibiting plastinated human bodies internationally. He also founded and directs the Institute for Plastination in Heidelberg. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... Body Worlds is an exhibit of preserved human bodies like this one. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ...


Mummies in fiction

Mummies are commonly featured in romance genres as an undead creature. During the 20th century, horror films and other mass media popularized the notion of a curse associated with mummies. Films representing such a belief include the 1932 film The Mummy starring Boris Karloff as Imhotep; four subsequent 1940's Universal Studios mummy films which featured a mummy named Kharis, who also was the title mummy in a 1959 Hammer remake of The Mummy's Hand and The Mummy's Tomb; and a remake of the original film that was released in 1999. The belief in cursed mummies probably stems in part from the supposed curse on the tomb of Tutankhamun. American Broadcasting Company's 1979 TV holiday film aired "The Halloween That Almost Wasn't" where a mummy (Robert Fitch) arrived into Count Dracula's castle without speaking to any other monster. Image File history File links Ghost1. ... Image File history File links Ghost1. ... Lon Chaney, Jr. ... The changing face of Kharis: Lon Chaneys mask-like countenance in The Mummys Ghost is considerably less gruesome than his previous appearance in The Mummys Tomb and endures as the most familiar image of the character. ... The Mummys Ghost is the 1944 Universal Pictures horror film sequel to The Mummys Tomb. ... Look up romance, romantic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Undead (disambiguation). ... “Horror Movie” redirects here. ... Look up Curse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mummy is a 1932 horror film starring Boris Karloff as an Ancient Egyptian prince, Im-Ho-Tep, whose mummy is inadvertently revived by a member of an archaeological expedition and who, using the name Ardath Bey, prowls Cairo seeking the reincarnation of the soul of his ancient lover, Princess... Boris Karloff (born William Henry Pratt) (November 23, 1887 – February 2, 1969) was an English actor who emigrated to Canada in the 1910s. ... This article is about the ancient Egyptian official. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... The changing face of Kharis: Lon Chaneys mask-like countenance in The Mummys Ghost is considerably less gruesome than his previous appearance in The Mummys Tomb and endures as the most familiar image of the character. ... The Mummy was a 1959 British horror movie starring Christopher Lee and Peter Cushing. ... The Mummy is a 1999 movie written and directed by Stephen Sommers and starring Brendan Fraser and Rachel Weisz, with Arnold Vosloo as the reanimated mummy of the title. ... King Tut redirects here. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ...

In 1939, The Three Stooges spoofed the discovery of King Tutankhamun with their short film We Want Our Mummy.

The 1922 discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb by archaeologist Howard Carter brought mummies into the mainstream. Slapstick comedy trio the Three Stooges humoursly exploited the discovery in the short film We Want Our Mummy, in which they explored the tomb of the midget King Rutentuten (and his Queen, Hotsy Totsy). A decade later, they were crooked used chariot salesmen in Mummy's Dummies, in which they ultimately assist a different King Rootentootin (Vernon Dent) with a toothache. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... We Want Our Mummy is the 38th Three Stooges short released by Columbia Pictures. ... King Tut redirects here. ... For other persons of the same name, see Howard Carter. ... For other uses, see Slapstick (disambiguation). ... The Three Stooges were an American vaudeville and comedy act of the mid 20th century best known for their numerous short subject films. ... We Want Our Mummy is the 38th Three Stooges short released by Columbia Pictures. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... For the car, see MG Midget or Daihatsu Midget. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... Mummys Dummies (1948) Ancient Egypt The Three Stooges are used chariot salesmen in Ancient Egypt. ... Vernon Bruce Dent (born February 16th, 1895, in San Jose, CA; died November 5th, 1963, in Hollywood, CA) was a comic actor who co-starred in many short films for Columbia Pictures. ...


Fictional mummies have also been prominently featured in comics and animation, such as Hakushin in the anime series InuYasha, Anal Ho Tep from Eric Millikin's Fetus-X, N'Kantu, the Living Mummy from Marvel Comics, and Mumm-Ra from the animated TV series ThunderCats. A humorous cartoon mummy was also used as the mascot for General Mills' monster-themed breakfast cereal Yummy Mummy. The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Animé redirects here. ... InuYasha, a Feudal Fairy Tale redirects here. ... Fetus-X is a controversial weekly romantic horror comic strip written and drawn by award-winning American cartoonist Eric Millikin, which has been published in newspapers, books, and as a webcomic since late 1999. ... NKantu the Living Mummy is a superhero in the Marvel Comics universe. ... This article is about the comic book company. ... ThunderCats is an animated childrens television series. ... ThunderCats is an American animated television series that was developed and produced by Rankin/Bass Productions, debuting in 1985, based on the characters created by Tobin Ted Wolf. ... General Mills (NYSE: GIS) is a Fortune 500 corporation, mainly concerned with food products, which is headquartered in Golden Valley, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. ... This article is about the cereal brand. ...


See also

Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Mummy of Pharaoh Ramesses II Tutankhamun Ramesses I Nesperennub Amenhotep III Thutmose II Seti I Ramesses II Nesyamun Yuya The... This is a list of mummies who have been DNA tested along with a brief decription of when and where they lived. ...

References

  1. ^ Aufderheide, Arthur C. (2003). The scientific study of mummies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81826-5. ; p. 525.
  2. ^ What was mummy medicine?. Channel 4. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  3. ^ Daly, N. (1994). "That Obscure Object of Desire: Victorian Commodity Culture and Fictions of the Mummy". NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction 28 (1): 24-51. Retrieved on 2008-02-08. 
  4. ^ Daly, N. (1994). "That Obscure Object of Desire: Victorian Commodity Culture and Fictions of the Mummy". NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction 28 (1): 24-51. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. 
  5. ^ a b Do Egyptians burn mummies as fuel?. The Straight Dope (2002-02-22). Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  6. ^ Provonost, M. "Necessity of paper was the 'mummy' of invention", Capital Weekly, 2005-03-17. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. 
  7. ^ Baker, Nicholson (2001). Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper. New York: Random House. ISBN 0357504443. 
  8. ^ Dane, Joseph A. (1995). "The Curse of the Mummy Paper". Printing History 17: 18-25. 
  9. ^ Wake, Jehanne (1997). Kleinwort, Benson: the history of two families in banking. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828299-0. 
  10. ^ Pääbo S (1985). "Molecular cloning of Ancient Egyptian mummy DNA". Nature 314 (6012): 644-5. PMID 3990798. 
  11. ^ Macko SA, Engel MH, Andrusevich V, Lubec G, O'Connell TC, Hedges RE (1999). "Documenting the diet in ancient human populations through stable isotope analysis of hair". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 354 (1379): 65-75; discussion 75-6. doi:10.1098/rstb.1999.0360. PMID 10091248. 
  12. ^ Marin A, Cerutti N, Massa ER (1999). "Use of the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) in the study of HbS in predynastic Egyptian remains". Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper. 75 (5-6): 27-30. PMID 11148985. 
  13. ^ Bog bodies of the Iron Age (html) (english) (2006-01-01). Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  14. ^ The Siberian Ice Maiden. ExploreNorth. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  15. ^ Polosmak, Natalya (1994). "A Mummy Unearthed from the Pastures of Heaven". National Geographic Magazine: 80-103. 
  16. ^ Deem, James M. (last updated 2007-03-15). World Mummies: Greenland Mummies. Mummy Tombs. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
  17. ^ Hart Hansen, Jens Peder; Jørgen Meldgaard; Jørgen Nordqvist (eds.) (1991). The Greenland Mummies. London: British Museum Publications. ISBN 0714125008. 
  18. ^ Ministry of Tourism, Sport and the Arts, British Columbia. Kwaday Dan Ts'inchi. Retrieved on 2007-03-08. 2007-10-25 at the Internet Archive Wayback Machine; Lundberg, Murray (2001-07-24). Kwaday Dän Sinchi, The Yukon Iceman (html) (english). ExploreNorth. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  19. ^ Mortals and saints can remain physically immortal after death - Pravda.Ru
  20. ^ The Buddhist Mummies of Japan
  21. ^ See the article: А.М. и А.А. Панченко «Осьмое чудо света», in the book Панченко А.М. О русской истории и культуре. St. Petersburg: Azbuka, 2003. Page 433.
  22. ^ Ibidem.
  23. ^ Újkori múmiák gyűjteménye
  24. ^ Laytner, Ron (2007). The Mummy Makers. Edit International. Retrieved on 2007-09-16.
  25. ^ Chan, Wah Ho (Cinematographer). (1996). Pet Wraps  [TV].  USA: National Geographic Television.
  26. ^ Frayling, Christopher (Writer/Narrator/Presenter). (1992). The Face of Tutankhamun  [TV-Series].  England/USA: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).
  27. ^ Aufderheide, Arthur C. (2003). The Scientific Study of Mummies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 60, p. 411. ISBN 0-521-81826-5. 

This article is about the British television station. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cecil Adams is the pen name of the author of The Straight Dope since 1973, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Geographic Magazine, later shortened to National Geographic, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

Books

  • Aufderheide, Arthur C. (2003). The Scientific Study of Mummies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81826-5. 
  • Barber, Elizabeth Wayland. 1999. The Mummies of Ürümchi. 1999. London. Pan Books. Also: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04521-8.
  • Budge, E.A.Wallis. 1925. The Mummy, A Handbook of Egyptian Funerary Archaeology. Dover Publ. Inc., New York, Dover Ed. 1989, (512 pgs.) ISBN 0-486-25928-5.
  • Davis-Kimball, Jeannine, with Behan, Mona. 2002. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist’s Search for History’s Hidden Heroines. Warner Books, New York. First Trade Printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6.
  • Ilkerson, Bill. 2006. Wrap-It-Up: How My Lost Child Will Survive Us All. Portland. Eye of Raw Texts. ISBN 0-43-956827-7.
  • Mallory, J. P. and Mair, Victor H. 2000. The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. Thames & Hudson. London. 2000. ISBN 0-500-05101-1.
  • Pringle, Heather. 2001. Mummy Congress: Science, Obsession, and the Everlasting Dead. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-028669-1.
  • Taylor, John H. 2004. Mummy: the inside story. The British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-1962-8.

E. A. Wallis Budge in his office at the British Museum around the turn of the century. ...

Online

  • "The Mummy Makers", Edit International, 2003-2004. Retrieved on 2006-05-29. 
  • Mummies at Howstuffworks.com.
  • The Straight Dope on claims that Egyptian mummies show evidence of cocaine use
  • University of Colorado paper discussing the discovery of cocaine and other new-world drugs in Egyptian mummies
  • About the Unknown Mummy E
  • Summum - Modern Mummification (HTML). Summum. Retrieved on 2006-05-29.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Howstuffworks. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Video

  • Chan, Wah Ho (Cinematographer). (1996). Pet Wraps  [TV].  USA: National Geographic Television.
  • Frayling, Christopher (Writer/Narrator/Presenter). (1992). The Face of Tutankhamun  [TV-Series].  England/USA: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mummies
  • Naturally Preserved Peruvian Mummies
  • World's Best Preserved Mummies in China
  • The "Auto-Icon of Jeremy Bentham, from a University College London website
  • Cat Mummies
  • Clickable Mummy
  • Mummies from the Smithsonian Institution.
  • Rameses: Wrath of God or Man? at Discovery Channel
  • Summum - Animal Mummy Gallery
  • U.S. Museum to Return Ramses I Mummy to Egypt, an article from the National Geographic website
  • "King Mutt's Tomb", 2006-09-13 article about dog mummy found in Peru
  • Roman Period Fayyum mummies: A picture test from Cognitive Labs
  • Cooking With Mummy, by Sarah Bakewell, Fortean Times 124, July 1999. Article on the medicinal uses of mummy.
  • The Art of Michaël Magerat: Animal Mummies


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Mummy (1999) (341 words)
Brendan Fraser stars as an American serving in the French Foreign Legion who, on an archaeological dig at the ancient city of Hamunaptra accidentally awakens the Mummy.
Discuss this title with other users on IMDb message board for The Mummy (1999)
Anyone else afraid of mummies in museums ?
Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Egyptian Mummies (1425 words)
In later mummies, the organs were treated, wrapped, and replaced within the body.
A priest touched various parts of the mummy with a special instrument to "open" those parts of the body to the senses enjoyed in life and needed in the Afterlife.
The mummy was placed in his coffin, or coffins, in the burial chamber and the entrance sealed up.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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