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Encyclopedia > Mummers play

Mummers' Plays (also known as mumming) are seasonal folk plays performed by troupes of actors known as mummers or guisers (or by local names such as rhymers, pace-eggers, soulers, tipteerers, galoshins and so on), originally in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales (see wrenboys), but later in other parts of the world. They are sometimes performed in the street but more usually as house-to-house visits and in public houses. Folk plays such as Hoodening, Guising and Mumming are generally verse sketches performed in countryside pubs, private houses or the open air, at set times of the year such as the Winter or Summer solstices. ... In various parts of Ireland on St. ... A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the Great Britain, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other countries influenced by British cultural heritage. ...


Although the term "mummers" has been used since medieval times, no play scripts or performance details survive from that era, and the term may have been used loosely to describe performers of several different kinds. Mumming may have precedents in German and French carnival customs, with rare but close parallels also in late medieval England (see below). Carnival or Carnivale is an annual Christian festival season. ... Mummers Plays (also known as mumming) are seasonal folk plays performed by troupes of actors known as mummers or guisers (or by local names such as rhymers, pace-eggers, soulers, tipteerers, galoshins and so on), originally in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales (see wrenboys), but later in other parts of...


The earliest evidence of mummers' plays as they are known today (usually involving a magical cure by a quack doctor) is from the mid to late 18th century. Mumming plays should not be confused with the earlier mystery plays. Pietro Longhi: The Charlatan, 1757 Quackery is a derogatory term used to describe questionable medical practices. ... Mystery plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ...

Contents

Mummers' and guisers' plays

Calverton Plough Play, a Plough Monday play performed in Calverton village, Nottinghamshire.

Mummers' and guisers' plays were formerly performed throughout most of Great Britain and Ireland, as well as in other English-speaking parts of the world including Newfoundland, Kentucky and Saint Kitts and Nevis. In England, there are a few surviving traditional teams, but there have been many revivals of mumming, often associated nowadays with morris and sword dance groups. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 60 KB) Summary Calverton Plough Play. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 60 KB) Summary Calverton Plough Play. ... Plough Monday is the traditional start of the English agricultural year. ... Calverton is a village in Nottinghamshire, England, situated approximately 8 miles from Nottingham. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... Cotswold morris with handkerchiefs A morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied with music. ... Although sometimes treated as a form of morris dance, sword dancers are proud of their own tradition and often wish to be treated as a traditional dance category in its own right. ...


Mummers and "guisers" (performers in disguise) can be traced back at least to the Middle Ages, though when the term "mummer" appears in ancient manuscripts it is rarely clear what sort of performance was involved. A key element was visiting people in disguise at Christmas. At one time, in the royal courts, special allegorical plays were written for the mummers each year - for instance at the court of Edward III, as shown in a 14th Century manuscript, now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. However, apart from being in rhyme, these plays were nothing like the current traditional plays, whose documented history only goes back as far as the mid-18th century. Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ...


Although usually broadly comic performances, the plays seem to be based on underlying themes of duality and resurrection and generally involve a battle between two or more characters, perhaps representing good against evil. Usually they feature a doctor who has a magic potion which is able to resuscitate a slain character. Early scholars of folk drama, influenced by James Frazer's The Golden Bough, tended to view these plays as debased versions of a pre-Christian fertility ritual, but this view is discredited by modern researchers. The word duality has a variety of different meanings in different contexts: In several spiritual, religious, and philosophical doctrines, duality refers to a two-fold division also called dualism. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In religion and ethics, evil refers to morally or ethically objectionable thought, speech, or action; behavior or thought which is hateful, cruel, violent, or devoid of conscience. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... A potion (from Latin potio, potionis, meaning beverage, potion, poison) is a drinkable medicine or poison. ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854, Glasgow, Scotland – May 7, 1941), was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. ... The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging comparative study of mythology and religion, written by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). ...


In mummers’ plays, the central incident is the killing and restoring to life of one of the characters. The characters may be introduced in a series of short speeches (usually in rhyming couplets) in which each personage has his own introductory announcement, or they may introduce themselves in the course of the play's action. The principal characters, presented in a wide variety of manner and style, are a Hero, his chief opponent, the Fool, and a quack Doctor; the defining feature of mumming plays is the Doctor, and the main purpose of the fight is to provide him with a patient to cure. The hero sometimes kills and sometimes is killed by his opponent; in either case, the doctor comes to restore the dead man to life.


The name of the hero is most commonly Saint George, King George, or Prince George. His principal opponents are the Turkish Knight (in southern England and Turkish Champion in Ireland), or a valiant soldier named Slasher (elsewhere). Other characters include: Old Father Christmas (who introduces some plays), Beelzebub, Little Devil Doubt (who demands money from the audience), Robin Hood (an alternative hero in the Cotswolds), Galoshin (a hero in Scotland), etc. Despite the frequent presence of Saint George, the Dragon rarely appears in these plays, though it is often mentioned; a dragon seems to have appeared in the Revesby Ploughboys' Play in 1779, along with a "wild worm" (possibly mechanical), but it had no words to say. In the few instances where the dragon appears and speaks, its words can be traced back to a Cornish script published by William Sandys in 1833. Excerpt from Josiah Kings The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England Father Christmas is the name used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth countries, for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas... Ba‘al Zebûb or Ba‘al Zəvûv (Hebrew בעל זבוב, with numerous variants[1]) appears as the name of a deity worshipped in the Philistine city of Ekron. ... Robin Hood memorial statue in Nottingham. ... The Cotswolds is the name given to a range of hills in central England, sometimes called the Heart of England, a hilly area reaching over 300 m or 1000 feet. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Occasionally, the performers will wear face-obscuring hats or other kinds of headgear, which create the impression of being masked. Some mummers' faces are blackened or painted red by way of disguise. Many mummers and guisers, however, have no facial disguise at all. Papierkrattler masks at the Narrensprung 2005 Carnival parade, Ravensburg Germany A mask is a piece of material or kit, usually worn on the face. ...


Early examples

Although there are earlier hints (such as a fragmentary speech by St George from Exeter, Devon, which may date from 1737, although published in 1770), the earliest complete text appears to be an undated chapbook of Alexander and the King of Egypt, published by J White in Newcastle upon Tyne between 1746–1769. The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the Westcountry. ... A modern day chapbook. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ...


The fullest early version of a mummers' play text is probably the 1779 "Morrice Dancers'" play from Revesby, Lincolnshire. The full text ("A petygree of the Plouboys or modes dancers songs") is available online [1] and [2]. Although performed at Christmas, this text is a forerunner of the local East Midlands variants usually performed on or around Plough Monday (see below) and often known as Plough Plays. Mummers Plays (also known as mumming) are seasonal folk plays performed by troupes of actors known as mummers or guisers (or by local names such as rhymers, pace-eggers, soulers, tipteerers, galoshins and so on), originally in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales (see wrenboys), but later in other parts of...


A text from Islip, Oxfordshire, dates back to 1780 [3]. Islip may refer to: Central Islip, New York East Islip, New York Islip (town), New York Islip (CDP), New York Islip, Northamptonshire Islip, Oxfordshire West Islip, New York This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


A play text which had, until recently, been attributed to Mylor in Cornwall (much quoted in early studies of folk plays, such as The Mummers Play by RJE Tiddy – published posthumously in 1923 – and The English Folk-Play (1933) by EK Chambers) has now been shown, by genealogical and other research, to have originated in Truro, Cornwall, around 1780 ([4] and [5]). Truro (pronounced ; Cornish: Truru) is a city in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ...


A play from an unknown locality in Cheshire, close to the border with Wales, dates from before 1788 [6]. The Cheshire Plain - photo taken adjacent to Beeston Castle The Cheshire Plain - photo taken towards Merseyside The Cheshire Plain panorama - photo taken from Mid-Cheshire Ridge Cattle farming in the county Black-and-white timbered buildings on Nantwich High Street Cheshire (or, archaically, the County of Chester)[1] is a... This article is about the country. ...


Chapbook versions of The Christmas Rhime or The Mummer's Own Book were published in Belfast, c.1803-1818 [7]. A mummers' play from Ballybrennan, County Wexford, Ireland, dating from around 1817-18, was published in 1863 [8]. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Wexford Code: WX Area: 2,352 km² Population (2006) 131,615 Website: www. ...


Thomas Hardy's novel The Return of the Native (1878) has a fictional depiction of a mummers' play on Edgon Heath. It was based on experience from his childhood. The Return of the Native is a novel by Thomas Hardy, published in 1878. ...


Local seasonal variants

Although the main season for mumming throughout Britain was around Christmas, some parts of England had plays performed around All Souls' Day (known as Souling or soul-caking) or Easter (Pace-egging or Peace-egging). In north-eastern England the plays are traditionally associated with Sword dances or Rapper dances. All Souls Day (also the Feast of All Souls, Commemoration of the Faithful Departed; formal Catholic name: Commemoratio omnium Fidelium Defunctorum (Latin), Commemoration of all the Faithful Departed), also called Defuncts Day in Mexico and Belgium, is the day set apart in Western Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church but... Easter, the Sunday of the Resurrection, Pascha, or Resurrection Day, is the most important religious feast of the Christian liturgical year, observed at some point between late March and late April each year (early April to early May in Eastern Christianity), following the cycle of the moon. ... Although sometimes treated as a form of morris dance, sword dancers are proud of their own tradition and often wish to be treated as a traditional dance category in its own right. ... History The rapper sword tradition (which has no connection with rapping) was traditionally performed in the mining villages of the Northumberland and Durham coalfield in North East England, especially in Tyneside. ...


In some parts of Britain and Ireland, the plays are traditionally performed on or near Plough Monday and are therefore known as Plough Plays. The performers were known by various names, according to area, such as Plough-jags, Plough-jacks, Plough-bullocks, Plough-stots or Plough witches. The Plough Plays of the East Midlands of England (principally Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire) usually have a different plot from the Christmastime "St George" type of play and feature several different stock characters (including a Recruiting Sergeant, Tom Fool, Dame Jane and the "Lady bright and gay"). Tradition has it that plough boys would take their plays from house to house and perform in exchange for money or gifts, in a similar way to the American custom of Trick-or-treat; some teams pulled a plough and threatened to plough up people's front gardens or path if they did not pay up. Examples of the play have been found in Denmark since the late 1940s. Plough Monday is the traditional start of the English agricultural year. ... The East Midlands is one of the regions of England and consists of most of the eastern half of the traditional region of the Midlands. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Other related customs

The Derby Tup

There are other traditional English folk plays which do not involve a quack doctor. Around Sheffield and in nearby parts of northern Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire a dramatised version of the well-known Derby Ram folksong, known as the Derby Tup ("tup" is another word for ram), has been performed, since at least 1895, by teams of boys. The brief play is usually introduced by two characters, an old man and an old woman ("Me and our owd lass"). The Tup was usually represented by a boy, bent over forwards, covered with a sack, and carrying a broomstick with a rough, wooden sheep's head attached. The Tup was killed by a Butcher, and sometimes another boy held a basin to catch the "blood". Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ...


The Old Horse

An 'Owd 'Oss play (Old Horse), another dramatised folksong, was also known from roughly the same area, in the late 19th [9] and early 20th centuries [10], around Christmas. The custom persisted until at least 1970, when it was performed in private houses and pubs in Dore on New Year's Day [11]. A group of men accompanied a hobby horse (either a wooden head, with jaws operated by strings, or a real horse's skull, painted black and red, mounted on a wooden pole so that its snapping jaws could be operated by a man stooping under a cloth to represent the horse's body) and sang a version of The Old Horse or Poor Old Horse, which describes a decrepit horse that is close to death.


The Papa Stour Sword Dance

In 1831 Sir Walter Scott published a rhyme which had been used as a prelude to the sword dance in Papa Stour, Shetland in around 1788 [12]. It features seven characters, Saint George, Saint James, Saint Dennis, Saint David, Saint Patrick, Saint Anthony and Saint Andrew, the Seven Champions of Christendom. All the characters are introduced in turn by the Master, St George. There is no real interplay between the characters and no combat or cure, so it is more of a "calling-on song" than a play. Some of the characters dance solos as they are introduced, then all dance a longsword dance together, which climaxes with their swords being meshed together to form a "shield". They each dance with the shield upon their head, then it is laid on the floor and they withdraw their swords to finish the dance. St George makes a short speech to end the performance. Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Although sometimes treated as a form of morris dance, sword dancers are proud of their own tradition and often wish to be treated as a traditional dance category in its own right. ... Papa Stour shown within Shetland Islands Papa Stour is one of the Shetland Islands in Scotland, with a population of around thirty people, some of whom have immigrated since an appeal for residents in the 1970s. ... Shetland (formerly spelled Zetland, from etland, Scottish Gaelic: ) formerly called Hjaltland, is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Seven Champions of Christendom is a moniker referring to St. ...


See also: Rapper sword and Long Sword dance. Rapper sword is a kind of sword dance. ... The Long Sword dance is a hilt-and-point sword dance recorded mainly in Yorkshire in England. ...


Etymology and early precedents

The word mummer is sometimes explained to derive from Middle English mum ("silent") or Greek mommo ("mask"), but is more likely to be associated with Early New High German mummer ("disguised person", attested in Johann Fischart) and vermummen ("to wrap up, to disguise, to mask ones faces")[1], which itself is derived from or came to be associated with mummen (first attested already in Middle High German by a prohibition in Mühlhausen, Thuringia, 1351)[2] and mum(en)schanz, (Hans Sachs, Nuremberg, 16th cent.), these latter words originally referring to a game or throw (schanz) of dice[3]. Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Early New High German, or Early Modern German, is the direct ancestor of the modern German language, and was used from 1350 to 1750. ... Johann Fischart (c. ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... Mühlhausen is a city in the federal state Thuringia, Germany. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Hans Sachs (November 5, 1494 - January 19, 1576) was a German meistersinger (mastersinger), poet, playwright and shoemaker. ... Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg, Polish: Norymberga) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ...


According to German and Austrian sources dating from the 16th century, during carnival persons wearing masks used to make house-to-house visits offering a mum(en)schanz, a game of dice. This custom was practiced not only by commoners, but also by the nobility: on Shrove Tuesday of 1557, Albert V, Duke of Bavaria went to visit the archbishop of Salzburg and played a game of dice with him[3]. A similar incident, involving an Englishman, is attested for the French court by the German count and chronicler Froben Christoph von Zimmern: during carnival 1540, while the French king Francis I was residing at Angers, an Englishman (ain Engellender) wearing a mask and accompanied by other masked persons payed a visit to the king and offered him a momschanz (a game of dice), bringing with him a sum of money which was so high that the king was ashamed not to have a similar sum at hand and had to wait two hours until the money could be lent from local merchants[4]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mardi gras. ... Albert V, Duke of Bavaria (29 February 1528 - 24 October 1579), (German: ), was Duke of Bavaria from 1550 until his death. ...   is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Maison dAdam, House of Adam, the oldest house of Angers. ...


While the game mum(en)schanz was played not only by masked persons, and not only during carnival, the German word mummenschanz nevertheless took on the meaning "costume, masquerade" and, by the 18th century, had lost its association with gambling and dice.


The custom attested for early modern Germany and France seems to have parallels also in late medieval England. According to History and the Morris Dance (2005) by John Cutting (page 81), there was a curious event in 1377, where 130 men on horseback went "mumming" to the Prince of Wales (later Richard II). They threw some dice, which appear to have been loaded dice, and so lost several gold rings. The rings were effectively presents for the prince. In 1418 a law was passed forbidding "mumming, plays, interludes or any other disguisings with any feigned beards, painted visors, deformed or coloured visages in any wise, upon pain of imprisonment". In the first case the event was on February 2, nine days before Ash Wednesday, and may well have been a carnival practice. In the second case, the law was applied to "the Feast of Christmas" (Cutting page 83), not related to the ordinary period of carnival preceding the Christian fasting of Lent, yet maybe related to Christmas fasting, which went ordinarily from November 11 to January 6. Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan The Fair Maid of Kent. He was born in Bordeaux and became his fathers successor when his elder brother died in infancy. ... In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Western Christianity, Lent...


It should be pointed out that there is no clear evidence linking these late medieval and early modern customs with English mummers' plays in the late 18th century, nor evidence for proving that the English words mummer and mumming are more likely to be derived from continental roots than vice versa.


Other kinds of Mummers

Revels

Although they can be dated back to John Langstaff's 1957 New York City Concert, "The Revels" did not become popular across the USA until the 1970's. They are a loose association of people trying to keep folk traditions alive. They perform Christmas Carols, sword dances and Mummers' Plays. Links: History, and Revels


Newfoundland Mummers

The province of Newfoundland and Labrador, in Canada, has a two-hundred-year long tradition of mummering or janneying between Christmas and January 6 (Twelfth Day). In complete disguise the mummers go from house to house to entertain and socialize. Often men dress as outsized women, but no one is supposed to be recognizable. For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... Twelfth Night has at least three meanings: Twelfth Night (holiday), celebrated by some Christians Twelfth Night, or What You Will, a comedic play by William Shakespeare Twelfth Night (band), a progressive rock band This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share...


Philadelphia Mummers

Main article: Mummers Parade
The neutrality of this article or section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
In Philadelphia members of the James Froggy Carr New Year Brigade dress in the traditional “wench” costumes to ring in the New year

Philadelphia has its own tradition of mummers marching on New Year's Day. The Mummers are a fixture of the ethnic communities in South Philadelphia, and organized in a number of social clubs principally located on 2nd Street. There is a Mummers Museum dedicated to the history of Philadelphia Mummers at the corner of Washington Avenue and 2 Street. A group of comic mummers in the 2005 parade The Mummers Parade is held each New Years Day in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Froggy46. ... Image File history File links Froggy46. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... A Mime artist on the Ponte SantAngelo A mime artist is someone who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art. ... This article is about January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ...


About 15,000 mummers perform in the New Year's Day parade each year. The 7 mile long parade up Broad Street to City Hall starts early in the morning and much to the consternation of local officials, lasts until it's done. Thousands of Philadelphians line the route and visit open house parties. As a result, New Year's Day, not New Year's Eve is the day to celebrate in Philadelphia. The clubs participating in the televised parade are judged, and several hundred thousand dollars are awarded in prize money. Broad Street is a major street in Philadelphia. ... City Hall at night, from Broad Street, 2005 Philadelphia City Hall is the seat of government for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The quality of this article or section may be compromised by peacock terms. You can help Wikipedia by removing peacock terms. ...


The Mummers are organized into four distinct types of troups: Comics, Fancies, String Bands, and Fancy Brigades. All Mummers dress in elaborate costumes. Comics often appear in a type of drag known as a "wench". Many Comic skits are based on current events and can be sophisticated, satirical or exuberantly sloppy. Fancies are comprised of a variety of spectacular costumes, often huge and covered in ostrich feathers. Mummer rules dictate that the wearer be able to move their costume unaided the length of the parade. The string band originated as a subgenre of old-time music. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Struthio camelus Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ...


Arguably the most popular are the String Bands — large marching bands comprised of saxophones, banjos, violins, string basses, drums, glockenspiels, and accordions with dancers and backdrops. It's a distinctive sound that carries well outdoors. The Fancy Brigades only march in the parade. Since the 1990s they perform a complicated dance routine with elaborate backdrops to prerecorded music at the Pennsylvania Convention Center. The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family, usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece like the clarinet. ... For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) A modern 5-string banjo The banjo is a stringed instrument of African American origin adapted from several African instruments. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion group that can be large, technically classified as a membranophone. ... Most orchestral glockenspiels are mounted in a case. ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The Pennsylvania Convention Center is a multi-use public facility designed to accomodate conventions, exhibitions, conferences and other events. ...


Both the String Bands and Fancy Brigades have evolved into highly choreographed, professionally costumed spectacles. Both the String Bands and Fancy Brigades choose a theme upon which to base their elaborate routines. Popular past routines have evoked ancient Egypt, OZ, undersea life, Greek gods, Imperial Russia, The Moulin Rouge, and mythical wizards. Dedicated crews dressed in black roll the backdrops and large props as motor vehicles are not allowed. Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Oz is a fantasy region containing four countries under the rule of one monarch. ... A listing of Greek mythological beings. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... For other uses, see Moulin Rouge (disambiguation). ...


The Mummers Parade is one of the last unsponsored events left in America. No corporate logos or sponsorship are allowed. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sponsorship can refer to several concepts: A sponsors support of an event, activity, person, or organization. ...


Yet, as seen on local networks, the 2007 New Years Day Parade is now sponsored by Southwest Airlines Southwest Airlines, Inc. ...


Adidam Mummery Sacred Theatre

A contemporary Sacred use of the mummery theatre concept has arisen within a small New Religious Movement named Adidam. The founder and Spiritual Teacher of Adidam, named Adi Da wrote a book now called The Mummery Book,(which he first began writing in 1957) expanded over many years into what he calls a “Liturgical Theatre”. It is performed at the Adidam Ashram (or Retreat Sanctuary) named “The Mountain of Attention”, located in Clear Lakes Highland in Northern California, at least once annually and often several times a year. It uses artistically talented formal members of Adidam with some professional help. The central theme, meaning and script content of The Mummery Book and its theatrical impact appear to be related (most closely) to this definition of mummery "a ridiculous, hypocritical, or pretentious ceremony or performance." [13] A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... Adi Da Samraj (born Franklin Albert Jones, November 3, 1939 in Jamaica, New York) is a contemporary and controversial guru or spiritual master who is the founder of the new religious movement known as Adidam. ... An Ashram (Pronounced aashram) in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages (See Rishi) lived in peace and tranquility amidst nature. ...


Music

There are several traditional songs associated with mumming plays; the "calling-on" songs of sword dance teams are related:

  • The Singing of the Travels by the Symondsbury Mummers, appears on SayDisc CD-SDL425 English Customs and Traditions (1997) along with an extract from the Antrobus, Cheshire, Soulcakers' Play
    • It also appears on the World Library of Folk and Primitive Music. Vol 1. England, Rounder 1741, CD (1998/reis), cut#16b
  • The Singing of the Travels was also recorded by the Silly Sisters (Maddy Prior and June Tabor). Silly Sisters, Takoma TAK 7077, LP (1977), cut# 6 (Singing the Travels)
  • A Calling-on Song by Steeleye Span from their first album Hark! The Village Wait is based on a sword-dance or pace-egg play calling-on song, in which the characters are introduced one by one
  • The Mummers' Dance, a song from the album The Book of Secrets by Loreena McKennitt, refers to traditional mummers' play as performed in Ireland.
  • England in Ribbons, a song by Hugh Lupton and Chris Wood is based around the characters of a traditional English mummers' play. It gave its name to a two hour programme of traditional and traditionally-rooted English music, broadcast by BBC Radio 3 as the culmination of a whole day of English music, on St George's Day 2006 [14]
  • The Mummer's Song, performed by the Canadian folk group Great Big Sea, but originally written by the Newfoundland folk band Simani, is an arrangement of the traditional song The Mummer's Carol, which details the Mummer tradition in Newfoundland and Labrador

Symondsbury is a village in south west Dorset, England, one mile west of Bridport. ... Map of civil parish of Antrobus within borough of Vale Royal Antrobus is a civil parish and village in Cheshire, immediately to the south of Warrington. ... The Silly Sisters is the name of the folk music duo formed by Maddy Prior and June Tabor. ... Maddy Prior is a British folk singer. ... June Tabor (born 1947) is an English folk singer. ... Steeleye Span are a British folk-rock band, formed in 1969 and remaining active today. ... The Book of Secrets is an album by Loreena McKennitt released in 1997. ... Loreena McKennitt live on stage Loreena McKennitt, C.M. (b. ... Hugh Lupton is one of the most prominent figures in the Oral Storytelling Tradition. ... Chris Wood is an English folk musician and composer who plays fiddle, viola and guitar, and sings. ... BBC Radio 3 is a domestic UK BBC radio station, which devotes most of its schedule to classical music. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Great Big Sea (often shortened to GBS) is a Canadian folk-rock band from Newfoundland and Labrador, best known for performing energetic rock interpretations of traditional Newfoundland folk songs including sea shanties, which draw from the islands 500-year-old Irish, English, and French heritage. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ...

See also

Spencely Fellows Clowns are comic performers, stereotypically characterized by their colored afro wigs, stylistic makeup, outlandish costumes, and unusually large footwear. ... Karel Dujardins set his closely-observed scene of a traveling troupes makeshift stage against idealized ruins in the Roman Campagna: dated 1657 (Louvre Museum) Commedia dellarte (Italian: play of professional artists also interpreted as comedy of humors), also known as Extemporal Comedy, was a popular form of improvisational... It has been suggested that Joker be merged into this article or section. ... Mystery plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ... In various parts of Ireland on St. ...

Sources

  1. ^ Brüder Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch, s.v. Mummen
  2. ^ Matthias Lexer, Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch, s.v. mummen
  3. ^ a b Brüder Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch, s.v. Mummenschanz
  4. ^ Zimmerische Chronik, vol. 3, p.264-265

External links

Mummers' Plays proper

Philadelphia Mummers County Durham is a county in north-east England. ...

Other related customs The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Unbroken Circle - Mummers Play (2273 words)
Mummers' or Mumming Plays are performed in the street and often the performers would call at houses in the vicinity causing much excitement and enjoyment, they would be given food and drink similar to carol singers and then perform their play.
Mummer's plays are often comic in tone with a formal structure but allowing for many comic asides and there is an element of community celebration and humor in the performances.
The masked play in 'The Wicker Man' is clearly derived from The Mummers Play but with a more pagan direction and using archetypes such as the Salmon of Knowledge drawn from mysticism.
Eydon Mummers Homepage (737 words)
Eydon Mummers was formed (revived?) at the end on 1991 by a group of villagers and friends, when a copy of the traditional Eydon Mummers Play became available.
Mummers' plays are a last vestige of the old fertility rites performed in mid-winter to bring life back to the world.
The plays were passed down orally and some have became garbled over the years, as each player would only know his (never her) own part, not those of the other players.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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