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Encyclopedia > Multiracial
Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother and a black father

The terms multiracial and mixed-race describe people whose parents are not the same race, or the descendants of such mixed people. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (526x676, 59 KB) Halle Berry, San Diego Comic-Con in 2003. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (526x676, 59 KB) Halle Berry, San Diego Comic-Con in 2003. ... Halle Maria Berry (IPA: ; born August 14, 1966[1]) is an American actress. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... For other uses, see Race. ...


Multiracial also describes a society or group that is composed of people from more than one racial or ethnic group. Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...

Contents

What makes a person multiracial?

See also Admixture

According to Michael Levin, most people can be clearly identified as belonging to one race or another, meaning that most people can trace at least 75% of their ancestors to the same geographic region associated with a major racial group. However Levin insists that anyone with fewer than 75% of their ancestors originating from the same broad geographic region should be considered multiracial: In the last few centuries science has had an important influence on everyday notions of race. ... Michael Levin (Ph. ...

Hybrid populations with multiple lines of descent are to be characterized in just those terms: as of multiple descent. Thus, American Negroids are individuals most of whose ancestors from 15 to 5000 generations ago were sub- Saharan African. Specifying 'most' more precisely in a way that captures ordinary usage may not be possible. '> 50%' seems too low a threshold; my sense is that ordinary attributions of race begin to stabilize at 75%. An individual, half of whose ancestors are East Asian and half Caucasian, is to be categorized as just that, of half northeast Asian and half Caucasian ancestry. Nothing in continental cladistics precludes mixed ancestry, any more than the concept of a breed of dog excludes mixtures.[1]

Meanwhile the company DNAPrint Genomics analyzes DNA to determine the exact percentage of Indo-European, sub-Saharan, East Asian, and Native American heritage someone has and assigns the to the categories White, Black, East Asian, Native American, or mixed race accordingly. According to U.S. sociologist Troy Duster and ethicist Pilar Ossorio: DNAPrint Genomics (OTCBB: DNAG) is a genetics company with a wide range of products related to genetic profiling. ...

Some percentage of people who look white will possess genetic markers indicating that a significant majority of their recent ancestors were African. Some percentage of people who look black will possess genetic markers indicating the majority of their recent ancestors were European.[2]

Words for this concept, including from other languages, used in English

In the English-speaking world many terms for people of various multiracial descents exist, some of which are pejorative or are no longer used. Mulato and mestizo are used in Spanish and métis in French for people of multiracial descent, and these terms are also in certain contexts used in the English-speaking world. In Canada, the Métis are a people of mixed white and First Nation descent. Terms like "mulatto" for people of partly African descent and "mestizo" for people of partly Native American descent are still used in English, but mostly when referring to the past or to the demography of Latin-America. "Half-breed" is a now old-fashioned and pejorative term used for people of partial Native American ancestry. Mestee, once widely used, is now used mostly for members of old mixed-race groups, such as Melungeons, Redbones, Brass Ankles and Mayles. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mÅ«lus. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French: or ) are one of three recognized Canadian aboriginal groups whose homeland consists of the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and the Northwest Territories. ... First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which... Latin America Latin America (Portuguese and Spanish: América Latina; French: Amérique latine) is the region of the Americas where Romance languages, those derived from Latin (particularly Spanish and Portuguese), are primarily spoken. ... Halfbreed is a horricore rap group from detroit. ... Melungeon (mÉ›lÊŒndÊ’ÊŒn) is a term traditionally applied to one of a number of tri-racial isolate groups of the Southeastern United States, mainly in the Cumberland Gap area of central Appalachia: east Tennessee, southwest Virginia, and east Kentucky. ... Redbones are a mixed blood group of people of unknown ancestry. ...


In English, the terms "miscegenation and "amalgamation" have been used for "race-mixing", but these terms are now often considered offensive and are becoming obsolete. Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. ... Amalgamation is a now largely archaic term for the intermarriage and interbreeding of different ethncitities or races. In the English-speaking world, the term has been in use into the the twentieth century. ...


Place in society

Societal acceptance of interracial marriages and the children born from interracial relationships varies widely from person to person and region to region, and over time. In Nazi Germany, harsh race laws were enacted to establish racial purity, although Nazi soldiers in Scandinavia (a few countries considered by the Nazis to have a mostly "Nordic" population) interbred with local women. Scandinavians and Anglo-Saxons were considered to be equal to Germans in the Nazi worldview. In the United States, especially the South, marriage between African Americans and European Americans has historically been looked down upon and legislated against through anti-miscegenation laws. These state laws were declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1967 in Loving v. Virginia. As recently as 2003, Taylor County High School in Taylor County, Georgia has held separate prom celebrations for black and white students;[3] however, some similar phenomena occur equally because of cultural differences and not specific prohibitions on marriage or dating. However, recent data suggests that multiracial marriages are becoming increasingly common in the United States, including the South. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Miscegenation. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Whites redirects here. ... Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... State law, in the United States, is the law of each separate U.S. state, as passed by the state legislature and signed into law by the state governor. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Holding The Court declared Virginias anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, unconstitutional, thereby ending all race-based legal restriction on marriage in the United States. ... Taylor County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. ...


Censuses notwithstanding, any count of numbers of mixed-race people is subject to dispute. People may identify themselves as members of one single racial category despite having (potentially many) ancestors belonging to other categories, for various reasons. For instance, genetic studies of Afro-Caribbean people show an ancestry that is on average 10% European and 90% African.[4] Also, a considerable portion of the U.S. population identified as Black actually have some Native American or European American ancestry. Some of these categorization phenomena occur due to current or past cultural stereotyping or segregation. The Leicester Caribbean Carnival The British African-Caribbean (Afro-Caribbean) community are residents of the United Kingdom who are of West Indian background, and whose ancestors were indigenous to Africa. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ...


Multiracial individuals are often stereotypically presumed to have struggles with identity crises, perhaps due to having a sense of identity that is very different than people who claim to be of just one race. Most multiracial people cannot or do not identify with just one group. For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... Erik Erikson, the psychologist who coined the term identity crisis, believes that the identity crisis is the most important conflict human beings encounter when they go through eight developmental stages in life. ...


Latin America

Mestizo is the common word used to describe multiracial people in Latin America, especially people with and Amerindian and Spanish or other European ancestry. Mestizos make up a large portion of Latin Americans including a majority in some countries.[5] Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ...


In Latin America, racial mixture was officially acknowledged from colonial times, resulting in an official nomenclature for every conceivable mixture present in the various countries. Initially, this classification was used as a type of caste system, where rights and privileges were accorded depending on one's official racial classification. Official caste distinctions were abolished in many countries of the Spanish-speaking Americas as they became independent of Spain, but several have remained in common usage to this day. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Race and racial mixture have played a significant role in the politics of many Latin American countries. In some countries, notably Mexico, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Colombia, Panama, Belize, and other Latin countries, a majority of the population can be described as multiracial.


The Mexican philosopher and educator José Vasconcelos authored an essay on the subject, La Raza Cósmica, celebrating racial mixture. Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, who is himself of Spanish, indigenous and African ancestry, has made positive references to the mixed race ancestry of most Latin Americans from time to time. José Vasconcelos (Oaxaca, Oaxaca, 1882 – Mexico City, 1959) was a Mexican writer, thinker and politician. ... The phrase La raza cosmica, in English the cosmic people, embodies the notion that traditional, exclusive concepts of race and nationality can be transcended in the name of humanitys common destiny. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ...


Brazil

According to the 2000 official census, 38.5% of Brazilians identified themselves as pardo skin color[6]. That option is normally marked by people that consider themselves multiracial (mestiço)[7]. The term pardo is formally used in the official census, but is not used by the population. In Brazilian society, most people that are multiracial call themselves moreno, light-moreno or dark-moreno. These terms are not considered offensive, and focus more on skin color than on ethnicity (it is considered more like the others human characteristics such as being tall or short). In Brazil, the Pardos are a mixture of Europeans, Blacks and Amerindians, varying from light to dark complexion, as used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in censuses since 1950. ... Moreno is Spanish and Portuguese for a tanned or dark or brown-skinned person. ...


The most common multiracial groups are between African and European (mulato), and Amerindian and European (caboclo or mameluco). But there are also African and Amerindian (cafuzo), and East-Asian (mostly Japanese) and European (ainocô). All groups are more or less found throughout the whole country. Most of the Brazilian multiracials, however, has three origins: Amerindian, European and African. The Mulato is a mild to medium dried Poblano pepper, sold dried. ... A Caboclo is a person of mixed Brazilian Indian and European ancestry. ...


Since multiracial relations in Brazilian society have occurred for many generations, today, some people find it difficult to trace their own ethnic ancestry, and there is a high level of integration between all groups. However, there is a great social and economic difference between European descendants (found more among the upper and middle classes) and African, Amerindian and multiracial descendants (found more among the middle and lower classes).


South Africa

Multiracial South Africans are commonly referred to as coloureds. According to the 2001 South African Census, they are the second largest miniority (8.9%) after white South Africans (9.2%). In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ...


Malaysia and Singapore

Malaya's population comprises many ethnic groups, with the Malays making up the majority, close to 60% of the population. By constitutional definition, Malays are Muslim who practice Malay norms and culture. Therefore, technically, a Muslim of any race who practices Malay norms and culture can be considered a Malay and have equal rights when it comes to Malay rights as stated in the constitution. About 25% of the population are Malaysians of Chinese descent. Malaysians of Indian descent comprise about 8% of the population. About 90% of the Indian community are Tamils but various other groups are also present, including Malayalis, Punjabis and Gujaratis. There are also various non-Malay peoples who are designated as indigenous, mostly in East Malaysia. These make up about 7% of the population.[citation needed] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... East Malaysia comprises Sabah and Sarawak East Malaysia consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo to the east, across the South China Sea from Peninsular Malaysia which is located on the Malay Peninsula. ...


Non-Malay indigenous groups make up more than half of the state of Sarawak's population, constitute about 66% of Sabah's population, and also exist in much smaller numbers on the Peninsula, where they are collectively known as Orang Asli. The non-Malay indigenous population is divided into dozens of ethnic groups, but they share some general cultural similarities. Other Malaysians also include those of, inter alia, European, Middle Eastern, Cambodian, Thai and Vietnamese descent. Europeans and Eurasians include British who colonized and settled in Malaysia and some Portuguese. Most of the Middle Easterners are Arab descent. A small number of Cambodians and Vietnamese settled in Malaysia as Vietnam War refugees. The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Population distribution is uneven, with some 20 million residents concentrated on the Malay Peninsula, while East Malaysia is relatively less populated.


Due to the rise in labour intensive industries, Malaysia has 10 to 20% foreign workers with the uncertainty due in part to the large number of illegal workers, mostly Indonesians. There are a million legal foreign workers and perhaps another million unauthorized foreigners. The state of Sabah alone has nearly 25% of its 2.7 million population listed as illegal foreign workers in the last census. However, this figure of 25% is thought to be less than half the figure speculated by NGOs. Interracial partnerships are also on a steady rise in Malaysia, most notably in the cities, eg. Kuala Lumpur. Indonesias 225 million people make it the worlds fourth-most populous nation. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ...


According to government statistics, the population of Singapore as of September 2007 was 4.68 million, of whom 3.7 million were Singaporean citizens and permanent residents (termed 'Singapore Residents').[57] Chinese formed 75.2% of 'Singapore Residents', Malays 13.6%, Indians 8.8%, while Eurasians and other groups formed 2.4%.


In 2006. the crude birth rate stood at 10.1 per 1000, a very low level attributed to birth control policies, and the crude death rate was also one of the lowest in the world at 4.3 per 1000. The total population growth was 4.4% with Singapore residents growth at 1.8%. The higher percentage growth rate is largely from net immigration, but also increasing life expectancy. Singapore is the second-most densely populated independent country in the world after Monaco, excluding Macau and Hong Kong, which are special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. In 1957, Singapore's population was approximately 1.45 million, and there was a relatively high birth rate. Aware of the country's extremely limited natural resources and small territory, the government introduced birth control policies in the late 1960s. In the late 1990s, the population was ageing, with fewer people entering the labour market and a shortage of skilled workers. In a dramatic reversal of policy, the Singapore government introduce a "baby bonus" scheme in 2001 (enhanced in August 2004) that encouraged couples to have more children.[58]


In 2006, the total fertility rate was only 1.26 children per woman, the 3rd lowest in the world and well below the 2.10 needed to replace the population. [59] In 2006, 38,317 babies were born, compared to around 37,600 in 2005. This number, however, is not sufficient to maintain the population growth. To overcome this problem, the government is encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore. These large numbers of immigrants have kept Singapore's population from declining. The (total) fertility rate of a population is the average number of child births per woman. ...


The Philippines

There has been Chinese presence in the Philippines since the ninth century; although large scale migrations of Chinese to the Philippines only started during the Spanish colonial era, when the world market was opened to the Philippines. It is estimated that among Filipinos, 10% have some Chinese ancestry and 2% are “full-blooded” Chinese.


According to a genetic study which included 28 genotyped individuals from the Philippines, 3.6% of the population is of European descent A large part of this European introgression is very likely of Spanish origin. Filipinos with a mix of Spanish ancestry, Spanish mestizos, are particularly visible in show business, and some leaders in Philippine business and commerce are of Spanish descent. Filipino is a Spanish term relating to the Philippines. ...


India

India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian and Tibeto-Burman languages) as well as a language isolate (the Nihali language spoken in parts of Maharashtra). Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Dravidian may refer to: Dravidian languages, including the Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada languages spoken especially in southern India and Sri Lanka. ... The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of...


United Kingdom

Main article: British Mixed

In 2000, The Sunday Times reported that "Britain has the highest rate of interracial relationships in the world".[8] Apparently contradicting this, more recent census data shows the population of England (as a sub-section of the UK) to be 1.4% mixed-race (2001), compared with, for example, 1.4% in the U.S. and therefore are the same (2002 estimates; see below). However, the U.S. figure largely does not include mixed Blacks who have a non-black parent. Also, as most of the English population is of one race (white) — more so than in the US — there are fewer opportunities for interracial relationships in England. In support of the report's conclusions, it can be calculated that 14.4% of English residents not identified as white are mixed-race, compared with 7.5% in the U.S. British Mixed is the term given to Britons of mixed race/ethnic descent. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... An interracial couple is a romantic couple or marriage in which the partners are of differing races. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


In England many multi-racial people are from the British Caribbean and if they have some African ancestry they may be said to be Afro-Caribbean. Many people are partly Welsh or partly Italian or partly of Irish Descent but it is hard to tell how many. The 2001 UK Census included a section entitled Mixed to which 1.4% (1.6% by 2005 estimates) of people responded, which was split further into White and Black Caribbean, White and Black African and Other Mixed. People of say mixed white races, and mixed black races as explained above are just considered white and black respectively. Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caribbean British. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... The Irish people (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European ethnic group who originate in Ireland, in north western Europe. ... Census 2001 is the name by which the national census conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 is known. ...


Cities/ Regions with notable Multiracial/ Mixed Race populations

The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a population of around 2,600,000 people. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The London Borough of Lambeth is a London borough in South London, England and forms part of Inner London. ... Slough (pronounced ) is a town and unitary authority (Borough of Slough) in England. ... This article is about the British city. ... Wolverhampton is a city in the historic county of Staffordshire and metropolitan county of the West Midlands. ... For other uses, see Luton (disambiguation). ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English city. ... This article is about the city in England. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation) and Leeds City (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... The City of Bradford Metropolitan District is a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire with city status. ...

Canada

Multiracial Canadians, in 2006 totalled 1.5% of the population, up from 1.2% in 2001. The mixed race population grew by 25% since the previous census. Of this, the most popular combinations were multiple visible minorities (for example, both black and South Asian), followed closely by white-black, white-Latin American, white-Chinese and many other smaller mixes.[9]


Another 1.2% of Canadians are Metis (descendants of a historical population who were partially Aboriginal and European, particularly French, Scottish, and Irish ethnic groups. see also Métis people (Canada) Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Michif ), also historically known as Bois Brule, mixed-bloods, Countryborn (or Anglo-Métis), are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ...


This brings a total mixed population of up to 3%, greater than that of the United Kingdom, and the United States, in terms of percentage.


United States

The proportion of multiracial children in the United States is growing. Interracial partnerships are on the rise, as are transracial adoptions. In 1990, about 14% of 18- to 19-year-olds, 12% of 20- to 21-year-olds and 7% of 34- to 35-year-olds were involved in interracial relationships (Joyner and Kao, 2005).[10] Given the variety of the familial and more general social environments in which multiracial children are raised, along with the diversity of their appearance (vis-a-vis their component races and their family members), it can be difficult to make generalizations about multiracial children's challenges or opportunities. The racial social identity of children and that of their parents in the same multiracial family may vary or be the same.[11] Some multiracial children feel pressure from various sources to "choose" or to assimilate into a single racial identity, while others whose identity or lifestyle is perceived to be closer to some of their component races than others may feel pressure not to abandon one or more of their ethnicities. Still other children grow up without race being a significant issue in their lives. Social Identity Theory is a theory formed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner to understand the psychological basis of intergroup discrimination. ...


Categorization and censuses

A young Australian-Japanese boy.

Some multiracial individuals feel marginalized by U.S. society. For example, when applying to schools or for a job, or when taking standardized tests, Americans are sometimes asked to check boxes corresponding to race or ethnicity. Typically, about five race choices are given with the instruction to "check only one." Many other such surveys include an additional "other" box, but this unfortunately groups together individuals of many different multiracial types (ex: European Americans/African-Americans are grouped with Asian/Native American Indians). ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (742x682, 122 KB) A photo of my son, who is half Caucasian (Australian) and half Japanese. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (742x682, 122 KB) A photo of my son, who is half Caucasian (Australian) and half Japanese. ... For other uses, see Race. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...


There remain many circumstances in which biracial individuals are left with no real response when asked for demographic data. But multiracial people won a victory of sorts after years of effort when in 1997, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) changed the federal regulation of racial categories to permit multiple responses, resulting in a new format for the 2000 United States Census, which allowed participants to select more than one of the six available categories, which were, in brief: "White," "Black or African American," "Asian," "American Indian or Alaskan Native," "Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander," and "Other." Further details are given in the article: Race (US Census). The OMB made its directive mandatory for all government forms by 2003. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ... The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... // Demographics in 2000 US Census Pacific Islander Americans represent the smallest group counted on the 2000 US Census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ...


In contrast, the United Kingdom Census 2001 offered specific mixed-race categories: "Mixed White and Black Caribbean", "Mixed White and Black African", "Mixed White and (South) Asian", and "Other Mixed", as well as "Other ethnic group". UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... See also: British African-Caribbean community, Caribbean British, British Asian,Britsh Mixed Black British is term which has had different meanings and uses as a racial and political label. ... See also: British African-Caribbean community, Caribbean British, British Asian,Britsh Mixed Black British is term which has had different meanings and uses as a racial and political label. ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ...


Formal recognition of legitimacy

Main article: Anti-miscegenation laws

In the past, laws based on racial classifications restricted the free choice of a marriage partner of the other sex in the United States, in Nazi Germany and in South Africa under Apartheid. Such laws were enforced in many individual states of the United States until 1967, in Nazi Germany from 1935 until 1945, and in South Africa under Apartheid from 1948 until it was repealed in 1985. Such laws targeted marriages between whites and people of other races. In 1935, Nazi Germany enacted a law that was part of the Nuremberg Laws which prohibited marriage between Germans and Jews, which were classified as a separate race, as well as Gypsies and blacks.[12]. In South Africa, the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act prohibited marriage between whites and non-whites (which were classified as Black, Asian and Coloured). Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The Rroma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies. ... Apartheid (ap-ar-taet) is the policy and the system of laws implemented and enforced by White minority governments in South Africa from 1948 till 1990; and by extension any legally sanctioned system of racial segregation. ... In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ...


In the United States, the various state laws were known as anti-miscegenation laws. Such laws in all states applied to marriages between "Caucasians" and African Americans ("negroes" and/or "mulattoes"), and in some states also to marriages between white Americans and Asian Americans and/or American Indians. Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


By the 1920s, the various Asian groups that had arrived in the United States were all judged to American courts to be non-white. In several states, Asian Americans were prohibited from marrying whites. In anti-miscegenation laws of several states, Chinese Americans and Japanese Americans were classified as members of the "Mongoloid race", Filipino Americans as members of the "Malay race" and Indian Americans were classified as "Hindus" or "Hindoos". A Chinese American is an American who is of ethnic Chinese descent. ... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... Mongolism was formerly employed to describe people with Down syndrome. ... In 1998, Benjamin J. Cayetano became the first Filipino American (and second Asian American after Governor George R. Ariyoshi) to be elected state Governor of the United States. ... The concept of a Malay race was proposed by the German scientist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This page is about the racial classification of Indian Americans, as viewed by U.S. courts, agencies, institutions, and self-identification. ...


Hispanic Americans of partial African and/or Native American descent were in certain states in theory legally forbidden to marry whites, but often they were regarded to be white. On the other hand, the state of California took no legal steps against marriages between Mexican Americans and Punjabi immigrants, although it prohibited the Punjabis from marrying white Americans.[13] Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Punjabi people (Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, پنجابی, also Panjabi people) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from South Asia. ...


In 1947, the Mexican American Andrea Perez and African American Sylvester Davis were refused a marriage licence because their marriage would have violated California's anti-miscegenation laws, which prohibited marriage between whites and non-whites. Perez was judged to be white. However, in a landmark decision the California Supreme Court in Perez v. Sharp (1948) repealed California's anti-miscegenation laws because they ran counter to the Constitution of the United States.[14] The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... The Supreme Court of California is the state supreme court in California. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


In 1967, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Loving v. Virginia that all remaining anti-miscegenation laws were unconstitutional, after years of legal challenges by plaintiffs and civil rights organisations, and since then such laws have had no legal force. In 2000, Alabama was the last state to officially remove its unenforceable anti-miscegenation laws from its state statute. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Holding The Court declared Virginias anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, unconstitutional, thereby ending all race-based legal restriction on marriage in the United States. ...


Types of mixed-race people

Africa-origin

The African diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and cultures of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America); Europe and Asia. ... For the language family, see Afro-Asiatic. ... An Afro European, Afropean or Black European refers to people of African ancestry, racial, cultural and social heritage born in or citizens of any European country. ... Language(s) Portuguese, Spanish, and several creoles Religion(s) Predominantly Christian (mainly Roman Catholic); minorities practicing Judaism, Islam, or no religion Related ethnic groups sub-Saharan, African American, Afro-European An Afro-Latin American (also Afro-Latino) is a Latin American person of at least partial African ancestry; the term... The Basters (also known as Baasters or Rehoboth Basters) are the descendents of liaisons between the Cape Colony Dutch and indigenous African women. ... The Griqua (Afrikaans Griekwa) are a subgroup of South Africas heterogeneous and multiracial Coloured people. ...

America-origin

Black Indians is a term generally used to describe people who have significant traces of both African and Native American ancestry and/or African Americans who have lived for a long time with Native Americans. ... A Caboclo is a person of mixed Brazilian Indian and European ancestry. ... For the Choloa language, see Emberá languages. ... The Chestnut Ridge people are a Melungeon community residing just northeast of Philippi, West Virginia, USA. The local West Virginia historian Hu Maxwell was bemused by these people when he investigated Barbour County history in the late 1890s: There is a clan of partly-colored people in Barbour County often... This article is about the term used for people of African descent in North America. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Lumbee are a Native American tribe recognized by the state of North Carolina. ... Melungeon (mɛlʌndʒʌn) is a term traditionally applied to one of a number of tri-racial isolate groups of the Southeastern United States, mainly in the Cumberland Gap area of central Appalachia: east Tennessee, southwest Virginia, and east Kentucky. ... Redbones are a mixed blood group of people of unknown ancestry. ... We-Sorts is an archaic nickname for people of mixed-race origins who currently claim descent from the Piscataway Native American population in Charles County, Maryland. ... A representation of Zambos in Pintura de Castas during the Latin American colonial period. ...

Asian-origin

The Burghers are a Eurasian ethnic group, historically from Sri Lanka, consisting for the most part of male-line descendants of European colonists from the 16th to 20th centuries (mostly Portuguese, Dutch and British) and local Sinhalese women. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... For other uses, see Shan (disambiguation). ... Islam in Sri Lanka is practiced entirely by Sri Lankan Muslims, who make up approximately 8% of the population, comprise a group of minorities practicing the religion of Islam in Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...

European-origin

Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Since the mid-18th century there were small numbers of black people resident in Ireland, mainly concentrated in the major towns, especially Dublin. ... British Mixed is the term given to Britons of mixed race/ethnic descent. ... Castizo is a Spanish word with a general meaning of genuine. It has other more concrete meanings. ... Languages Spanish language Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Latin peoples, including other Spanish peoples The Canarians are an ethnic group or nation living in the archipelago of the Canary Islands (an autonomous community of Spain), near the coast of Western Africa. ... In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ... Eurasian, in English vernacular, is a term that refers to those of mixed European and Asian ancestry, regardless of continent of origin. ... Islenos (from the Spanish isleños, plural of islander) are descendants of Canary Islanders who came to America and settled in the lower Mississippi River Delta of Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Saint-Denis Regional President Paul Vergès (PCR) (since 1998) Departments Réunion Arrondissements 4 Cantons 49 Communes 24 Statistics Land area1 2,512 km² Population (Ranked 21st)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...

Oceania-origin

Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... Indigenous Fijians are a mixture of Polynesian and Melanesian, resulting from the original migrations to the South Pacific many centuries ago. ... The indigenous population of Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous in the world. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ...

Other types

The term Creole and its cognates in other languages — such as crioulo, criollo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kriulo, kriol, krio, etc. ... Halfbreed is a horricore rap group from detroit. ... 1993 Time Magazine cover which shows a computer-generated face of the hypothetical future multi-ethnic race of the United States The Race of the Future theory/idea states that due to the process of miscegenation, the mixing of different ethnicities or races, especially in marriage, cohabitation, or sexual relations...

See also

Amalgamation is a now largely archaic term for the intermarriage and interbreeding of different ethncitities or races. In the English-speaking world, the term has been in use into the the twentieth century. ... Language(s) Berber languages Religion(s) Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly protestant), Judaism Imazighen(in Kabyle and other Berber languages: Imaziγen) are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Black Irish is a traditional term believed to have originated in the United States that commonly ascribes to a dark brown or black hair phenotype appearing in Caucasian persons of Irish descent. ... Cherokee Citizens of the Cherokee Nation of Diverse Ancestry (2007) The Cherokee Freedmen controversy is an on-going political and tribal dispute among the Cherokee Nation and the Cherokee Freedmen (descendants of the former slaves of Cherokee citizens). ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Fernandinos are a relatively new ethnic group of Equatorial Guinea. ... Othello and Desdemona from William Shakespeares Othello, a play often depicted as concerning a biracial couple. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Michif ), also historically known as Bois Brule, mixed-bloods, Countryborn (or Anglo-Métis), are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. ... The date, June 27, is a reference to the twenty-seven mixed race (mestiço, in Portuguese) representatives elect during the 1st Conference for the Promotion of Racial Equality, occurred in the City of Manaus, State of Amazon, Brazil, from April 7 to 9, 2005, and also to the month... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mūlus. ... Multiethnic societies, in contrast to nationalistic societies, integrate different ethnic groups irrespective of differences in culture, race, and history under a common social identity larger than one nation in the conventional sense. ... The one-drop rule is a historical colloquial term in the United States that holds that a person with any trace of sub-Saharan ancestry (however small or invisible) cannot be considered white[1] and so unless said person has an alternative non-white ancestry they can claim, such as... The origins of the Tutsi and Hutu peoples is a key issue in the history of Rwanda, as well as the Great Lakes region of Africa. ... Portrait of Grey Owl in 1936. ... Plaçage was an recognized extralegal system by which predominantly wealthy and white Creole men in Louisiana entered into the equivalent of common-law marriages with women of both African and white Creole descent known as placées (from the French word placer which means to place with). ... Pre-Columbian Africa-Americas contact theories propose direct contact or actual migrations by peoples from the continent of Africa with the indigenous peoples of the Americas at some stage during the pre-Columbian history of the Americas– that is, earlier than the late 15th century. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A tomb painting of Seti I as reconstructed by Giovanni Battista Belzoni (d. ... Race traitor is a derogatory term which is used by racists and/or activists (of any race) for those who are members of their own race, but who dont share their views, or who work (or are perceived as working) against the vested interests of their race, or who... Siddhi (Sanskrit:; ) is a Sanskrit word that literally means accomplishment, attainment, or success.[1] It is also used as a term for spiritual power (or psychic ability). ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... // Even as the idea of race was becoming a powerful organizing principle in many societies, the shortcomings of the concept were apparent. ... Sub-Saharan African DNA is scattered throughout the European continent. ... William Loren Katz is an American author, educator, and historian. ...

References

  1. ^ Levin M. The Race Concept: A Defense, Behavior and Philosophy, 30, 21-42 (2002)
  2. ^ http://www.racesci.org/in_media/canadian_police.htm
  3. ^ CNN Online
  4. ^ Motherland: A Genetic Journey, BBC Documentary, 2003. This also stated that 25% of Afro-Caribbean people have a European ancestor in the paternal (Y-chromosome) line of descent.
  5. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mestizo
  6. ^ http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/censo2000/populacao/cor_raca_Censo2000.pdf
  7. ^ Brazil#Ethnicity
  8. ^ John Harlow, The Sunday Times (London), 9 April 2000, quoting Professor Richard Berthoud of the Institute for Social and Economic Research
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ interracial marriage
  11. ^ Thandie Newton Actress:Mixed-Race Celebrities:Intermix.org.uk
  12. ^ US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Nuremberg Laws: Nazi Racial Policy 1935.
  13. ^ [2], Hollinger, David, "Amalgamation and Hypodescent: The Question of Ethnoracial Mixture in the History of the United States", The History Cooperative Vol, 108, No. 5.
  14. ^ Pascoe, Peggy, "Miscegenation Law, Court Cases, and and Ideologies of 'Race' in Twentieth-Century America", The Journal of American History, Vol. 83, June 1996, p. 61
  • MULTIRACIAL CHILDREN
  • Joyner, Kara and Grace Kao. 2005. "Interracial Relationships and the Transition to Adulthood." American Sociological Review 70(4):563-582.
  • Freyre, Gilberto. "The masters and the slaves: a study in the development of Brazilian civilization". Translated by Samuel Putnam. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946.

In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Center on Democracy in a Multiracial Society, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN (395 words)
Primarily structured as a policy/research and public education unit, the Center is designed to serve as catalyst for vigorous scholarly and public debate on the multiple racial contexts of democracy.
The Center on Democracy in a Multiracial Society is a unique research institute organized around a commitment to the practice of democracy and equality within a changing multiracial U.S. society.
A central aim of the Center is to promote multiple and interdisciplinary approaches for examining the organization of society relating to the racially and ethnically diverse populations in the U.S. at the beginning of the twenty-first century, as well as to gender, class, age, sexuality, disability, religion, and citizenship status.
Multiracial - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1408 words)
Multiracial individuals are often presumed to have an identity crisis because of not being able to answer questions such as "Are you Black or White?", perhaps due to having a sense of identity that is very different than people who claim to be of just one race.
The racial social identity of children and their parents in the same multiracial family may vary or be the same, to different degrees.
[2] Some multiracial children feel pressure from various sources to "choose" or to assimilate into a single racial identity, while others whose identity or lifestyle is perceived to be closer to some of their component races than others may feel pressure not to abandon one or more of their ethnicities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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