In digital design, a **multiplier** or **multiplication ALU** is a hardware circuit dedicated to multiplying two binary values. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...
Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. ...
In mathematics, multiplication is an elementary arithmetic operation. ...
A variety of computer arithmetic techniques can be used to implement a digital multiplier. Most techniques involve computing a set of *partial products*, and then summing the partial products together. This process is similar to the method taught to primary schoolchildren for conducting long multiplication on base-10 integers, but has been modified here for application to a base-2 (binary) numeral system. The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ...
This article is about different methods of expressing numbers with symbols. ...
## An unsigned example
For example, suppose we want to multiply two unsigned eight bit integers together: *a*[7:0] and *b*[7:0]. We can produce eight partial products by performing eight one-bit multiplications, one for each bit in multiplicand *a*: Signedness is a property of an integer number used by a compiler to indicate if variables of a numeric type are capable of storing both positive and negative numbers, or just positive. ...
p0[7:0] = a[0] × b[7:0] = {8{a[0]}} & b[7:0] p1[7:0] = a[1] × b[7:0] = {8{a[1]}} & b[7:0] p2[7:0] = a[2] × b[7:0] = {8{a[2]}} & b[7:0] p3[7:0] = a[3] × b[7:0] = {8{a[3]}} & b[7:0] p4[7:0] = a[4] × b[7:0] = {8{a[4]}} & b[7:0] p5[7:0] = a[5] × b[7:0] = {8{a[5]}} & b[7:0] p6[7:0] = a[6] × b[7:0] = {8{a[6]}} & b[7:0] p7[7:0] = a[7] × b[7:0] = {8{a[7]}} & b[7:0] where {8{a[0]}} means repeating a[0] (the 0th bit of a) 8 times (Verilog notation). To produce our product, we then need to add up all eight of our partial products, as shown here: p0[7] p0[6] p0[5] p0[4] p0[3] p0[2] p0[1] p0[0] + p1[7] p1[6] p1[5] p1[4] p1[3] p1[2] p1[1] p1[0] 0 + p2[7] p2[6] p2[5] p2[4] p2[3] p2[2] p2[1] p2[0] 0 0 + p3[7] p3[6] p3[5] p3[4] p3[3] p3[2] p3[1] p3[0] 0 0 0 + p4[7] p4[6] p4[5] p4[4] p4[3] p4[2] p4[1] p4[0] 0 0 0 0 + p5[7] p5[6] p5[5] p5[4] p5[3] p5[2] p5[1] p5[0] 0 0 0 0 0 + p6[7] p6[6] p6[5] p6[4] p6[3] p6[2] p6[1] p6[0] 0 0 0 0 0 0 + p7[7] p7[6] p7[5] p7[4] p7[3] p7[2] p7[1] p7[0] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- P[15] P[14] P[13] P[12] P[11] P[10] P[9] P[8] P[7] P[6] P[5] P[4] P[3] P[2] P[1] P[0] In other words, *P*[15:0] is produced by summing *p*0, *p*1 << 1, *p*2 << 2, and so forth, to produce our final unsigned 16-bit product.
## The impact of signed integers If *b* had been a signed integer instead of an unsigned integer, then the partial products would need to have been sign-extended up to the width of the product before summing. If *a* had been a signed integer, then partial product *p7* would need to be subtracted from the final sum, rather than added to it. Signedness is a property of an integer number used by a compiler to indicate if variables of a numeric type are capable of storing both positive and negative numbers, or just positive. ...
Signedness is a property of an integer number used by a compiler to indicate if variables of a numeric type are capable of storing both positive and negative numbers, or just positive. ...
The above array multiplier can be modified to support two's complement notation signed numbers by inverting several of the product terms and inserting a one to the left of the first partial product term: Twos complement is the most popular method of signifying negative integers in computers. ...
1 -p0[7] p0[6] p0[5] p0[4] p0[3] p0[2] p0[1] p0[0] -p1[7] +p1[6] +p1[5] +p1[4] +p1[3] +p1[2] +p1[1] +p1[0] 0 -p2[7] +p2[6] +p2[5] +p2[4] +p2[3] +p2[2] +p2[1] +p2[0] 0 0 -p3[7] +p3[6] +p3[5] +p3[4] +p3[3] +p3[2] +p3[1] +p3[0] 0 0 0 -p4[7] +p4[6] +p4[5] +p4[4] +p4[3] +p4[2] +p4[1] +p4[0] 0 0 0 0 -p5[7] +p5[6] +p5[5] +p5[4] +p5[3] +p5[2] +p5[1] +p5[0] 0 0 0 0 0 -p6[7] +p6[6] +p6[5] +p6[4] +p6[3] +p6[2] +p6[1] +p6[0] 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 +p7[7] -p7[6] -p7[5] -p7[4] -p7[3] -p7[2] -p7[1] -p7[0] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ P[15] P[14] P[13] P[12] P[11] P[10] P[9] P[8] P[7] P[6] P[5] P[4] P[3] P[2] P[1] P[0] Do not be misled by the minus sign (-) notation above. It does not mean arithmetic negation ( -(7) = -7), but instead binary complementation, more commonly denoted x' (read x prime or x bar) or flipping all the bits. In two's complement to get the negation of a number, you complement the number then add 1, so they are NOT equivalent. There are a lot of simplifications in the bit array above that are not shown and are not obvious, so I'll try to explain a few. The sequences of one complemented bit followed by noncomplemented bits are just implementing a two's complement trick to avoid sign extension. The sequence of p7 (noncomplemented bit followed by all complemented bits) is because we're subtracting this term so they were all negated to start out with (and a 1 was added in the least significant position). For both types of sequences, the last bit is flipped and an implicit -1 should be added directly below the MSB. When the +1 from the two's complement negation for p7 in bit position 0 (LSB) and all the -1's in bit columns 7 through 15 (where each of the MSBs are located) are added together, they can be simplified to the single 1 that "magically" is floating out to the left. For an explanation and proof of why flipping the MSB saves us the sign extension, see a computer arithmetic book.
## Implementations Older multiplier architectures employed a shifter and accumulator to sum each partial product, often one partial product per cycle, trading off speed for die area. Modern multiplier architectures use the Baugh-Wooley algorithm, Wallace trees, or Dadda multipliers to add the partial products together in a single cycle. The performance of the Wallace tree implementation is sometimes improved by *modified* Booth encoding one of the two multiplicands, which reduces the number of partial products that must be summed. Wallace tree is an efficient hardware implementation of multiplication of two integers. ...
basic principle known from manual multiplication AND gate Would be used in reverse order Full adder, would in this case use only XOR The Dadda multiplier is a hardware multiplier design invented by computer scientist Luigi Dadda in 1965. ...
Wallace tree is an efficient hardware implementation of multiplication of two integers. ...
Booths multiplication algorithm is a multiplication algorithm that multiplies two signed binary numbers in twos complement notation. ...
## See also Booths multiplication algorithm is a multiplication algorithm that multiplies two signed binary numbers in twos complement notation. ...
The multiply-accumulate operation computes a product and adds it to an accumulator. ...
Wallace tree is an efficient hardware implementation of multiplication of two integers. ...
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