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Encyclopedia > Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is part of a group of disorders that affect the endocrine system. These disorders greatly increase the risk of developing multiple cancerous and noncancerous tumors in glands such as the parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreas. Multiple endocrine neoplasia occurs when tumors are found in at least two endocrine glands. Tumors can also develop in organs and tissues other than endocrine glands. If the tumors become cancerous, some cases can be life-threatening. The disoder affects 1 in 30,000 people. Major endocrine glands. ... When normal cells are damaged or old they undergo apoptosis; cancer cells, however, avoid apoptosis. ... See the article about cancer for the main article about malignant tumors. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ that serves two functions: exocrine - it produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes endocrine - it produces several important hormones // Anatomy The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ located posterior to the stomach on the posterior abdominal wall. ...


Although many different types of hormone-producing tumors are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia, tumors of the parathyroid gland, pituitary gland, and pancreas are most frequent in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Tumors cause an overactivation of these hormone-producing glands, leading to serious health problems such as severe ulcers. Overactivity of the parathyroid gland (hyperparathyroidism) is the most common sign of this disorder. Hyperparathyroidism disrupts the normal balance of calcium in the blood, which can lead to kidney stones, thinning of bones, weakness, and fatigue. An ulcer (from Latin ulcus) is an open sore of the skin, eyes or mucous membrane, often caused by an initial abrasion and generally maintained by an inflammation and/or an infection. ... In medicine (endocrinology), hyperparathyroidism is overactivity of the parathyroid glands and excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Kidney stones are solid accretions (crystals) of dissolved minerals in urine found inside the kidneys or ureters. ... Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ...


The two major types of multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 and type 2, are often confused because they have similar names. These types are distinguished by the genes involved, the hormones that are affected, and their characteristic signs and symptoms. They are also very different in their options for cancer.


Mutations in the MEN1 gene cause multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. The function of the MEN1 gene is unknown. Researchers believe that it acts as a tumor suppressor, which means it normally keeps cells from growing and dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled way. If mutations inactivate both copies of the MEN1 gene, cells can grow and divide in a poorly controlled way to form tumors. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, sometimes called the building blocks of life. ...


Most cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means affected people may have affected siblings and relatives in successive generations (such as parents and children). An affected person usually has one parent with the condition. Some cases, however, result from new mutations in the MEN1 gene. These cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. An autosomal dominant gene is an abnormal gene on one of the autosomal (non-sex determining) chromosomes. ...


People with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are born with one mutated copy of the MEN1 gene in each cell. Then, during their lifetime, the other copy of the gene is mutated in a small number of cells. These genetic changes result in no functional copies of the MEN1 gene in selected cells, allowing the cells to divide with little control and form tumors.


This article incorporates public domain text from The U.S. National Library of Medicine


  Results from FactBites:
 
Multiple endocrine neoplasia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (472 words)
The causative mutation is in the menin gene which encodes a nuclear protein that is believed to act as a tumor suppressor.
Most cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.
Most cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2 and 3 are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia - Genetics Home Reference (1134 words)
Multiple endocrine neoplasia is part of a group of disorders that affect the body's network of hormone-producing glands (the endocrine system).
Type 1 and type 2 are distinguished by the genes involved, the types of hormones made, and the characteristic signs and symptoms.
Type 1 frequently involves tumors of the parathyroid gland, pituitary gland, and pancreas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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