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Encyclopedia > Multiple citizenship
Countries that do (yellow) and do not (red) recognize multiple citizenship. No information is available for countries colored gray. Please note that in many countries the situation is far more complex than just 'yes' or 'no'.

Multiple citizenship, or multiple nationality, is a status in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen under the laws of more than one state. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 45 KB) Summary This is a map I made of the countries which do (yellow) or do not (red) allow dual citizenship. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 45 KB) Summary This is a map I made of the countries which do (yellow) or do not (red) allow dual citizenship. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ...


Dual citizenship (being a citizen of two nations), or dual nationality, is the most common type of multiple citizenship.


Multiple citizenships exist because different countries use different, and not necessarily mutually exclusive, criteria to bestow citizenship. Thus, a person becomes a citizen of multiple countries because countries, not persons, decide who is and who is not a citizen.


Individual countries follow their own individual rationales in establishing their criteria for citizenship. Some countries bestow citizenship automatically at birth to persons with a parent who is one of their nationals (jus sanguinis), or to persons born on their territory (jus soli), or through marriage to persons wedding their nationals (jure matrimonii).[1] Other nations (such as Australia) allow the grant of citizenship to be made to the children of citizens under certain circumstances. In addition, citizenship can be granted through naturalization. Once citizenship is bestowed, the bestowing country may or may not consider a voluntary renunciation of citizenship to be valid. Jus sanguinis (Latin for right of blood) is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born to a parent who is a national or citizen of that state. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ...


Some countries consider multiple citizenship undesirable and take measures to prevent it; this may (e.g., in Denmark, Japan, Singapore and India) take the form of an automatic loss of a citizenship if another citizenship is acquired voluntarily, or (e.g., carrying a foreign passport in Saudi Arabia) criminal penalties for exercising another citizenship. Others may allow a citizen to have any number of nationalities. However, since each country decides for itself who its citizens are, based solely on its own laws and generally without regard for the laws of other countries, it is quite possible for a given individual to be considered a citizen by two or more countries even if some or all of these countries forbid dual or multiple citizenship.


On the other hand, some countries consider multiple citizenship desirable because it increases opportunities for their citizens to compete and build contacts globally, and/or have taken active steps towards permitting multiple citizenship in recent years (e.g., Australia since April 4, 2002.[2]; India, as noted below, has introduced a form of overseas citizenship but this stops well short of full dual citizenship [3]). is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Countries that do (yellow) and do not (red) recognize multiple citizenship. ...


Many countries, even those which "permit" dual or multiple citizenship, do not "recognize" dual or multiple citizenship under their laws: individuals are treated either as citizens of that country or not, and their citizenship with respect to other countries is considered to have no bearing. This can mean, (e.g., in Iran,[4] Mexico, many Arab countries, former Soviet republics) that consular officials abroad may not have access to their citizens if they also hold local citizenship. Some countries may provide access for consular officials as a matter of courtesy, but do not accept any obligation to do so under international consular agreements. The right of countries to act in this fashion is protected via the Master Nationality Rule. In popular discourse, reference to countries that "recognize" multiple citizenship may refer only to the lack of any specific statute forbidding multiple citizenship (leaving aside the difficulties of enforcing such statutes). Arab States redirects here. ... CCCP redirects here. ... The Master Nationality Rule is a consequence of Article 4 of The Hague Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws, 1930. ...

Contents

Citizenship of multiple countries

Each country has different requirements for citizenship, as well as different policies regarding dual citizenship. These laws sometimes leave gaps where the acquisition of other citizenships don't render the original citizenship invalid, creating a possible situation for an individual to hold two or more nationalities.


The Republic of Ireland extends its citizenship laws to Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. Therefore, anyone born in Northern Ireland may, if they wish, exercise an entitlement to Irish citizenship by simply applying for an Irish passport. See Irish nationality law and British nationality law. Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Irish nationality law is the law of the Republic of Ireland governing citizenship. ... British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning British citizenship and other categories of British nationality. ...


Sub-national citizenship

  • The Australian territory of Norfolk Island has immigration laws which restrict residence in the territory to those with "local status". Most Norfolk Islanders are Australian citizens.
  • Hong Kong and Macau, each a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, make a distinction in their immigration laws between Chinese citizens with the right to reside in the territory and those without. Chinese citizens with right of abode in these territories can hold a different type of Chinese passport which gives more favourable travel rights internationally.
  • People from Åland have joint regional (Åland) and national (Finnish) citizenship. People with Ålandic citizenship (hembygdsrätt) have the right to buy property and set up a business on Åland, which Finns without regional citizenship cannot. Finns can get Ålandic citizenship after living on the islands for five years and Ålanders lose their regional citizenship after living on the Finnish mainland for five years.[5][6]
  • The government of Puerto Rico began issuing Puerto Rican citizenship certificates in September 2007 after Juan Mari Bras, a lifelong supporter of independence, won a successful court victory which validated his claim that Puerto Rican citizenship was valid and can be claimed by anyone born on the island or with at least one parent who was born there.[7]
  • Before the break-up of Yugoslavia in 1991, Yugoslav citizens possessed an internal citizenship of their own republic (e.g. Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia etc.) as well as Yugoslav citizenship.

Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... The United States flag The Seal of the United States The Immigration and Naturalization Act sets forth the legal requirements for acquiring and losing citizenship of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Swiss citizenship is the status of being a citizen of Switzerland and it can be obtained by birth, marriage or naturalisation. ... British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning British citizenship and other categories of British nationality. ... Australian citizenship was created on 26 January 1949 by the Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948 (later renamed the Australian Citizenship Act 1948). ... A Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the Peoples Republic of China is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... “Aland” redirects here. ... Juan Mari Bras (born December 2, 1925 in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico) is a Puerto Rican independence advocate who founded the Puerto Rican Socialist Party. Mari Bras father was an active member of the independence movement of Puerto Rico and often took his son to political meetings and rallys. ... The dissolution of Czechoslovakia refers to the dissolution of the former country of Czechoslovakia into the nations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which took effect on January 1, 1993. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost...

Supra-national citizenship

  • The Commonwealth of Nations has a Commonwealth citizenship for the citizens of its members. Some member states (such as the UK and Jamaica) allow non-nationals who are Commonwealth citizens to vote and stand for election while resident there. However, other member states make little or no distinction between citizens of other Commonwealth nations and citizens of non-Commonwealth nations.

Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... A Commonwealth citizen, formerly known as a British subject, is generally a person who is a national of any country within the Commonwealth of Nations. ...

Overseas citizenship

There now exists a provision for a new form of Indian nationality, the holders of which are to be known as Overseas Citizens of India. The Constitution of India does not permit dual citizenship or dual nationality, except for minors where the second nationality was involuntarily acquired. Indian authorities have interpreted the law to mean a person can't have a second country's passport simultaneously with an Indian one — even in the case of a child who is claimed by another country as a citizen of that country, and who may be required by the laws of the other country to use one of its passports for foreign travel (e.g., a child born in the United States to Indian parents) — and the Indian courts have given the executive branch wide discretion over this matter. Therefore, Overseas Citizenship of India is not a full citizenship of India and thus, does not amount to dual citizenship or dual nationality. Moreover, people who have acquired Citizenship in Pakistan or Bangladesh are not eligible for Overseas Citizenship.

For more details on this topic, see Indian nationality law#Overseas citizenship of India.

Indian citizenship/nationality law: The Constitution of India provides for a single citizenship for the entire country. ...

Issues

Being a citizen of more than one country can have many advantages as it allows to draw various citizenship benefits from multiple sources. This includes the rights to establish residence, to work, and to acquire property, educational opportunities, eligibility for various government subsidies, including healthcare and retirement, etc. However, it is prudent to realize that each citizenship carries also responsibilities and obligations and that being a citizen of another country may be a liability. There are a number of categories where potential problems call for caution or even for obtaining professional legal counsel.


Security clearance

Dual citizenship is associated with two categories of security concerns: foreign influence and foreign preference. Contrary to common misconceptions, dual citizenship in itself is not the major problem in obtaining or retaining security clearance in the United States. As a matter of fact, if a security clearance applicant's dual citizenship is "based solely on parents' citizenship or birth in a foreign country", that can be a mitigating condition.[8] However, exercising (taking advantage of the entitlements of) a non-U.S. citizenship can cause problems. For example, possession and/or use of a foreign passport is a condition disqualifying from security clearance and "... is not mitigated by reasons of personal convenience, safety, requirements of foreign law, or the identity of the foreign country" as is explicitly clarified in a Department of Defense policy memorandum which defines a guideline requiring that "... any clearance be denied or revoked unless the applicant surrenders the foreign passport or obtains official permission for its use from the appropriate agency of the United States Government".[9] This guideline has been followed in administrative rulings by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Office of Hearings and Appeals (DOHA) office of Industrial Security Clearance Review (ISCR), which decides cases involving security clearances for Contractor personnel doing classified work for all DoD components. One such case is [1] For use by the United Nations, see Security Clearance (UN) A security clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to classified information, i. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ...


Appearance of foreign allegiance

In addition to the formal adjudicative process of security clearance, there is a matter of public perception for individuals with dual citizenship as demonstrating potential dual loyalty that applies to any government office, even one that does not require security clearance. Dual loyalty is a term used in political discussions to describe, a situation where a person has loyalty to two separate interests which potentially conflict with each other. ...


In the United States, dual citizenship is not very common among politicians, although Arnold Schwarzenegger has retained his Austrian citizenship during his service as a Governor of California.[10] Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German IPA: ; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe-winning actor, businessman and politician currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In Canada, conversely, federal cabinet ministers often have dual citizenship with France or the United Kingdom and this in the past has not been an issue to their security clearances[citation needed]. One small controversy did arise in 2005 when Michaëlle Jean was appointed the Governor General of Canada (official representative of the Queen and Canada's de facto head of state in the Queen's absence). Although Jean no longer holds citizenship in her native Haiti, her marriage to French-born filmmaker Jean-Daniel Lafond allowed her to obtain French citizenship several years before her appointment. A section of the French civil code forbids French citizens from holding government or military positions in other countries and Jean's appointment made her both de facto head of state and commander-in-chief of the Canadian forces. The French embassy released a statement that this law would not be enforced because the Governor General is essentially a ceremonial figurehead. Nevertheless Jean renounced her French citizenship two days before taking up office to avoid controversy. [11] Michaëlle Jean, CC CMM COM CD , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haiti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Jean-Daniel Lafond, CC (b. ... Renunciation is a voluntary act of relinquishing ones citizenship (or nationality). ...


Former Canadian Prime Minister John Turner was born in the United Kingdom and retains his dual citizenship to this day. Stéphane Dion, current head of the Liberal Party of Canada and the leader of the official opposition, holds dual citizenship with France due to his mother's nationality; Dion has, however, indicated a willingness to renounce French citizenship if a significant number of Canadians view it negatively, in order not to hamper his party's prospects in a future election.[12] John Napier Wyndham Turner PC CC QC (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... Stéphane Maurice Dion, PC, MP, Ph. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (French: LOpposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) in Canada is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the Canadian House of Commons that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ...


The Constitution of Australia, in Section 44, explicitly forbids individuals who hold foreign citizenship from sitting in the parliament of Australia. A court case (see Sue v Hill) determined that Britain is a foreign power for purposes of this section of the constitution despite Australia and Britain holding a common nationality at the time of Australian federation, and ruling that Senator-elect Heather Hill had not been duly elected to the national parliament because at the time of her election she was a subject or citizen of a foreign power.[13] (This restriction does not apply to members of the state parliaments, who may hold foreign citizenship.) Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Representatives Senate Speaker of the House of Representatives David Hawker, Liberal Party since 16 November 2004 President of the Senate Alan Ferguson, Liberal Party since 14 August 2007 Members 226 (150 Representatives, 76 Senators) Political groups Liberal Party ALP National Party Country Liberal Party Greens... Sue v Hill was an important Australian court case decided in the High Court of Australia on 23 June 1999. ... Type Upper house President Alan Ferguson, Liberal since 14 August 2007 Members 76 Political groups Coalition (39) ALP (28) Green (4) Democrat (4) FFP (1) Last elections 9 October 2004 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site Senate Entrance to the Senate Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State... Heather Hill (born 9 August 1960) is an English-Australian politician. ...


Taxation

In some cases, multiple citizenship can create additional tax liability. Countries that impose tax will generally use a combination of three factors when determining if a person is subject to taxation: Taxes redirects here. ...

  • Residency - they tax anyone who lives there, regardless of citizenship;
  • Source - they tax income earned there; or
  • Citizenship - they tax their citizens.

Most countries use residency and/or source when determining if a person should be subject to taxation. A few countries, such as the Philippines and the United States, do use citizenship as one of the determining factors for tax liability. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


A person with multiple citizenship may have a tax liability to his country of residence and also to one or more of his countries of citizenship; or worse, if he was unaware that one of his citizenships created a tax liability, then that country may consider him to be a tax evader. Many countries and territories have contracted tax treaties or agreements for avoiding double taxation. Still, there are cases in which a person with multiple citizenship will owe tax solely on the basis of holding one of those citizenships. Tax treaties exist between many countries on a bilateral basis to prevent double taxation (taxes levied twice on the same income, profit, capital gain, inheritance or other item). ... Double taxation is a situation in which two or more taxes may need to be paid for the same asset, financial transaction and/or income and arises due to overlap between different countries tax laws and jurisdictions. ...


Example: A person who holds both Australian and United States citizenship, lives and works in Australia. He would be subject to Australian taxation, because Australia taxes its residents, and he would be subject to US taxation because he holds US citizenship. In general, he would be allowed to subtract the Australian income tax he paid from the US tax that would be due. Plus, the US will allow some parts of foreign income to be exempt from taxation; for instance, in 2006 the foreign earned income exclusion allowed up to US$82,400 of foreign salaried income to be exempt from income tax.[14] This exemption, plus the credit for foreign taxes paid mentioned above, often results in no US taxes being owed, although a US tax return would still have to be filed. In instances where the Australian tax was less than the US tax, and if there was income that could not be exempted from US tax, the US would expect any tax due to be paid. Seal of the Internal Revenue Service Tax forms in the United States are used by taxpayers and tax-exempt organizations to report financial information to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). ... USD redirects here. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income...


Other

There may be also problems with conscription, travel restrictions, embargoes and sets of laws issued by multiple governments governing one’s behaviour domestically and while traveling abroad. In extreme cases, such as when the countries of citizenship are at war with each other, a dual citizen’s international status can be very complicated, and, historically, often led to incarceration of the “enemy” citizen, notwithstanding the person’s actual loyalties. If someone faces problems resulting from multiple citizenship, they may choose to resolve them by renouncing the undesirable citizenship(s). For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Renunciation is a voluntary act of relinquishing ones citizenship (or nationality). ...


During the heightened interest in security after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the security issue was raised of persons with multiple citizenship traveling under different names — having passports under their old and new names from different countries — and using one kind of passport to exit a country, while traveling on another passport in a different name abroad, and not disclosing this travel upon return. Legislation is being prepared in Canada to end this practice, identify persons traveling abroad under different names and passports, and possible security issues that might arise under the current system.[citation needed] The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks carried out in the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


Examples

Example 1: A person born in Canada to a American father and a Canadian mother would have Canadian citizenship by birth, and may also have US citizenship, depending on certain circumstances (the parents' marital status, date of the child's birth, and whether the US citizen parent has met certain physical presence requirements). If the requirements have been met, then the child would also be a US citizen, and therefore would have dual citizenship.[15] Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. ... // Possession of citizenship U.S. citizens have the right to participate in the political system of the United States (with most U.S. states having restrictions for felons, and federal restrictions on naturalized persons), are represented and protected abroad by the United States (through U.S. embassies and consulates), and...


Example 2: A person born in Canada after January 1, 1983 to parents who are respectively a Japanese father and a British mother (otherwise than by descent) is entitled to triple citizenship at birth. Lex sanguinis applies for British and Japanese citizenships through parental blood relationships, and lex soli applies for Canadian citizenship because of birth on Canadian soil. However, according to Japanese nationality law, Japanese citizenship would be lost if British and Canadian citizenships are not renounced between the ages of 20 and 22 (although renunciation of British nationality to a foreign authority is not recognised under British nationality law). Furthermore, lex sanguinis would not apply automatically to any children born to this person outside the UK. Jus sanguinis (Latin for right of blood) is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born to a parent who is a national or citizen of that state. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ... Japanese nationality is generally governed by the Nationality Law of 1950. ... British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning British citizenship and other categories of British nationality. ...


Example 3: A British citizen also holds European Union and Commonwealth of Nations citizenship. In addition, most UK citizens born in Northern Ireland are also entitled to citizenship of the Republic of Ireland.


Example 4: A person born in the US to one or both Canadian parents is entitled to both US and Canadian citizenship. A person born outside Canada to a Canadian parent is a Canadian citizen (though, in certain limited situations, the Canadian citizenship of someone born to a Canadian parent outside Canada may expire on the person's 28th birthday).


Example 5: A person born in Canada to an Algerian father and British mother automatically acquires the Algerian citizenship [16] and is entitled to British citizenship (in both cases, jus sanguinis). The child also is also entitled to Canadian citizenship (jus soli). Unlike Japan (see Example 2), Algeria allows its nationals to acquire multiple citizenship.[16] However, Algeria recognizes its nationals on its soil as Algerian, which can limit the ability of other countries whose citizenship the child possesses to provide consular assistance to the child when (s)he encounters problems.[16]


Example 6: A person born in Canada to a Moroccan father and Russian mother automatically acquires the father's citizenship at birth.[17] The child is also entitled to Russian citizenship (jus sanguinis) and Canadian citizenship (jus soli). However, Morocco and Russia recognize their nationals on their soil as their nationals, which can limit the ability of other countries whose citizenship the child possesses from providing consular assistance to the child when (s)he encounters problems.[17][18] Russia and Morocco, like Algeria, allow their nationals to acquire multiple citizenship.


Example 7: A person born in the UK to a Syrian father and American mother automatically acquires the father's citizenship at birth.[19] The child may also be entitled to United States citizenship (jus sanguinis), depending on the parent's marital status and the amount of physical presence the mother has spent in the U.S. Although America recognizes multiple citizenship, Syria does not, which could create complications for Syrians who also hold non-Syrian citizenship.[19] A child born inside the UK on or after 1 January 1983 acquires British citizenship at birth only if at least one of the parents is "settled" in the UK at the time of the birth (i.e. is a British citizen or otherwise has the right of abode in the UK, is an Irish citizen, is a citizen of an EU/EEA country and has permanent residence in the UK, or holds indefinite leave to remain in the UK). Prior to this date anyone born in the UK was automatically a British Citizen. Right of Abode is a status under United Kingdom immigration laws that gives an unrestricted right to live in the United Kingdom. ... Indefinite Leave to Remain or ILR, is an immigration status granted to a person who does not hold right of abode in the United Kingdom, but who has been admitted to the UK without any time limit on his stay and who is free to take up employment, without restriction. ...


Example 8: A person of Chinese descent born in Hong Kong prior to 1 January 1983 would be a British subject (known also as Commonwealth citizen at that time); citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies; and People's Republic of China citizen at birth, with right to abode in Hong Kong (jus soli in both cases; and jus sanguinis for China). This is to note that the PRC recognises only Chinese citizenship for its Chinese nationals born within the "official" borders of the PRC which includes Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. When this person become naturalised in a foreign country, say Canada, he would normally have lost his PRC citizenship status automatically, if not immediately after 1 July 1997 -- when Chinese Nationality Law would take effect in Hong Kong. However, a special interpretation given in 1996 for the Hong Kong Basic Law allows for this person to keep his Chinese nationality but his foreign nationality would not be recognised on PRC soil. This person's British nationality of any kind in connection with Hong Kong would have been lost unless he has applied for British National (Overseas) status prior to 1 July 1997. However, by virtue of being a BN(O) or Canadian Citizen, that person is a Commonwealth citizen. Being a person of Chinese descent who has a third country of permanent residence (Canada), this person is also entitled to claim Republic of China citizenship (jus sanguinis). He is eligible to obtain a ROC passport since theoretically all Chinese are ROC citizens. Controversially, this would be contradictory to his PRC citizenship. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. ... A Commonwealth citizen, formerly known as a British subject, is generally a person who is a national of any country within the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Nationality Law of the Peoples Republic of China This law is applicable to the acquisition, loss and restoration of nationality of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Cover of Index to the Basic Law The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China (中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法; or in short 香港基本法 or 基本法) serves as the constitutional document of Hong Kong. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Republic of China Passport Cover. ...


Example 9: A citizen of Ireland who naturalizes in the United States would end up having both Irish and U.S. citizenships, despite the fact that the U.S. naturalization oath contains a statement of renunciation. The U.S. State Department does not prevent its citizens from holding other citizenships and the Irish government does not recognise the renunciation clause of the oath.


Example 10: A person who was born in the People's Republic of China, who later naturalized in Canada, who then later naturalized in the United States after 1977, and who then later naturalized in France, will be a citizen of Canada, the U.S., and France, but not the People's Republic of China. Chinese nationality would have been lost because Article 9 of Chinese nationality law automatically deprives citizenship to those who voluntarily acquire another citizenship.[20] However, under the Canadian nationality law after 1977, it is essentially impossible to involuntarily lose citizenship unless the citizenship was fraudulently obtained.[21] The same is true under United States nationality law.[22] Flag of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) The Nationality Law of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó guójí fǎ) regulates citizenship in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Canada was the second nation in the then British Commonwealth to establish its own nationality law in 1946, with the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act 1946. ... The United States flag The Seal of the United States The Immigration and Naturalization Act sets forth the legal requirements for acquiring and losing citizenship of the United States. ...


Example 11: Under the Nationality Law of the Republic of China, a U.S. citizen wishing to obtain Taiwanese citizenship must first give up his U.S. citizenship. However, there is no clause stopping a naturalized Taiwanese from adding U.S. or other citizenship thereafter. Flag of the Republic of China The Nationality Law of the Republic of China (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) [1] regulates citizenship in the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ...


Example 12: A person born in France of an American mother and a French father would be a citizen of both countries. Lex sanguinis applies for American citizenship and both Lex sanguinis and lex soli apply for French citizenship. Jus sanguinis (Latin for right of blood) is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born to a parent who is a national or citizen of that state. ... Jus sanguinis (Latin for right of blood) is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born to a parent who is a national or citizen of that state. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory) is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ...


Example 13: A person born in the U.S. to a father who was born in The Bahamas before July 10, 1973 is automatically a Bahamian citizen at birth, pursuant to the Bahamian constitution. This only applies in cases where the parents of the child are married. If the parents of the child are not married, the mother would had to have been born in the Bahamas before July 10, 1973 in order for her child to claim Bahamian citizenship.


Example 14: A person born in the U.S. to a father who was born in Norway would become a Norwegian citizen automatically but under the U.S law he would have to eventually choose between the two citizenships.


See also

Citizen redirects here. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Dual loyalty is a term used in political discussions to describe, a situation where a person has loyalty to two separate interests which potentially conflict with each other. ... The term Canadians of convenience became prominent in 2006 in conjunction with the evacuation of Canadian citizens from Lebanon during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ... Jus sanguinis (Latin for right of blood) is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born to a parent who is a national or citizen of that state. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ...

References

  1. ^ Civil Code of Iran (last amended 1985). United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved on 2007-06-24. “Article 976 - The following persons are considered to be Iranian subjects: [...] (6)Every woman of foreign nationality who marries an Iranian husband.”
  2. ^ Introduction to Dual Citizenship. The Southern cross group. Retrieved on 2007-08-29.
  3. ^ India Dual Citizenship. immihelp.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-29.
  4. ^ travel report — Iran. Department of foreign Arrairs and International Trade, Canada. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  5. ^ Åland in Brief — Right of Domicile. det offentliga Åland. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  6. ^ Right of domicile in Åland. Parliament of Åland. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  7. ^ "Puerto Rican independence activist gets island citizenship ID", signonsandiego.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-26. 
  8. ^ Security Clearance Guidelines: Foreign Preference. military.about.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  9. ^ Arthur L. Money (16 August 2000). Guidance to DoD Central Adjudication Facilities (CAF) Clarifying the Application of the Foreign preference Adjucitative Guideline (pdf). Retrieved on 2007-05-15. (the "Money Memorandum")
  10. ^ BBC News. "Schwarzenegger 'damages Austria'", news.bbc.co.uk, January 22, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-10-11. 
  11. ^ CBC News: New governor general to give up French citizenship; September 25, 2005
  12. ^ CBC News. "Dion would sacrifice French citizenship to become PM", CBC.ca, December 8, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-08. 
  13. ^ Sue v Hill (1999) HCA 30; 199 CLR 462; 163 ALR 648; 73 ALJR 1016 (23 June 1999), HIGH COURT OF AUSTRALIA, June 23, 1999, <http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/1999/30.html>. Retrieved on 22 May 2008 
  14. ^ IRS Foreign Earned Income Exclusion
  15. ^ 8 U.S.C. § 1401, "Nationals and citizens of United States at birth", Paragraph (g) classifies such a person as a US citizen at birth, not merely as someone entitled to claim US citizenship.
  16. ^ a b c Travel report — Algeria. Department of Foreign Affairs and international Trade, Canada. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  17. ^ a b Travel Report —Morocco. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  18. ^ Travel Report — Russia. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  19. ^ a b Travel Advice — Syria. smarttraveller.gov.au. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  20. ^ Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China. Immigration Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  21. ^ Citizenship Act ( R.S., 1985, c. C-29 ). Department of Justice, Canada. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  22. ^ Possible Loss of U.S. Citizenship and Dual Nationality. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Title 8 of the United States Code outlines the role of aliens and nationality in the United States Code. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

International
Council of Europe
Australia
  • Australian Citizenship
Canada
Croatia
  • Law on Croatian citizenship (article 2)
Finland
  • Nationality Act of 2003 (Chapters 3 and 5)
Ghana
India
  • Ministry of Home Affairs, Citizenship Division
  • Ministry of Home Affairs, Overseas Citizenship of India
Ireland
  • Irish Citizenship by Descent (Foreign Births Registry)
Italy
  • Embassy of Italy in the United States (archived page)
Mexico
New Zealand
  • The Department of Internal Affairs: Citizenship Service
Pakistan
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Affairs Division
  • Pakistan Citizenship Law
The Netherlands
  • Dutch nationality
  • Acquisition of another nationality by a Dutch citizen
  • Acquisition of dutch citizenship by a foreign national
Philippines
  • Republic of the Philippines: FAQ - Dual Citizenship
Sri Lanka
  • Sri Lankan Dual Citizenship
United States
  • Dual Citizenship FAQ -- latest archive.org copy of site (Mar 30, 2005)
  • Dual Nationality (State Department)
  • Possible Loss of U.S. Citizenship and Dual Nationality (State Department)

Further reading

  • (January 2002) in Randall Hansen, Patrick Weil: Dual Nationality, Social Rights and Federal Citizenship in the U. S. and Europe: The Reinvention of Citizenship. Berghahn Books. ISBN 1571818049. 
  • (August 2007) in Thomas Faist: Dual Citizenship in Europe: From Nationhood to Societal Integration. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate. ISBN 9780754649144. 
  • (November 2007) in Thomas Faist, Peter Kivisto: Dual Citizenship in Global Perspective: From Unitary to Multiple Citizenship. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230006546. 
  • Federal Investigative Services Division of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (2001). Citizenship Laws of the World: A Directory (PDF). Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
"Pledging Multiple Allegiances" - article on dual-citizenship (3264 words)
Multiple nationalities have become so commonplace that some analysts fear the trend is undermining the notion of nationhood, particularly in the place with the most diverse citizenry on Earth: the United States.
They say the trend toward multiple nationality is just a sign that the world is shrinking, that accessible transportation and easy communication as well as regional trade agreements and the globalization of the marketplace have created a new world of porous borders, a place where issues and agendas are more regional than national.
The surge in dual citizenship comes at a time when the number of Americans born outside the country has risen to nearly 10%, double what it was three decades ago.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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