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Encyclopedia > Multinational corporation

'multinational corporation' (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. Very large multinationals have budgets that exceed those of many countries. Multinational corporations can have a powerful influence in international relations and local economies. Multinational corporations play an important role in globalization; some argue that a new form of MNC is evolving in response to globalization: the 'globally integrated enterprise'. For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... The globally integrated enterprise is a term coined in 2006 in the name of Sam Palmisano, CEO of IBM Corp, used to denote is a company that fashions its strategy, its management, and its operations in pursuit of a new goal: the integration of production and value delivery worldwide. ...


==Multinational corporate structure==123 Multinational corporations can be divided into three broad groups according to the configuration of their production facilities:

  • Horizontally integrated multinational corporations manage production establishments located in different countries to produce the same or similar products. (example: McDonalds)
  • Vertically integrated multinational corporations manage production establishment in certain country/countries to produce products that serve as input to its production establishments in other country/countries. (example: Adidas)
  • Diversified multinational corporations manage production establishments located in different countries that are neither horizontally nor vertically nor straight, nor non-straight integrated. (example: Microsoft)

Others argue that a key feature of the multinational is the inclusion of back office functions in each of the countries in which they operate. The globally integrated enterprise, which some see as the next development in the evolution of the multinational, does away with this requirement. McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants [1]. Although McDonalds did not invent the hamburger or fast food, its name has become nearly synonymous with both. ... This article is about the company. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Office types Class A office space Back office Front office Mobile office Paperless office Serviced office Small office/home office Virtual office A back office is a part of most corporations where tasks dedicated to running the company itself take place. ... The globally integrated enterprise is a term coined in 2006 in the name of Sam Palmisano, CEO of IBM Corp, used to denote is a company that fashions its strategy, its management, and its operations in pursuit of a new goal: the integration of production and value delivery worldwide. ...

Contents

International power

Large multinational corporations can have a powerful influence in international relations, given their large economic influence in politicians' representative districts, as well as their extensive financial resources available for public relations and political lobbying. Foreign affairs redirects here. ... // Dictionary. ... This article is about the political effort. ...


Tax Competition

Multinationals have played an important role in globalization. Countries and sometimes subnational regions must compete against one another for the establishment of MNC facilities, and the subsequent tax revenue, employment, and economic activity. To compete, countries and regional political districts offer incentives to MNCs such as tax breaks, pledges of governmental assistance or improved infrastructure, or lax environmental and labor standards. This process of becoming more attractive to foreign investment can be characterized as a race to the bottom, a push towards greater freedom for corporate bodies, or both. Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... For the game developer, see Incentive Software. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Investment is a term with several closely-related meanings in finance and economics. ... In government regulation, a race to the bottom is a theoretical phenomenon which occurs when competition between nations or states (over investment capital, for example) leads to the progressive dismantling of regulatory standards. ...


Market Withdrawal

Because of their size, multinationals can have a significant impact on government policy, primarily through the threat of market withdrawal.[1] For example, in an effort to reduce health care costs, some countries have tried to force pharmaceutical companies to license their patented drugs to local competitors for a very low fee, thereby artificially lowering the price. When faced with that threat, multinational pharmaceutical firms have simply withdrawn from the market, which often leads to limited availability of advanced drugs. In these cases, governments have been forced to back down from their efforts. Similar corporate and government confrontations have occurred when governments tried to force companies to make their intellectual property public in an effort to gain technology for local entrepreneurs. When companies are faced with the option of losing a core competitive technological advantage and withdrawing from a national market, they may choose the latter. This withdrawal often causes governments to change policy. Countries that have been most successful in this type of confrontation with multinational corporations are large countries such as India and Brazil, which have viable indigenous market competitors. Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ...


Lobbying

Multinational corporate lobbying is directed at a range of business concerns, from tariff structures to environmental regulations. There is no unified multinational perspective on any of these issues. Companies that have invested heavily in pollution control mechanisms may lobby for very tough environmental standards in an effort to force non-compliant competitors into a weaker position. For every tariff category that one multinational wants to have reduced, there is another multinational that wants the tariff raised. Even within the U.S. auto industry, the fraction of a company's imported components will vary, so some firms favor tighter import restrictions, while others favor looser ones. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... Environmental law is a body of law which addresses the system of complex and interlocking rules which seeks to protect from destruction or development certain species or favored natural areas thought to be endangered by human encroachment. ...


Government Power

In addition to efforts by multinational corporations to affect governments, there is much government action intended to affect corporate behavior. The threat of nationalization (forcing a company to sell its local assets to the government or to other local nationals) or changes in local business laws and regulations can limit a multinational's power. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ...


Micro-Multinationals

Enabled by Internet based communication tools, a new breed of multinational companies is growing in numbers[citation needed]. These multinationals start operating in different countries from the very early stages. These companies are being called micro-multinationals. What differentiates micro-multinationals from the large MNCs is the fact that they are small businesses. Some of these micro-multinationals, particularly software development companies, have been hiring employees in multiple countries from the beginning of the Internet era. But more and more micro-multinationals are actively starting to market their products and services in various countries. Internet tools like Google, Yahoo, MSN, Ebay and Amazon make it easier for the micro-multinationals to reach potential customers in other countries.


Some established companies in this category include:

The following is a list of notable architecture firms, past and present. ...

See also

Category: ... Financial capital, or economic capital, is any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth, or other styles of capital. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... The globally integrated enterprise is a term coined in 2006 in the name of Sam Palmisano, CEO of IBM Corp, used to denote is a company that fashions its strategy, its management, and its operations in pursuit of a new goal: the integration of production and value delivery worldwide. ... // A Key Corporate Responsibility Instrument What are the Guidelines? The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises are one of the world’s foremost corporate responsibility instruments. ... Relocation is a process of moving people or business to a different place. ... Transnationalism is a social movement grown out of the heightened interconnectivity between people all around the world and the loosening of boundaries between countries. ...

References

  1. ^ Barnett, Richard, 1974: Global Reach: The Power of the Multinational Corporations.

External links

  • CorpWatch
  • UNCTAD publications on multinational corporations
  • http://www.bartleby.com/65/fu/Fugger.html An early multinational business.
  • ILO - Multinational Corporations
  • List of Multinational companies

  Results from FactBites:
 
Multinational corporation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (345 words)
A multinational corporation (MNC) or multinational enterprise (MNE) or transnational corporation (TNC) or multinational organization (MNO) is a corporation/enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries.
Multinational corporations (MNC) are often divided into three broad groups:
Diversified multinational corporations manage production establishments located in different countries that are neither horizontally or vertically integrated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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