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Encyclopedia > Multilingualism
For multilingualism in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Multilingual coordination
Look up multilingual, multilingualism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The term multilingualism can refer to an occurrence regarding an individual speaker who uses two or more languages, a community of speakers where two or more languages are used, or between speakers of different languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition is a peer-reviewed linguistics journal published by Cambridge University Press and devoted to the study of multilingualism. ... Look up bilingual in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population.[1] Monoglottism (Greek monos, alone, solitary, + glotta, tongue, language) is the condition of being able to speak only a single language. ...

Contents

Multilingual individuals

A multilingual person, in the broadest definition, is anyone who can communicate in more than one language, be it active (through speaking and writing) or passive (through listening and reading). More specifically, the terms bilingual and trilingual are used to describe comparable situations in which two or three languages are involved. A generic term for multilingual persons is polyglot.


Multilingualism could be rigidly defined as being native-like in two or more languages. It could also be loosely defined as being less than native-like but still able to communicate in two or more languages.


Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during childhood, the so-called first language (L1). First languages (sometimes also referred to as mother tongue) are acquired without formal education, by mechanisms heavily disputed. Children acquiring two first languages since birth are called simultaneous bilinguals. Even in the case of simultaneous bilinguals one language usually dominates over the other. This kind of bilingualism is most likely to occur when a child is raised by bilingual parents in a predominantly monolingual environment. It can also occur when the parents are monolingual but have raised their child or children in two different countries. “Native Language” redirects here. ...


Definition of multilingualism

One group of academics argues for the maximal definition which means that speakers are as native-like in one language as they are in others and have as much knowledge and control over one language as they do the others. Another group of academics argues for the minimal definition, based on use. Tourists, who successfully communicate phrases and ideas while not fluent in a language, may be seen as bilingual according to this group.


However, problems may arise with these definitions as they do not answer the question regarding how much knowledge of a language is required to be classified as bilingual. As a result, since most speakers do not achieve the maximal ideal, language learners may come to be seen as deficient and by extension, language teaching may come to be seen as a failure. One does not expect children to "speak chemistry" like Nobel prize winners or to have become a professional athlete by the time they have left school, yet anything less than fluency in a second language by graduating school children is somehow inadequate.


On the other hand, arguing that someone who can say "hello" in more than one language is multilingual trivializes the language learning process.


Since 1992, Cook has argued that most multilingual speakers are somewhere between these minimal and maximal definitions. Cook calls these people multi-competent.


Learning language

A broadly held, yet nearly as broadly criticised, view is that of the American linguist Noam Chomsky in what he calls the human language acquisition device—a mechanism which enables an individual to correctly recreate the rules (grammar) that speakers around the learner use. This device, according to Chomsky, wears out over time, and is not normally available by puberty, which explains the relatively poor results adolescents and adults have in learning aspects of a second language (L2). For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... The Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a postulated organ of the brain that is supposed to function as a congenital device for learning symbolic language (ie. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ...


If language learning is a cognitive process, rather than a language acquisition device, as the school led by Stephen Krashen suggests, there would only be relative, not categorical, differences between the two types of language learning. The term cognition is used in several different loosely related ways. ... Stephen Krashen is professor emeritus at the University of Southern California, and is a linguist, educational researcher, and activist. ...


Comparing multilingual speakers

Even if someone is highly proficient in two or more languages, his so-called communicative competence or ability may not be as balanced. Linguists have distinguished various types of multilingual competence, which can roughly be put into two categories:

  • For compound bilinguals, words and phrases in different languages are the same concepts. That means, a 'chien' and a 'dog' are two words for the same concept for a French-English speaker of this type. These speakers are usually fluent in both languages.
  • For coordinate bilinguals, words and phrases in the speaker's mind are all related to their own unique concepts. That means, a bilingual speaker of this type has different associations for chien and for 'dog'. In these individuals, one language, usually the first language, is more dominant than the other, and the first language may be used to think through the second language. These speakers are known to use very different intonation and pronunciation features, and sometimes assert the feeling of having different personalities attached to each of their languages.
  • A sub-group of the latter is subordinate bilingual which is typical of beginning second language learners.

The distinction between compound and coordinate bilingualism has come under scrutiny. When studies are done of multilinguals most are found to show behavior intermediate between compound and coordinate bilingualism. Some authors have suggested that the distinction should only be made at the level of grammar rather than vocabulary, others use "coordinate bilingual" as a synonym for one who has learned two languages from birth, and others have proposed dropping the distinction altogether. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Many theorists are now beginning to view bilingualism as a "spectrum or continuum of bilingualism" that runs from relative monolingual language learner to highly proficient bilingual speakers that function at high levels in both languages (Garland, 2007)


Cognitive proficiency

Those bilinguals that are highly proficient in two or more languages, such as compound and coordinate bilinguals, are reported to have a higher cognitive proficiency, and are found to be better second language learners at a later age, than monolinguals.[citation needed] The early discovery that concepts of the world can be labelled in more than one fashion puts those bilinguals in the lead. // Old Misconceptions It used to be thought that learning two languages was detrimental to a childs cognitive abilities. ...


There is, however, also a phenomenon known as distractive bilingualism or semilingualism. When acquisition of the first language is interrupted and insufficient, or unstructured language input follows from the second language, as sometimes happens with immigrant children, the speaker can end up with two languages both mastered below the monolingual standards. The vast majority of immigrant children, however, acquire both languages normally. Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ...


In Japan, it has been found that a large number of older immigrant children, whose parents have come from other Asian nations or Latin America to work in Japanese factories and whose first language is seen by society at large as less prestigious than Japanese, were able to communicate with other children in the school grounds but were not able to master the language necessary for learning in the school system.[citation needed] As a result, thousands of these children have dropped out of the school system, without mastering their first or second language.[citation needed] While community activists have long called for government help, only in the past few years has the Japanese Ministry of Education begun to slowly study this issue.


Literacy plays an important role in the development of language in these immigrant children. Those who were literate in the first language before arriving in Japan, and who have support to maintain that literacy, are able to at the very least maintain and master their first language. On the other hand, without first language support, these immigrant children will likely never fully master either language.[citation needed]


The neuroscientist Katrin Amunts studied the brain of Emil Krebs and determined that the area of Krebs' brain responsible for language—Broca's area—was organized differently than in monolingual men. On the other hand, the neurolinguist Loraine Obler has suggested a link with the Geschwind-Galaburda cluster, which shows a high coincidence of left-handedness, homosexuality, auto-immune disorders, learning disorders and talents in art, mathematics and, possibly, languages.[2] For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Emil Krebs (* 15 November 1867 in Freiburg in Schlesien; † 31 March 1930 in Berlin) was a German polyglot and sinologist. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... The Geschwind-Galaburda hypothesis was proposed by Norman Geschwind and Albert Galaburda to explain sex differences in cognitive abilities by relating them to lateralization of cerebral functions. ... People who are left-handed are more dextrous with their left hand than with their right hand: they will probably also use their left hand for tasks such as personal care, cooking, and so on. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Learning disability refers to a range of conditions that affect a persons ability to learn new information, even though the person has average or above-average intelligence. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...


Receptive bilingualism

Receptive bilinguals are those who have the ability to understand a language, but do not speak it. Receptive bilingualism may occur when a child realizes that the community language is more prestigious than the language spoken within the household and chooses to speak to their parents in the community language only. Families who adopt this mode of communication can be highly functional, although they may not be seen as bilingual. Receptive bilinguals may rapidly achieve oral fluency when placed in situations where they are required to speak the heritage language.


Receptive bilingualism is not the same as mutual intelligibility, which is the case of a native Spanish speaker who is able to understand Portuguese and vice-versa due to the high lexical and grammatical similarities between Spanish and Portuguese [1]. In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a property exhibited by a set of languages when speakers of any one of them can readily understand all the others without intentional study or extraordinary effort. ...


Potential multilingual speakers

  • People with a strong interest in a foreign language.
  • People who find it necessary to acquire a second language for practical purposes such as business, information gathering (Internet, mainly English) or entertainment (foreign language films, books or computer games).
  • Language immersion children.
  • Immigrants and their descendants. Although the heritage language may be lost after one or two generations particularly if the replacing language has greater prestige.
  • Children of expatriates. However, language loss of the L1 or L2 in younger children may be rapid when removed from a language community.
  • Residents in border areas between two countries of mixed languages where each language is seen of equal prestige, efforts may be made by both language communities to acquire an L2. Yet, in areas where one language is more prestigious than the other, speakers of the less prestigious language may acquire the dominant language as an L2. In time, however, the different language communities may likely become one, as one language becomes extinct in that area.
  • Children whose parents each speak a different language, in multilingual communities. In unilingual communities, when parents maintain a different-parent/different-language household, younger children may appear to be multilingual, however, entering school will overwhelm the child with pressure to conform to the dominant community language. Younger siblings in these households will almost always be unilingual. On the other hand, in unilingual communities, where parents have differentd L1s, multilingualism in the child may be achieved when both parents maintain a one-language (not the community language) household.
  • Children in language-rich communities where neither language is seen as more prestigious than the other and where interaction between people occurs in different languages on a frequent basis.
  • Children who have one or more parents who have learned a second language, either formally (in classes) or by living in the country. The parent chooses to speak only this second language to the child. One study suggests that during the teaching process, the parent also boosts his or her own language skills, learning to use the second language in new contexts as the child grows and develops linguistically.

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... First language (native language, mother tongue) is the language a person learns first. ... Language attrition is the loss of a first or second language or a portion of that language by either a community or an individual. ... For the band, see Expatriate (band). ... Language attrition is the loss of a first or second language or a portion of that language by either a community or an individual. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ...

Polyglots

A person who speaks several languages is called a polyglot. The following individuals are claimed to be able to speak 10-60 languages:

However, there is no clear definition of what it means to "speak a language." A tourist who can handle a simple conversation with a waiter may be completely lost when it comes to discussing current affairs or even using multiple tenses. A diplomat or businessman who can handle complicated negotiations in a foreign language may not be able to write a simple letter correctly. A four-year-old French child usually must be said to "speak French fluently", but it is possible that he cannot handle the grammar as well as even some mediocre foreign students of the language do and will surely have a very limited vocabulary despite having perfect pronunciation. Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti (17 September 1774 – 15 March 1849) was an Italian cardinal and linguist. ... Hans Conon von der Gabelentz (1807-1874) was a distinguished German philologist, born at Altenburg. ... José Rizal José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda (June 19, 1861 - December 30, 1896) is the national hero of the Philippines. ... Georg Julius Justus Sauerwein (born 15 January 1831 in Hannover, died 16 December 1904 in Christiania (now Oslo) ) was a German publisher, polyglot, poet, and linguist. ... Harold Williams (6 April 1876, Christchurch, New Zealand - 18 November 1928, London, England) was a New Zealand journalist, Foreign Editor of The Times and polyglot who is considered to have been one of the most accomplished polyglots in history, said to have known 58 languages and other related dialects. ... Emil Krebs (* 15 November 1867 in Freiburg in Schlesien; † 31 March 1930 in Berlin) was a German polyglot and sinologist. ... Uku Masing (August 11, 1909 - 1985) was an Estonian philosopher, translator and theologist. ... Hale lecturing about the Warlpiri language. ... István Dabi, Sr. ... // Robert Stiller (born Warsaw, Poland, 1928) is a Polish polyglot, writer, poet, translator and editor. ... Ziad Youssef Fazah (born June 10, 1954 in Monrovia, Liberia) is reputed to be the worlds most accomplished hyperpolyglot. ... Daniel Paul Tammet (b. ...


In addition there is no clear definition of what "one language" means. The Scandinavian languages are so similar that a large part of the native speakers understand all of them without much trouble. This means that a speaker of Danish, Norwegian or Swedish can easily get his count up to 3 languages. On the other hand, the differences between variants of Chinese, like Cantonese and Mandarin, are so big that intensive studies are needed for a speaker of one of them to learn even to understand a different one correctly. A person who has learned to speak five Chinese "dialects" perfectly has achieved something impressive, but his "count" would still be only one "language". The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... en:Cantonese (linguistics) ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ...


Another example could be that a person who learnt five different languages like French, Spanish, Romanian, Italian and Portuguese, all belonging to the closely related Romance languages, has accomplished something much less astonishing than a person who learnt Hebrew, Standard Mandarin, Finnish, Navajo and Welsh, of which none is remotely related to another. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Reading Adahooniigii — The Navajo Language Monthly Navajo or Navaho (native name: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken in the southwest United States by the Navajo people (Diné). It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages (the majority of Athabaskan languages are spoken... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


Furthermore, what is considered a language can change, often for purely political purposes, such as when Serbo-Croatian was assembled from Serbian and Croatian and later split after Yugoslavia broke up, or when Ukrainian was dismissed as a Russian dialect by the Russian Czars to discourage national feelings.[3] Another such example is Romanian and Moldovan, which are almost the same, barring a few spelling differences. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


Multilingualism within communities

Further information: List of multilingual countries and regions
This 1896 calendar from Thessaloniki, Greece, is printed in Ottoman Turkish, Ladino, Armenian, Greek, Bulgarian and French, and uses the Islamic, Hebrew, Julian and Gregorian calendars.
This 1896 calendar from Thessaloniki, Greece, is printed in Ottoman Turkish, Ladino, Armenian, Greek, Bulgarian and French, and uses the Islamic, Hebrew, Julian and Gregorian calendars.
This is a multilingual sign at the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Pier in the Macau Special Administrative Region of China. The two at the top are Portuguese and Chinese, which are the official languages of the region. The two at the bottom are Japanese and English, which are common languages used by tourists.
This is a multilingual sign at the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Pier in the Macau Special Administrative Region of China. The two at the top are Portuguese and Chinese, which are the official languages of the region. The two at the bottom are Japanese and English, which are common languages used by tourists.
Chinatowns and other communities that are multilingual often make use or try to make use of multilingual signs, like this one in Brisbane (which, however, inconsistently mixes the Traditional and Simplified scripts).
Chinatowns and other communities that are multilingual often make use or try to make use of multilingual signs, like this one in Brisbane (which, however, inconsistently mixes the Traditional and Simplified scripts).
A caution message in English, Kannada and Hindi found in Bangalore, India
A caution message in English, Kannada and Hindi found in Bangalore, India
A trash can in Seattle with a label in 4 languages: English, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Spanish.
A trash can in Seattle with a label in 4 languages: English, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Spanish.
The three language (Tamil, English and Hindi) name board at the Tirusulam railway station in South India
The three language (Tamil, English and Hindi) name board at the Tirusulam railway station in South India
Traffic sign near Koper Slovenia. The city of Pula (in Croatia) is written in Slovene and Italian (official languages of the region) and in Croatian (official language of Croatia)
Traffic sign near Koper Slovenia. The city of Pula (in Croatia) is written in Slovene and Italian (official languages of the region) and in Croatian (official language of Croatia)

Widespread multilingualism is one form of language contact. Multilingualism was more common in the past than is usually supposed; in early times, when most people were members of small language communities, it was necessary to know two or more languages for trade or any other dealings outside one's own town or village, and this holds true today in places of high linguistic diversity such as Sub-Saharan Africa and India. Linguist Ekkehard Wolff estimates that 50% of the population of Africa is multilingual.[4] Main article: Multilingualism This is an incomplete list of areas with either multilingualism at the community level or at the personal level. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar used by Jews for predominantly religious purposes. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x505, 722 KB) Summary English: A multilingual sign at the Hnng Kong-Macau Ferry Pier in Macau, China The photograph was taken by Alan Mak in December, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x505, 722 KB) Summary English: A multilingual sign at the Hnng Kong-Macau Ferry Pier in Macau, China The photograph was taken by Alan Mak in December, 2005. ... Both the piers serving the route in Hong Kong and Macau are called Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Pier. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngwén) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: Hànyǔ, Huáyǔ, or Zhōngwén) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... Download high resolution version (1570x804, 423 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1570x804, 423 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1811 KB) Summary Photo of a warning message posted in English, Kannada and Hindi at the entrance of a electric power meter room in Bangalore. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1811 KB) Summary Photo of a warning message posted in English, Kannada and Hindi at the entrance of a electric power meter room in Bangalore. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 531 KB) Summary A trash can in Seattle having a label with 4 languages: English, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Spanish. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 531 KB) Summary A trash can in Seattle having a label with 4 languages: English, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Spanish. ... A waste container (known more commonly in British English as a dustbin and American English as a trash can) is a container, which can be made out of metal or plastic¹, used to store refuse. ... Seattle redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1021x961, 114 KB) Summary photographed by Pratheepps Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chennai International Airport Multilingualism User:Pratheepps Tirusulam ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1021x961, 114 KB) Summary photographed by Pratheepps Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chennai International Airport Multilingualism User:Pratheepps Tirusulam ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1278 × 958 pixel, file size: 260 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1278 × 958 pixel, file size: 260 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Pula (disambiguation). ... Language contact occurs when speakers of distinct speech varieties interact. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In multilingual societies, not all speakers need to be multilingual. When all speakers are multilingual, linguists classify the community according to the functional distribution of the languages involved:

  • diglossia: if there is a structural functional distribution of the languages involved, the society is termed 'diglossic'. Typical diglossic areas are those areas in Europe where a regional language is used in informal, usually oral, contexts, while the state language is used in more formal situations. Frisia (with Frisian and German or Dutch) and Lusatia (with Sorbian and German) are well-known examples. Some writers limit diglossia to situations where the languages are closely related, and could be considered dialects of each other.
  • ambilingualism: a region is called ambilingual if this functional distribution is not observed. In a typical ambilingual area it is nearly impossible to tell which language is used when in a given setting. True ambilingualism is rare. Ambilingual tendencies can be found in Luxembourg, Singapore, Catalonia, some places in Canada or in border regions with many cross-border contacts.
  • bipart-lingualism: if more than one language can be heard in a small area, but if the large majority of speakers are monolinguals, who have little contact with speakers from neighbouring ethnic groups, an area is called 'bipart-lingual'. The typical example is the Balkans.

Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ... Lusatia (German: , Upper Sorbian: , Lower Sorbian: , Polish: , Czech: ) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern Czech Republic. ... This article or section should be merged with List of Sorbian languages The Sorbian languages are members of the West Slavic branch of languages spoken in eastern Germany. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Balkan redirects here. ...

Multilingualism between different language speakers

Whenever two people meet, negotiations take place. If they want to express solidarity and sympathy, they tend to seek common features in their behavior. If speakers wish to express distance towards or even dislike of the person they are speaking to, the reverse is true, and differences are sought. This mechanism also extends to language, as has been described by Howard Giles' Accommodation Theory.


Various, but not nearly all, multilinguals tend to use code-switching, a term that describes the process of 'swapping' between languages. In many cases, code-switching is motivated by the wish to express loyalty to more than one cultural group, as holds for many immigrant communities in the New World. Code-switching may also function as a strategy where proficiency is lacking. Such strategies are common if the vocabulary of one of the languages is not very elaborated for certain fields, or if the speakers have not developed proficiency in certain lexical domains, as in the case of immigrant languages. Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ...


This code-switching appears in many forms. If a speaker has a positive attitude towards both languages and towards code-switching, many switches can be found, even within the same sentence. If, however, the speaker is reluctant to use code-switching, as in the case of a lack of proficiency, he might knowingly or unknowingly try to camouflage his attempt by converting elements of one language into elements of the other language. This results in speakers using words like courrier noir (literally mail that is black) in French, instead of the proper word for blackmail, chantage. For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ...


Bilingual interaction can even take place without the speakers switching. In certain areas, it is not uncommon for speakers to consistently each use a different language. This phenomenon is found, amongst others, in Scandinavia. Speakers of Swedish and Norwegian can easily communicate with each other speaking their respective language. It is usually called non-convergent discourse, a term introduced by the Dutch linguist Reitze Jonkman. This phenomenon is also found in Argentina, where Spanish and Italian are both widely spoken, even leading to cases where a child with a Spanish and an Italian parent grows up fully bilingual, with both parents speaking only their own language yet knowing the other. Another example is the former state of Czechoslovakia, where two languages (Czech and Slovak) were in common use. Most Czechs and Slovaks understand both languages, although they would use only one of them (their respective mother tongue) when speaking. For example, in Czechoslovakia it was common to hear two people talking on television each speaking a different language without any difficulty understanding each other. Another example would be a Slovak having read a book in Czech and afterwards being unsure whether he was reading it in Czech or Slovak. This bilinguality still exists nowadays, although it has started to deteriorate after Czechoslovakia split up[citation needed]. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... A non-convergent discourse (NCD) is a discourse in which the participants do not accommodate on the language level, which results in the use of different languages. ...


The now-defunct magazine High Fidelity once published an article about a classical recording session where everyone spoke several languages. (It is not unusual for classical musicians to speak French, German, Italian, and English.) People addressed people in each other's languages: a Frenchman would ask a German a question in German, and the German would reply in French. This was apparently customary among highly-educated Europeans and Asians,[citation needed] as well as between Americans and Europeans; an American who speaks German and a native German might speak to each other this way. This is the reverse of non-convergent discourse (where the speaker speaks in the listener's language instead of his own), and is meant to show respect for the listener.


Multilingualism at the linguistic level

Models for native language literacy programs

Reasons for native language literacy include sociopolitical as well as socio-cultural identity arguments. While these two camps may occupy much of the debate behind in which languages children will learn to read, a greater emphasis on the linguistic aspects of the argument are necessary. In spite of the political turmoil precipitated by this debate, researches continue to espouse a linguistic basis for this logic. This rationale is based upon the work of Jim Cummins (1983).


Sequential model

In this model, learners receive literacy instruction in native language until they acquire a "threshold" literacy proficiency. Some researchers use age 3 as the age when a child has basic communicative competence in L1 (Kessler, 1984).[5] Children may go through a process of sequential acquisition if they immigrate at a young age to a country where a different language is spoken, or if the child exclusively speaks his or her heritage language at home until he/she is immersed in a school setting where instruction is offered in a different language.


The phases children go through during sequential acquisition are less linear than for simultaneous acquisition and can vary greatly among children. Sequential acquisition is a more complex and lengthier process, although there is no indication that non language-delayed children end up less proficient than simultaneous bilinguals, so long as they receive adequate input in both languages.


Bilingual model

In this model, native language and the community language are simultaneously taught. The advantage is literacy in two languages as the outcome. However, teacher training must be high in both languages and in techniques for teaching a second language.


Coordinate model

This model posits that equal time be spent separately in both instruction of the native language and the community language. The native language class however focuses on basic literacy while the community language class focuses on listening and speaking skills. Being a bilingual does not necessarily mean that you can speak, for example, English and French.


Outcomes

Cummins' research concluded that the development of competence in the native language serves as a foundation of proficiency that can be transposed to the second language—the common underlying proficiency hypothesis. His work sought to overcome the perception propagated in the 1960’s that learning two languages were two competing aims. The belief was that the two languages were mutually exclusive and that learning a second required unlearning elements and dynamics of the first in order to accommodate the second (Hakuta, 1990). The evidence for this perspective relied on the fact that errors in acquiring the second language were related to the rules of the first language (Hakuta, 1990). Clearly, how this hypothesis holds under different types of languages such as Romance versus non-Western languages has yet to undergo research.


Another new development that has influenced the linguistic argument for bilingual literacy is the length of time necessary to acquire the second language. While previously children were believed to have the ability to learn a language within a year, today researchers believe that within and across academic settings, the time span is nearer to five years (Collier, 1992; Ramirez, 1992).


An interesting outcome of studies during the early 1990s however confirmed that students who do successfully complete bilingual instruction perform better academically (Collier, 1992; Ramirez, 1992). These students exhibit more cognitive elasticity including higher analytic performance of abstract visual patterns. Students who receive bidirectional bilingual instruction where equal proficiency in both languages is required perform at an even higher level. Examples of such programs include international schools and multi-national education schools such as French-American, Korean-American, and Swiss-American schools. For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Multilingualism in computing

In computing, software are said to be multilingual when the user interface language can be switched. Translating user interface is usually part of the software localisation process which also include other adaptations such as units and date conversion. Many software applications are available in several languages, with a total number of languages usually ranging from a handful (the most spoken languages) to dozens of languages for the most popular applications (like office suite, web browser, etc). Due to the status of English in computing, software development nearly always requires using it (but see also Non-English-based programming languages) and so, a lack of a software version in this language is very unlikely. This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... In computing, an office suite, sometimes called an office application suite or productivity suite is a software suite intended to be used by typical clerical and knowledge workers. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Non-English-based programming languages are computer programming languages that, unlike most well-known programming languages, do not use keywords taken from, or inspired by, the English vocabulary. ...


While switching from one language to another for an application can be easily and swiftly done (selecting the language and possibly restarting it), doing the same with the desktop environment can be more complicated since it may require to install some additional packages (like MUI for Microsoft Windows) and/or endding the current session and relog in each time one want to select another language (like GNOME). Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... Windows XP Professional with Chinese MUI MUI is a Microsoft Windows package from Microsoft that allows each user to select the Windows language. ... Windows redirects here. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ...


Internet

Internet usage in percent CIA figures for world internet use c. ...

See also

Linguistic aspects

Bimodal bilingualism refers to an individual or communitys bilingual competency in (at least) one spoken language and (at least) one signed language (spoken and signed are the modes to which bimodal refers). ... // Old Misconceptions It used to be thought that learning two languages was detrimental to a childs cognitive abilities. ... Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Language attrition is the loss of a first or second language or a portion of that language by either a community or an individual. ... A heritage speaker is someone who learned a certain language in childhood, but has subsequently used it only in a limited set of contexts (often only with family. ... Monoglottism (Greek monos, alone, solitary, + glotta, tongue, language) or, more commonly, monolingualism or unilingualism is the condition of being able to speak only a single language. ... A non-convergent discourse (NCD) is a discourse in which the participants do not accommodate on the language level, which results in the use of different languages. ... Plurilingualism is the ability to speak more than two languages. ... Polyglot has several meanings: Look up Polyglot on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The property of speaking multiple languages A polyglot is a person that can speak many languages A polyglot is a book that contains the same text in more than one language, usually a bible such as the first... The Adamic language is a term for the hypothetical language believed by some to have been spoken by all humans from the creation of Adam until the time of the Tower of Babel (as related in the Bible). ...

Country-level descriptions

A linguistic map of Belgium: mainly Dutch-speaking areas are marked in yellow; the areas of Belgium which are primarily Francophone are marked in red, with hatching in the Brussels region, which is bilingual with a French majority, and the almost uniformly German-speaking East Cantons in blue. ... languages redirects here. ... // Although the United States currently has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. ... Main article: Multilingualism This is an incomplete list of areas with either multilingualism at the community level or at the personal level. ... Language distribution in Switzerland  French (Romandy)  German  Italian  Romansh The linguistic geography of Switzerland is on the main tripartite, with the Swiss German region (Deutschschweiz) in the northeast, the Swiss French part (Romandie) in the west and the Swiss Italian Ticino in the south. ...

Policies and proposals

English-only movement, called also Official English movement by its supporters, refers to a political movement for the use only of English language in public occasions through the establishing of English as the explicitly only official language in the United States. ... Leonard Orban Barroso Commission, 2007 to 2009 The European Commissioner for Multilingualism is the member of the European Commission responsible for language policy of the European Union, i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bilingual (English/French) stop sign on Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ...

Education

// English for Integrated Studies is a model of bilingual education in which students learn core subjects (Mathematics, Science and Computer) in English. ... Multilingual Education typically refers to first-language-first education, that is, schooling which begins in the mother tongue and transitions to additional languages. ...

Other

English–Chinese bilingual traffic sign in Hong Kong A bilingual sign (or, by extension multilingual) is the representation on a panel (sign, usually traffic sign, safety sign and informational sign) of texts in more than one language. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.cal.org/resources/Digest/digestglobal.html A Global Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education (1999), G. Richard Tucker, Carnegie Mellon University
  2. ^ Gift of the Gab, New Scientist, January 8, 2005 (Michael Erard - Stories)
  3. ^ Ems Ukaz
  4. ^ Wolff, Ekkehard (2000). Language and Society. In: Bernd Heine and Derek Nurse (Eds.) African Languages - An Introduction, 317. Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ One Language or Two: Answers to Questions about Bilingualism in Language-Delayed Children
  • Bastardas-Boada, Albert (2007). "Linguistic sustainability for a multilingual humanity", Glossa. An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 2, n. 2.
  • Bhatia, Tej K. and Ritchie, William C. (2006). Handbook of Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Burck, C. (2005) Multilingual Living. Explorations of Language and Subjectivity. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Collier, V.P. (1992). A synthesis of studies examining long-term language-minority student data on academic achievement. Bilingual Research Journal, vol. 16, 187-212.
  • De Bot, K and Kroll, J.K (2002). 'Psycholinguistics'. In N. Schmitt (Ed.) Applied Linguistics. Oxford University Press: London.
  • Gillespie, M. K. (1993). Profiles of Adult Learners: Revealing the Multiple Faces of Literacy. Tesol Quarterly, 27(3), Fall 529-533.
  • Hakuta, K. (1990). Bilingualism and bilingual education: A research perspective. Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education. Washington, DC: Delta Systems & the Center for Applied Linguistics.
  • Ramirez, J.D. (1992). Executive summary of the Final Report: Longitudinal study of structured English immersion strategy, early-exit and late-exit transitional bilingual education programs for language minority children. Bilingual Research Journal, vol. 16, 1-62.
  • Garland, Stanley (2007). The Bilingual Spectrum. Guirnalda Publishing, Orlando, Fla., 47-8

The Ems Ukaz, or Ems Ukase (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ), was a secret decree (ukaz) of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language (the so-called Little Russian dialect) in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents. ...

External links

Bibliography: SLABIB by Vivian Cook] “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


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