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Encyclopedia > Multiculturalism

The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. 131 For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... Recently diversity has been used in a political context to justify recruiting international students or employees. ... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ...


Some countries have official, or de jure, multiculturalism policies aimed at preserving the cultures or cultural identities - usually those of immigrant groups - within a unified society. In this context, multiculturalism advocates a society that extends equitable status to distinct cultural and religious groups, no one culture predominating. However, the term is more commonly used to describe a society consisting of minority immigrant cultures existing alongside a predominant, indigenous culture. Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual...


Advocates[attribution needed] for the adoption (or maintenance) of official policies of multiculturalism often argue that cultural diversity is a positive force for a society’s nationhood or cultural identity. Official multiculturalism contrasts with forms of officially sanctioned monoculturalism (though such a term has only been used retrospectively). Monoculturalism implies a normative cultural unity or cultural homogeneity. Where a nation has accepted high levels of immigration, monoculturalism has been accompanied by varieties of assimilationist policies and practices to encourage forms of acculturation to (and protection of) the norms of the dominant culture.[citation needed] In countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, the term multicultural is also often used to refer to non-European immigrant groups in a manner similar to the terms NESB (Non-English speaking backgound) and CALD (Culturally and linguistically diverse) people. Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ... Monoculturalism is the practice of actively preserving a culture to the exclusion of external influences. ... In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Look up acculturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Immigration is the movement of people into one place from another. ...

The multicultural national representation of the countries of origin at the student union of San Francisco City College.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 559 KB) i took the image myself and allow wikipedia to use it as much as it wants in all projects. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 559 KB) i took the image myself and allow wikipedia to use it as much as it wants in all projects. ... A large community, or junior college in San Francisco, CA. Provides a wide array of certificates (Associates Degree|AA]]) and tranfer majors to four year universities in the UC and CSU systems. ...

Contemporary history in Western societies

As a philosophy, multiculturalism began as part of the pragmatism movement at the end of the nineteenth century in Britain and in the United States, then as political and cultural pluralism at the turn of the twentieth. It was partly in response to a new wave of European imperialism in sub-Saharan Africa and the massive immigration of Southern and Eastern Europeans to the United States and Latin America. Philosophers, psychologists and historians and early sociologist such as Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, George Santayana, Horace Kallen, John Dewey, W.E.B. Du Bois and Alain Locke developed concepts such cultural pluralism, from which emerged what we understand today as multiculturalism. In Pluralistic Universe (1909), William James espoused the idea of a "plural society." James saw pluralism as "crucial to the formation of philosophical and social humanism to help build a better, more egalitarian society.[1] For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... Pluralism is used, often in different ways, across a wide range of topics: In science, the concept often describes the view that several methods, theories or points of view are legitimate or plausible, see Scientific pluralism. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... This article is about the occupation of studying history. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American logician, philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... George Santayana George Santayana (December 16, 1863, Madrid – September 26, 1952, Rome), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. ... Horace Meyer Kallen (1882-1974) was a Jewish-American philosopher. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Alain LeRoy Locke (1886-1954) was born on September 13, 1886, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania He was an American educator, writer, and philosopher, and is best remembered as a leader and chief interpreter of the Harlem Renaissance. ... Main articles: Pluralism and Multiculturalism Cultural pluralism exists when all groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities...


In the Western English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an official national policy started in Canada in 1971, followed by Australia in 1973.[2] It was quickly adopted as official policy by most member-states of the European Union. Recently, right-of-center governments in several European states—notably the Netherlands and Denmark— have reversed the national policy and returned to an official monoculturalism.[2] A similar reversal is the subject of debate in the United Kingdom and Germany, among others, due to evidence of incipient segregation and anxieties over 'home-grown' terrorism.[3][4] Terrorist redirects here. ...


The monocultural nation-state (Europe)

Russian advertisers have begun to utilize imagery of diverse cultures

Especially in the 19th century, the ideology of nationalism transformed the way Europeans thought about the state. Existing states were broken up and new ones created; the new nation-states were founded on the principle that each nation is entitled to its own sovereign state and to engender, protect, and preserve its own unique culture and history. Unity, under this ideology, is seen as an essential feature of the nation and the nation-state - unity of descent, unity of culture, unity of language, and often unity of religion. The nation-state constitutes a culturally homogeneous society, although some national movements recognised regional differences. None, however, accepted foreign elements in culture and society. Multilingual and multi-ethnic empires, such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, were considered oppressive, and most Europeans did not accept that such a state could be legitimate. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Where cultural unity was insufficient, it was encouraged and enforced by the state. The 19th-century nation-states developed an array of policies - the most important was compulsory primary education in the national language. The language itself was often standardized by a linguistic academy, and regional languages were ignored or suppressed. Some nation-states pursued violent policies of cultural assimilation and even ethnic cleansing. A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ...


It has been argued that the concept, if not the 19th century methodology, of monoculturalism has been gaining favour in recent years. This is generally fuelled by a desire to safeguard national cultures or identities that are perceived as being under threat - particularly by globalisation and the promulgation of multiculturalism by Left Wing political parties - as opposed to the outright xenophobia of the 19th century. Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The 'Melting Pot' ideal (USA)

In the United States, continuous mass immigration had been a feature of economy and society since the first half of the 19th century. The absorption of the stream of immigrants became, in itself, a prominent feature of America's national myth. The idea of the Melting pot is a metaphor that implies that all the immigrant cultures are mixed and amalgamated without state intervention. The Melting Pot implied that each individual immigrant, and each group of immigrants, assimilated into American society at their own pace. An Americanized (and often stereotypical) version of the original nation's cuisine, and its holidays, survived. Note that the Melting Pot tradition co-exists with a belief in national unity, dating from the American founding fathers: Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nations past. ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Casting is a process by which a material is introduced into a mold while it is liquid, allowed to solidify in the shape inside the mold, and then removed producing a fabricated object, part, or casing. ...

"Providence has been pleased to give this one connected country to one united people — a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in their manners and customs... This country and this people seem to have been made for each other, and it appears as if it was the design of Providence, that an inheritance so proper and convenient for a band of brethren, united to each other by the strongest ties, should never be split into a number of unsocial, jealous, and alien sovereignties." -- John Jay, First American Supreme Court Chief Justice. John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist. ...

Ethnic selection (Australia)

Prior to settlement by Europeans, the Australian continent was not a single nation, but hosted several Indigenous cultures and between 200 and 400 active languages at any one time. The present nation of Australia resulted from a deliberate process of immigration intended to fill the "empty" continent (also excluding potential rivals to the British Empire). Settlers from the United Kingdom, after 1800 including Ireland, were the earliest people that were not native the continent to live in Australia. Dutch colonization (see New Holland) and possible visits to Australia by explorers and/or traders from China, did not lead to permanent settlement. Until 1901, Australia existed as a group of independent British colonies. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Map of a part of New Holland made by William Dampier in 1699 New Holland is a historic name for the island continent of Australia. ...


Proposals to limit immigration by nationality were intended to maintain the cultural and political identity of the colonies as part of the British Empire. The White Australia policy, which in various forms lasted 150 years but was not "official" policy per se for much of that time, was the most comprehensive policy of this type in the world. Such policies theoretically limit the cultural diversity of the immigrant population, and in theory facilitate the cultural assimilation of the immigrants, since they would come from related cultures. Taken from a historical perspective, however, this was not a matter of cultural diversity or otherwise, but the preservation of Australia's British character. It was official policy for much of the 20th century to promote European immigration and to keep out those who did not fit Australia's homogeneous European-derived culture. The definition of "white" also changed quite substantially over the course of the White Australia Policy - as the Twentieth Century progressed and the number of migrants from the British Isles became insufficient to meet planned quotas, "white" moved further East through Europe, encompassing the Italians, Greeks, Yugoslavs and refugees from World War II in Europe. In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time The White Australia policy is a generic term used to describe a collection of historical legislation and policies, intended to restrict non-white immigration to Australia, and to promote European immigration, from 1901 to 1973. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time The White Australia policy is a generic term used to describe a collection of historical legislation and policies, intended to restrict non-white immigration to Australia, and to promote European immigration, from 1901 to 1973. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Adoption of multiculturalism as national policy

Multiculturalism was adopted as official policy, in several nations from the 1970s onward, for reasons that varied from country to country.[citation needed] The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


Government multicultural policies may include:

  • recognition of multiple citizenship (the multiple citizenship itself usually results from the nationality laws of another country)
  • government support for newspapers, television, and radio in minority languages
  • support for minority festivals, holidays, and celebrations
  • acceptance of traditional and religious dress in schools, the military, and society in general
  • support for music and arts from minority cultures
  • programs to encourage minority representation in politics, SET (Science, Engineering and Technology), Mathematics, education, and the work force in general.

Countries that do (yellow) and do not (red) permit multiple citizenship. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ...

Origins in Canada

Canada has the highest per capita immigration rate in the world,[5] driven by economic policy and family reunification. In 2001, 250,640 people immigrated to Canada. Newcomers settle mostly in the major urban areas of Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal. By the 1990s and 2000s, more than half of all of Canada’s immigrants came from Asia.[6] Canadian society is often depicted as being a very progressive, diverse, and multicultural. Accusing a person of racism in Canada is usually considered a serious slur.[7] All political parties are now cautious about criticising of the high level of immigration, because, as noted by the Globe and Mail, "in the early 1990s, the old Reform Party was branded 'racist' for suggesting that immigration levels be lowered from 250,000 to 150,000."[8] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. ... The economic impact of immigration to Canada is a much-debated topic in Canada. ... Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ... The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party that existed from 1987 to 2000. ...


Multiculturalism in Canada was first articulated by Progressive Conservative Senator Paul Yuzyk in his maiden Senate speech in 1964. It was officially adopted in 1971, following the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, a government body set up in response to the grievances of Canada's French-speaking minority (concentrated in the Province of Quebec). The report of the Commission advocated that the Canadian government should recognize Canada as a bilingual and bicultural society and adopt policies to preserve this character. Biculturalism was attacked from many directions. Although India already had a history of multiculturalism, this was the first time that it was adopted in a Western country. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... Paul Yuzyk Paul Yuzyk (24 June 1913 – 9 July 1986) was a Canadian Senator. ... The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism was a Canadian royal commission established on July 19, 1963, by the government of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson to inquire into and report upon the existing state of bilingualism and biculturalism in Canada and to recommend what steps should be taken to... This article is about the Canadian province. ... A policy of biculturalism is typically adopted in nations that have emerged from a history of national or ethnic conflict in which neither side has gained complete victory. ...


Progressive Conservative Party leader John Diefenbaker saw multiculturalism as an attack on his vision of unhyphenated Canadianism. It did not satisfy the growing number of young Francophones who gravitated towards Quebec nationalism. While many Canadians disliked the new policies of biculturalism and official bilingualism, the strongest opposition came from Canadians of neither English nor French descent, the so-called "Third Force" Canadians. Biculturalism did not accord with local realities in the western provinces, where the French population was tiny compared to other cultural minorities. To accommodate them, the formula was changed from "bilingualism and biculturalism" to "bilingualism and multiculturalism." John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... This article is about the region in Canada. ...


The Liberal Party government of Pierre Trudeau promulgated the "Announcement of Implementation of Policy of Multiculturalism within Bilingual Framework" in the House of Commons on 8 October 1971, the precursor of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act of the Brian Mulroney Progressive Conservative government which received Royal Assent on 21 July 1988. On a more practical level, federal funds began to be distributed to ethnic groups to help them preserve their cultures. Projects typically funded included folk dancing competitions and the construction of ethnic-oriented community centres. This led to criticisms that the policy was actually motivated by electoral considerations rather than Trudeau's vision of a Just Society. After its election in 1984, the government of Brian Mulroney did not reverse these policies, although they had earlier been criticized by Tories as inconsistent with unhyphenated Canadianism. The Trinidad-born Canadian intellectual Neil Bissoondath has been a particular critic of the concept as an official policy.[2] The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... The Act for the Preservation and Enhancement of Multiculturalism in Canada was passed in 1988, with minor organizational amendments since that time (Multiculturalism & Citizenship Canada, 1991). ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Folk Dancing is a general term for dances from various countries that are normally performed during social events by people with little or no professional training. ... The Just Society was a rhetorical device used by Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to illustrate his vision for the nation. ... Neil Devindra Bissoondath (born 1955 in Trinidad and Tobago) is a Canadian author who lives in Ste-Foy, Quebec. ...

OldPort in Montreal, historic heart of French Canada.

Far from pleading multiculturalism's neutrality in matters of national unity, out of belief or political correctness, successive Canadian governments have argued that the policy promotes the national interest by breaking down social and cultural barriers. Many believe that rather than weakening the national character, or presenting a slippery slope whereby all groups may appeal for separate (read special) treatment based on every imaginable difference, the policy is viewed as strengthening national identity by binding citizens to a single moral community. However, there are critics of the policy, and according to a 2007 University of Toronto study, many recent non-white citizens do not identify themselves as being "Canadian".[9] . Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


The policy was added to Canada's 1982 constitution, in section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Section Twenty-seven of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a section of the Charter that, as part of a range of provisions within the section 25 to section 31 bloc, helps determine how rights in other sections of the Charter should be interpreted and applied by the... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ...


Diane Ravitch describes both the melting pot and Canada's cultural mosaic as being multicultural and distinguishes them as pluralistic and particularist multiculturalism. [citation needed] Pluralistic multiculturalism views each culture or subculture in a society as contributing unique and valuable cultural aspects to the whole culture. Particularist multiculturalism is more concerned with preserving the distinctions between cultures. Diane Ravitch is an author, a professor of Education at New York University (NYU), and a historian of education who sits on the board of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. ...


Canadian multiculturalism is looked upon with admiration by many world leaders - particularly His Highness the Aga Khan. In a 2002 interview with the Globe and Mail, the 49th Imam of the Ismaili Muslims described Canada as "the most successful pluralist society on the face of our globe",[10] citing it as "a model for the world."[10] He explained that the experience of Canadian governance - its commitment to pluralism and its support for the rich multicultural diversity of its peoples - is something that must be shared and would be of benefit societies in other parts of the world.[11][12] With this in mind, he went on in 2006 to establish the Global Centre for Pluralism in partnership with the Government of Canada. The Centre seeks to export the Canadian experience by promoting pluralist values and practices in culturally diverse societies worldwide, with the aim of ensuring that every individual has the opportunity to realize his or her full potential as a citizen, irrespective of cultural, ethnic or religious differences.[12] Karīm al-Hussaynī, Āgā Khān IV KBE CC GCC (Arabic: سمو الأمیر شاہ کریم الحسیني آغا خان الرابع) -- (born December 13, 1936) is the current (49th) Imām of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims. ... The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... The Global Centre for Pluralism on Sussex Drive, Ottawa. ... The Government of Canada is the federal government of Canada. ...


The Diversity at Work Glossary, recognizes multiculturalism as part of “a policy introduced by the federal government in 1971, which acknowledges that many ethnic Canadians experience unequal access to resources and opportunities. It urges more recognition of the contributions of such Canadians, the preservation of certain expressions of their ethnicity, and more equity in the treatment of all Canadians. Since 1971, there has been increasing recognition of the limitation of this concept; first, it does not explicitly acknowledge the critical role which racism plays in preventing this vision from materialising; second, it promotes a static and limited notion of culture as fragmented and confined to ethnicity; and third, it pays insufficient attention to institutional forms of racial discrimination, focusing instead on individual expressions and experiences”.(Source: Diversity at Work, Diversity Glossary))


Australia

The other country to have most fully adopted Canadian-style multiculturalism is Australia, with many similar policies, for example the formation of the Special Broadcasting Service. While the White Australia Policy was quietly dismantled after World War II by various changes to immigration policy, the full political introduction of official policies of multiculturalism was 1973. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time The White Australia policy is a generic term used to describe a collection of historical legislation and policies, intended to restrict non-white immigration to Australia, and to promote European immigration, from 1901 to 1973. ... Exactly when Immigration to Australia began is unknown but estimates typically range from 40,000 - 50,000 years ago,[1] when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. ...


The overall level of immigration to Australia has grown substantially during the last decades. Net overseas migration increased from 30,000 in 1993[13] to 118,000 in 2003-04.[14] During the 2004-05, total 123,424 people immigrated to Australia. Of them, 17,736 were from Africa, 54,804 from Asia, 21,131 from Oceania, 18,220 from United Kingdom, 1,506 from South America, and 2,369 from Eastern Europe.[15] 131,000 people migrated to Australia in 2005-06[16] and migration target for 2006-07 was 144,000.[17] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


The origins of Australian immigration are the White Australia Policy, an unofficial idea that only Caucasian, English speaking migrants were welcome. Over time this idea was compounded by the Liberal Party Government under Robert Menzies, with particular emphasis on the "Yellow Peril", the fear of Asian expansion and Communism. This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time The White Australia policy is a generic term used to describe a collection of historical legislation and policies, intended to restrict non-white immigration to Australia, and to promote European immigration, from 1901 to 1973. ... The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... The Yellow Terror In All His Glory, 1899 editorial cartoon Yellow Peril (sometimes Yellow Terror) was a color metaphor for race that originated in the late nineteenth century with immigration of Chinese laborers to various Western countries, notably the United States, and later to the Japanese during the mid 20th... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


The meaning of multiculturalism has changed enormously since its formal introduction to Australia. Originally it was understood by the mainstream population as a need for acceptance that many members of the Australian community originally came from different cultures and still had ties to it. However, it came to mean the rights of migrants within mainstream Australia to express their cultural identity. It is now often used to refer to the fact that very many people in Australia have, and recognise, multiple cultural or ethnic backgrounds. The Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs in Australia estimated that, in 2005, 25% of the Australian workforce was born outside of Australia and 40% had at least one parent born outside of Australia. Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ...


Following the initial moves of the Whitlam Labor government in 1973, further official national multicultural policies were implemented by Malcom Fraser's Liberal Government in 1978. The Labor Government of Bob Hawke continued with these policies during the 1980s and early 1990s, and were further supported by Paul Keating up to his electoral defeat 1996. Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... John Malcolm Fraser (born 21 May 1930), Australian politician and 22nd Prime Minister of Australia, came to power in the circumstances of the dismissal of the Whitlam government. ... The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ... For other persons named Paul Keating, see Paul Keating (disambiguation). ...


The election of John Howard's Liberal-National Coalition government in 1996 was a major watershed for Australian multiculturalism. Howard had long been a critic of multiculturalism, expressing doubts in the late 1980s about levels of Asian immigration. Shortly after the new government took office, the new independent member Pauline Hanson made her maiden speech in which she was highly critical of multicultulturalism, saying that a multicultural society could never be strong. Notably, despite many calls for Howard to censure Hanson, his response was to state that her speech indicated a new freedom of expression in Australia on such issues. Rather than official multiculturalism, Howard has advocated instead the idea of a "shared national identity", albeit one strongly grounded in certain recognisably Anglo-Celtic Australian themes, such as 'mateship' and a 'fair go'. While Howard has changed the name of the Department of Immigration, Multiculturalism and Indigenous Affairs to the Department of Immigration and Citizenship, the policy of multiculturalism has remained largely intact in practice. Newspaper columists such as the right wing Andrew Bolt have called for a National policy of Assimilation. John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Pauline Hanson at a book signing, 2007 Pauline Lee Hanson (née Seccombe; born May 27, 1954) is an Australian politician and former leader of the One Nation Party, a party with a populist, anti-immigration platform. ... Anglo-Celtic Australian is an ethnic or cultural category, used to describe the majority of Australians of North West European descent. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) is an Australian Government department. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Andrew Bolt (born 26 September 1959) is an Australian newspaper columnist and conservative pundit. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ...


Sweden

Officially undertook a multiculturalist policy in 1975. The previous decade had seen a significant labor shortage and immigration from other Scandinavian countries, Poland, Southern Europe, and the Middle East had increased. By 1979, 11% of all residents of Sweden had been born outside of the country. Sweden required that immigrants speak Swedish as a condition of employment and instituted free language classes through university extension programs. Some towns, and sections of large cities, became predominantly non-Swedish in language and culture. The state also initiated immigrant classrooms in the schools to teach Swedish to children. At the same time, they started an after school hemspråk (home language) program in which children could receive instruction in their native languages. It has been subject to a lot of criticism by the current administration and is under review. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


United States

In the United States multiculturalism is not an official policy at the federal level. At the state level, it is sometimes associated with English-Spanish bilingualism. [citation needed] However, the government, in recent years, has moved to support many multiculturalist policies. For instance, California drivers can take their exams in a number of languages.[18]



The Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 (the Hart-Cellar Act), passed by a Democratic controlled Congress, abolished the system of national-origin quotas. Over 28,000,000 have legally immigrated since 1965 under its provisions. Prior to 1965, the US was taking around 178,000 legal immigrants annually. The Immigration Act of 1965 (also known as the Hart-Celler Act) abolished the national-origin quotas that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration Act of 1924. ...


There were 1,266,264 immigrants who were granted legal residence in 2006, up from 601,516 in 1987, 849,807 in 2000, and 1,122,373 in 2005. The top twelve sending countries in 2006, by country of birth, were Mexico (173,753), People's Republic of China (87,345), Philippines (74,607), India (61,369), Cuba (45,614), Colombia (43,151), Dominican Republic (38,069), El Salvador (31,783), Vietnam (30,695), Jamaica (24,976), South Korea (24,386), Guatemala (24,146), Other countries - 606,370.[19] Muslim immigration to the U.S. is rising and in 2005 alone more people from Muslim countries became legal permanent U.S. residents — nearly 96,000 — than in any year in the previous two decades.[20][21] Legal residence is the principle that each legal person (natural or corporate) has a single location of primary residence. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


United Kingdom

Under the Conservatives (1979-1997), multicultural rhetoric and policies were confined to left-leaning councils. Since the election of the Labour government in 1997, multiculturalism has influenced government policies and statements. Precursors of present policy include the Race Relations Act, and the British Nationality Act of 1948. The policy's recent harsh critics have included the Ugandan-born Archbishop of York John Sentamu and the Pakistani-born bishop of Rochester Michael Nazir-Ali. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... John Tucker Mugabi Sentamu, PhD, (born 10 June 1949 in Kampala, Uganda) is the 97th Archbishop of York, Metropolitan of the province of York, and Primate of England. ... The Bishop of Rochester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Rochester in the Province of Canterbury. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 2005, an estimated 565,000 migrants[22] arrived to live in the UK for at least a year, while 380,000 people emigrated from the UK for a year or more, with Australia, Spain and France most popular destinations.[23][24] Largest group of arrivals were people from the Indian subcontinent who accounted for two-thirds of net immigration, mainly fuelled by family reunion.[25] Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


There is much debate as to what multiculturalism actually is, and whether Britain is indeed an accepted multicultural state, or simply a multiracial state. Some[attribution needed] contend that the establishment of foreign culture in Britain has been accepted, and is often quoted as a boost to the economy whilst engendering cultural diversity and fusional phenomena such as Anglo-Indian cuisine and Pop bhangra; but this integration - in some cases, lack thereof - has not been without its tension or critics. Others[attribution needed] point out that other cultures must apparently exist separately in bastions such as China town or Southall in London which, opponents argue, is evidence of Balkanisation rather than simply multiculturalism at work. Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ... During the British Raj in India, many local Indian dishes were adapted (often in quite dramatic ways) by the British and many of these dishes became fashionable in England at the time. ... Bhangra (Punjabi: , , ) is a lively form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. ... Balkanization is a geopolitical term used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region into many smaller regions that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other. ...


A political opponent of multiculturalism is the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) whose policies include departure from the European Union, restrictions on immigration, and an emphasis on the preservation of British culture. UKIP differs from the British National Party in that its policies make no explicit reference to race or the indigenous people of Britain. The United Kingdom Independence Party (commonly known as UKIP, pronounced //) is a British political party. ... The British National Party (BNP) is a white nationalist political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Cited[attribution needed] examples of the "failure" of multiculturalism in Britain often refer to the prevalence of entire secluded communities of first or second generation immigrants, some of whom do not integrate with outside communities, and often have localised languages. These communities are often poor and working class, whose members often complain of being neglected by Britain as a whole.


The establishment and expanse of such communities is often met with bemusement and the so-called 'White flight' from the depleting native minority, and has led in part to incidents such as the Bradford Riot.[citation needed] White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... The Upper Globe pub was attacked during the riot & has since lain derelict. ...


Efforts to revive a sense of social solidarity - which the British government now appears to acknowledge as being more conducive to social harmony than the encouragement of cultural diversification - include the introduction of a Britishness test, requiring applicants for British citizenship to demonstrate an affinity with British culture. This, by its very concept, is contrary to multiculturalism, which is by definition the opposite of social solidarity; and critics[attribution needed] have argued that such measures are belated, superficial and, crucially, factually inaccurate. The Britishness test is a hypothetical list of questions that will be posed to applicants for British citizenship. ...


Malaysia

The Malay Peninsula has a long history of international trade contacts, influencing its ethnic and religious composition. Predominantly Malays before the 18th century, the ethnic composition changed dramatically when the British introduced new industries, and imported Chinese and Indian labour. Several regions in the then British Malaya such as Penang, Malacca and Singapore became Chinese dominated. Co-existence between the three ethnicities (and other minor groups) was largely peaceful, despite the fact the immigration affected the demographic and cultural position of the Malays. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) (formerly Let Penang Lead) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tuan Yang Terutama Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ...


Preceding independence of the Federation of Malaya, a social contract was negotiated as the basis of a new society. The contract as reflected in the 1957 Malayan Constitution and the 1963 Malaysian Constitution states that the immigrant groups are granted citizenship, and Malays' special rights are guaranteed. This is often referred to the Bumiputra policy. The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The social contract in Malaysia refers to the agreement made by the countrys founding fathers in the Constitution. ... The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising more than 180 articles, is the supreme law of Malaysia. ... Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ...


The formation of Malaysia itself was burdened with the 'mathematics of race'. The then Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman would only accept Singapore as a member of the federation if Sarawak and North Borneo were admitted too. The Prime Minister's rationale was that the inclusion of Singapore into a new federation would make the Chinese the new majority power, at the expense of the Malays. Inclusion of the Borneo states, on the other hand, would maintain a Malay majority. Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Shah (February 8, 1903–December 6, 1990) usually known as the Tunku (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1...

The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur.

Ethnic tensions followed the formation of Malaysia in 1963. Singapore, under the leadership of People's Action Party, and the federal government led by a coalition chaired by the United Malays National Organisation, had frequent disputes about the social contract. Tension between Malays and Chinese contributed to the 1964 Race Riots in Singapore. This riot in turn partly contributed to the expulsion of Singapore from Malaysia. At the same time, Malaysia was experiencing a communist insurgency known as the Malayan Emergency. The conflict could be seen as between the Chinese-dominated Communist Party of Malaya and the British-backed Malay-dominated government.[26] Image File history File links May_13_aftermath. ... Image File history File links May_13_aftermath. ... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Party logo with a symbol of red lightning that signifies action. ... Sang Saka Bangsa The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu), is the right-Wing and the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterruptedly since its independence. ... The start of the July riot on Prophet Muhammads birthday, that would later injure hundreds and kill 23 people. ... On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand British colonies Federation of Malaya Rhodesia Fiji various British East African colonies Malayan Communist Party Malayan Races Liberation Army Commanders Harold Briggs Henry Gurney † Gerald Templer Henry Wells Chin Peng Strength 250,000 Malayan Home Guard troops 40,000 regular Commonwealth personnel 37,000... Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) Known as the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) until the 1960s. ...


The worst race riot — the May 13 Incident — occurred in 1969, again between Chinese and Malays. This led to the introduction of the New Economic Policy which aimed to reduce economic disparities between the ethnic groups. It also introduced policies such as the Rukunegara to encourage unity among all ethnic groups in Malaysia, and promoted syncretic festivals such as DeepaRaya and Kongsi Raya. In education, the national education policies included vernacular education. Malaysia is the only country outside of China that has a Chinese education system.[27] The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Malaysian New Economic Policy. ... Rukunegara or sometimes Rukun Negara is a philosophy - de facto Malaysian pledge of allegiance - introduced by the Malaysian government 1970 in reaction to a serious race riot known as the May 13 Incident which occurred in 1969. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... DeepaRaya is a Malaysian portmanteau combining the names of the Deepavali and Hari Raya festivals, which are traditionally celebrated by ethnic Indians and Malays respectively in Malaysia. ... Kongsi Raya is a Malaysian portmanteau, denoting the Chinese New Year and Hari Raya Aidilfitri (Eid ul-Fitr) festivals. ... Educational oversight Minister Ministry of Education, Ministry of Higher Education Hishamuddin Hussein, Mustapa Mohamed National education budget RM5 billion[3] (2006) Primary languages Malay, English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil National system Established 1956 Literacy (2006)  â€¢ Men  â€¢ Women 92. ...


These pluralist policies have come under pressure from orthodox Muslims and Islamist parties, who oppose secular and non-Islamic religious influences. The issue is related to the controversial status of religious freedom in Malaysia. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism (political philosophy) This article is about pluralism in politics. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... The status of religious freedom in Malaysia is a controversial issue. ...


Multiculturalism as introductory to monoculturalism

An anti-discrimination poster in a Hong Kong subway station. Circa. 2005

Multiculturalism, as generally understood, refers to ideology and policy in western nation-states, which previously had an uncontested national identity. Many nation-states in Africa, Asia, and the Americas are culturally diverse, and are 'multi-cultural' in a descriptive sense. In some, communalism is a major political issue. The policies adopted by these states often have parallels with multicultural-ist policies in the Western world, but the historical background is different, and the goal may be a monocultural or mono-ethnic nation-building - for instance in the Malaysian governments attempt to create a 'Malaysian race' by 2020.[28] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 101 KB) An anti-discrimination poster in Admiralty MTR station in Hong Kong targetting Chinese-speaking audience. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 101 KB) An anti-discrimination poster in Admiralty MTR station in Hong Kong targetting Chinese-speaking audience. ... This article is about the metro system in Hong Kong. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules for a language. ... In many parts of the world, communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range of social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community. ... Occident redirects here. ... This article or section should be merged with nation-building Nation building is the use of armed force in the aftermath of a conflict to underpin an enduring transition to democracy. ...


Despite some opposition to multiculturalism, many groups do support and sympathize with multiculturalism for different reasons. Multiculturalism does have support from some social conservatives. Many immigrant groups in Canada, USA and Europe come from socially conservative backgrounds. These groups are generally pro-life on the abortion issue, against divorce, support freedom of religion and support marriage over common-law relationships. Many immigrant groups also support tax credits for stay at home parents as well as government funding for faith based charities. It is believed that if these groups preserve their cultures, that they will remain socially conservative. Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Multiculturalism also has support from the political left. Support from the political left comes mainly from those who are communitarian. Communitarians support multiculturalism because it gives immigrant groups a sense of community when they settle in new countries. Immigrant groups generally settle together in the same community which helps their transition to their new countries. Communitarians also support multiculturalism because of the need for society to be tolerant of all races and religions. Communitarianism as a philosophy began in the late 20th century, opposing aspects of liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ...


Opposition to multiculturalism

Skeptics[attribution needed] of the ideology often debate whether the multicultural ideal of benignly co-existing cultures that interrelate and influence one another, and yet remain distinct, is sustainable, paradoxical or even desirable when housed by a single nation - one that, in the case of some European nations, would previously have been synonymous with a distinctive cultural identity of its own. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...


United States

In the United States especially, multiculturalism became associated with political correctness and with the rise of ethnic identity politics. In the 1980s and 1990s many criticisms were expressed, from both the left and right. Criticisms come from a wide variety of perspectives, but predominantly from the perspective of liberal individualism, from American conservatives concerned about values, and from a national unity perspective. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ...


The liberal-feminist critique is related to the liberal and libertarian critique, since it is concerned with what happens inside the cultural groups. In her 1999 essay, later expanded into an anthology, "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?" the feminist and political theorist Susan Okin argues that a concern for the preservation of cultural diversity should not overshadow the discriminatory nature of gender roles in many traditional minority cultures, that, at the very least, "culture" should not be used as an excuse for rolling back the women's rights movement. Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Susan Moller Okin (July 19, 1946 - March 3, 2004) was a feminist political philosopher and author. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ...


A prominent criticism in the US, later echoed in Europe, was that multiculturalism undermined national unity, hindered social integration and cultural assimilation, and led to the fragmentation of society into several ethnic factions - Balkanization.[29] Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Balkanization is a geopolitical term originally used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other. ...


In 1991, Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., a former advisor to the Kennedy and other US administrations and Pulitzer Prize winner, published a book with the title The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society.[30] Schlesinger states that a new attitude - one that celebrates difference and abandons assimilation - may replace the classic image of the melting pot, in which differences are submerged in democracy. He argues that ethnic awareness has had many positive consequences to unite a nation with a "history of prejudice"; however, the "cult of ethnicity", if pushed too far, may endanger the unity of society. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...


In the United States, the cultural relativism implicit in multiculturalism attracted criticism. Often that was combined with an explicit preference for western Enlightenment values as universal values. In his 1991 work, Illiberal Education, Dinesh D'Souza argues that the entrenchment of multiculturalism in American universities undermined the universalist values that liberal education once attempted to foster. In particular, he was disturbed by the growth of ethnic studies programs (e.g., Black Studies). Cultural relativism is the principle that beliefs and activities should be interpreted in terms of his or her own culture. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Dinesh DSouza (born April 25, 1961 in Bombay, India) is an author currently serving as the Robert and Karen Rishwain Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ...


Criticism of multiculturalism in the US was not always synonymous with opposition to immigration. Some politicians did address both themes, notably Pat Buchanan, who in 1993 described multiculturalism as "an across-the-board assault on our Anglo-American heritage."[citation needed] Buchanan and other paleoconservatives argue that multiculturalism is the ideology of the modern managerial state, an ongoing regime that remains in power, regardless of what political party holds a majority. It acts in the name of abstract goals, such as equality or positive rights, and uses its claim of moral superiority, power of taxation and wealth redistribution to keep itself in power.[citation needed] Immigration in the modern sense refers to movement of people from one nation-state to another, where they are not citizens. ... Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American politician, author, syndicated columnist, and broadcaster. ... The term paleoconservative (sometimes shortened to paleo or paleocon when the context is clear) refers to an American branch of conservative Old Right thought that stands against both the mainstream tradition of the National Review magazine and the neoconservatives. ... Managerial State is a paleoconservative concept used in critiquing modern social democracy in Western countries. ...


Multiculturalism has also been attacked through satire, such as the following proposition by John Derbyshire. John Derbyshire (born June 3, 1945) is a British-born author who lives in the United States and became a naturalized citizen in 2002. ...

The Diversity Theorem: Groups of people from anywhere in the world, mixed together in any numbers and proportions whatsoever, will eventually settle down as a harmonious society, appreciating—nay, celebrating!—their differences... which will of course soon disappear entirely.

This theorem is held to be false by Derbyshire and other paleoconservatives.[44]


Another critic of multiculturalism is the political theorist Brian Barry. In his 2002 book Culture and Equality: An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism, he argues that some forms of multiculturalism can divide people, although they need to unite in order to fight for social justice.[citation needed] Brian Barry (born 1936) is a contemporary moral and political philosopher. ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ...


Canada

Approximately 18% of today's Canadian citizens were born outside Canada, the highest immigration rate of any G8 country. Recent immigrants are largely concentrated in the cities of Vancouver, Montreal and Toronto, which have high population growth due to this concentrated immigration. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ...


In Canada, the most noted critics of multiculturalism are Kenneth McRoberts, Neil Bissoondath, and Daniel Stoffman. As a young man, McRoberts worked for the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, and his career as a political scientist has roughly coincided with the policy of multiculturalism. While some[citation needed] argue that the shift in official discourse from biculturalism to multiculturalism has had a neutral effect on relations between Quebec and the rest of Canada, McRoberts believes that it was disastrous for Canadian nationalism, as it offended Québecois and their dualistic vision of Canada as a bilingual and bicultural society. Glendon School of Public Affairs Kenneth McRoberts, Acting Director of the School Born in Vancouver, B.C., Kenneth McRoberts attended elementary and secondary school there. ... Neil Devindra Bissoondath (born 1955 in Trinidad and Tobago) is a Canadian author who lives in Ste-Foy, Quebec. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


To many French Canadians, multiculturalism threatened to reduce them to just another ethnic group. Of all Canadian provinces, Quebec has been the least supportive of multiculturalism, due in part to a widespread view that multiculturalism was implemented at the federal level to dilute the two founding peoples philosophy which had preceded it, thereby diminishing the place of the province's French majority within Canada, and due in part to Quebec's policy internally of welcoming people of all origins but insisting that they assimilate[citation needed] into Quebec's French-speaking society. Recently, however, the more assimilationist aspects of this policy have been tempered[citation needed] with a recognition that Quebec is a de facto pluralist society and an understanding of pluralism as a feature of modern Quebec society or any other society that welcomes immigrants. The Quebec government has therefore adopted a form of multiculturalism termed an "interculturalism policy." Interculturalism is the philosophy of exchanges between cultural groups within a society. ...


This policy seeks to integrate immigrants into the mainstream French-speaking society of Quebec on the basis of French, the language of the majority, as the common public language of all Québécois; all citizens are in this way held to be invited to participate in a common civic culture. Interculturalism is in this way consistent with the Quebec government's view of itself as the "national" government for all Québécois, because interculturalism is viewed as less threatening than multiculturalism, to the idea of Quebec's population as a single and distinct nation within another nation. Whether as a first, second, or third language, French becomes the instrument which allows the socialization of Québécois of all origins and forces interaction between them. For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ...


Intellectual Critique

In his Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada, the Trinidad and Tobago-born Bissoondath argues that official multiculturalism limits the freedom of minority members, by confining them to cultural and geographic ghettos. He also argues that cultures are very complex, and must be transmitted through close family and kin relations. To him, the government view of cultures as being about festivals and cuisine is a crude oversimplification that leads to easy stereotyping. For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ...


Daniel Stoffman's Who Gets In raises serious questions about the policy of Canadian multiculturalism. Stoffman points out that many cultural practices, such as allowing dog meat to be served in restaurants and street cockfighting, are simply incompatible with Canadian and Western culture. He also raises concern about the number of recent immigrants who are not being linguistically integrated into Canada (i.e., not learning either English or French). He stresses that multiculturalism works better in theory than in practice.


Another more recent and conservative criticism, based largely upon the Nordic and Canadian experience, is presented by the administrative scientist Gunnar K. A. Njalsson, who views multiculturalism as a utopian ideology with a simplistic and overly optimistic view of human nature, the same weakness he attributes to communism, anarchism, and many strains of liberalism. According to Njalsson, multiculturalism is particular to a western urban environment and cannot survive as an ideology outside it. Some variants of multiculturalism, he believes, may equip non-egalitarian cultural groups with power and influence. This, in turn, may alter the value system of the larger society. This realist criticism of multiculturalism maintains that in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the US, multiculturalism may aggravate a situation where old-stock families are not permitted by the countries of their forebearers to consider themselves English, French, Scandinavian, etc., while newer arrivals can claim two or more national identities. [citation needed]


Australia

The response to multiculturalism in Australia has been extremely varied, with a recent wave of criticism against it in the past decade. An anti-immigration party, the One Nation Party, was formed by Pauline Hanson in the late 1990s. The party enjoyed significant electoral success for a while, most notably in its home state of Queensland, but is now electorally marginalized. In its 1998 policy document on Immigration, Population and Social Cohesion, One Nation advocated the complete abolition of multiculturalism, asserting that there was "no reason why migrant cultures should be maintained at the expense of our shared, national culture." According to One Nation, multiculturalism represented a "threat to the very basis of the Australian culture, identity and shared values." Such a policy in combination with high immigration, One Nation argued, would eventually lead to "the Asianisation of Australia." [31] One Nation is a nationalist and protectionist political group in Australia. ... Pauline Hanson at a book signing, 2007 Pauline Lee Hanson (née Seccombe; born May 27, 1954) is an Australian politician and former leader of the One Nation Party, a party with a populist, anti-immigration platform. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd...


Opposition to multiculturalism in Australia is, as of 2006, focused on the position of Islamic immigrants from Middle Eastern countries. Prior to the September 11 attacks, the main targets of anti-immigration campaigns were immigrants from southern Europe, and later east Asia. The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


A Federal Government proposal in 2006 to introduce a compulsory citizenship test, which would assess English skills and knowledge of Australian values, sparked renewed debate over the future of multiculturalism in Australia. Andrew Robb, then Parliamentary Secretary for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, told a conference in November 2006 that some Australians worried the term "multicultural" had been transformed by interest groups into a philosophy that put "allegiances to original culture ahead of national loyalty, a philosophy which fosters separate development, a federation of ethnic cultures, not one community". He added: "A community of separate cultures fosters a rights mentality, rather than a responsibilities mentality. It is divisive. It works against quick and effective integration." [32] The Australian citizenship test commenced in October 2007 for all new citizens between the ages of 18 and 60. [33] Andrew Robb (born 20 August Australian politician, was elected to the House of Representatives as member for the Division of Goldstein, Victoria for the Liberal Party of Australia at the 2004 federal election. ...


In January 2007 the Howard Government removed the word 'multicultural' from the name of the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, changing its name to the Department of Immigration and Citizenship. January 2007 is the first month of that year. ... The Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) is an Australian Government department. ...


Intellectual critique

One of the earliest critics of multiculturalism in Australia has been the history Professor Geoffrey Blainey. Blainey warned that multiculturalism threatened to transform Australia into a "cluster of tribes". In his 1984 book All for Australia, Blainey criticized multiculturalism for being "anti-British" and for overemphasizing the rights of ethnic minorities, Asian immigrants in particular, at the expense of the majority of Australians. According to Blainey, such a policy with its "emphasis on what is different and on the rights of the new minority rather than the old majority" was unnecessarily creating division and threatened the nation's social cohesion. He remained a persistent critic of multiculturalism into the 1990s, condemning multiculturalism as "morally, intellectually and economically ... a sham". Professor Geoffrey Blainey AC (born 11 March 1930), is one of Australias most significant historians. ... All for Australia is a controversial 1984 book by Australian historian Professor Geoffrey Blainey. ...


Following the upsurge of support for the One Nation Party in 1996, Lebanese-born Australian anthropologist Ghassan Hage published a notable critique in 1997 of Australian multiculturalism in the book White Nation[34]. Drawing on theoretical frameworks from Whiteness studies, Jacques Lacan and Pierre Bourdieu, Hage examined a range of everyday discourses that implicated both anti-multiculturalists and pro-multiculturalists alike. The book was taken by many merely to be an attack on Australia's Anglo-Celtic majority[citation needed], but its analysis is more sophisticated than a charge of racism by the dominant ethnic group. Hage's analysis suggests that Australian multiculturalism has fallen a long way short of its original ideals and works much more as a form of assimilation by the participation of white and non-white people, pro- and anti-multiculturalists alike in maintaining the centrality of a set of cultural values associated with Whiteness. One Nation is a nationalist and protectionist political group in Australia. ... Ghassan Hage (born 1957, Beirut, Lebanon) is a Lebanese-Australian academic currently serving as Professor of Anthropology at Sydney University. ... Whiteness studies (also known as critical whiteness studies) is a controversial arena of academic inquiry focused on the cultural, historical and sociological aspects of people identified as white, and the social construction of whiteness as a social status. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... Pierre Bourdieu (August 1, 1930 â€“ January 23, 2002) was an acclaimed French sociologist whose work employed methods drawn from a wide range of disciplines: from philosophy and literary theory to sociology and anthropology. ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... For the ethnic group, see White people. ... Whiteness studies (also known as critical whiteness studies) is a controversial arena of academic inquiry focused on the cultural, historical and sociological aspects of people identified as white, and the social construction of whiteness as a social status. ...


The Netherlands

In the 1950s, the Netherlands was generally a mono-ethnic and monocultural society: it was not explicitly monolingual, but almost everyone could speak standard Dutch; Frisian was the only indigenous minority language. Its inhabitants shared a classic national identity, with a national mythos emphasising the Dutch Golden Age, and national heroes such as Admiral Michiel de Ruyter. Dutch society was segmented along religious and ideological lines, sometimes coinciding with differences in social class and lifestyle. This segmentation had developed since the late 19th century into a uniquely Dutch version, called pillarization, enabling peaceful cooperation between the leaders of the various 'pillars', while their constituencies remained largely segregated. The Jews had been the only non-Christian minority since about 1600, enjoying freedom and tolerance. Spinoza and Anne Frank are the most widely known representatives of this group. Major immigration in the form of labour migration began in the 1960s, and accelerated in the 1970s, with Spain, Morocco and Turkey as the main countries of origin. From the 1970s, multiculturalism was a consensus ideology among the 'political class'; expressed in the phrase "Integratie met behoud van eigen taal en cultuur", that is, social integration while retaining the language and culture of the immigrant groups. However, a tacit assumption was, that most of them would go back when they were not needed anymore. Only the Spaniards and others from southern Europe did so in significant numbers. Immigrants were treated as members of monolithic cultural blocs, on the basis of nationality - their religion only became an issue in the 1990s. These communities were addressed by the Dutch government, in their own languages - Arabic for Moroccan immigrants, even though many of them were native speakers of Berber, also known as Amazigh. Opposition to the consensus was politically marginal. The anti-immigration Centrumpartij had occasional electoral successes since 1982, but its leader Hans Janmaat was ostracized, and fined for his often strident opposition to multiculturalism. The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Monoglottism (Greek monos, alone, solitary, + glotta, tongue, language) is the condition of being able to speak only a single language. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Look up muthos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter, Lieutenant-Admiral of the United Provinces by Ferdinand Bol, painted 1667 Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter (24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) is one of the most famous admirals in Dutch history. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pillarization is a term used to describe the way their dutch and belgians dealt with the multicultural societies. ... Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 - February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... Annelies Marie Anne Frank ( ) (June 12, 1929 – early March, 1945) was a European Jewish girl (born in Germany, stateless since 1941, but she claimed to be Dutch as she grew up in the Netherlands) who wrote a diary while in hiding with her family and four friends in Amsterdam during... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... The Centre Party (in Dutch: Centrumpartij, CP) was a Dutch nationalist political party espousing an anti-immigrant program. ... Hans Janmaat (November 3, 1934 - June 9, 2002) was a far-right politician in the Netherlands. ... Pieces of broken pottery as voting tokens. ...


The elite consensus on multiculturalism co-existed with widespread aversion to immigration, and an ethnic definition of the Dutch nation. Dutch nationalism, and support for a traditional national identity, never disappeared, but were not visible. When these factors re-entered political debate in the late 1990s, they contributed to the collapse of the consensus. The Netherlands has now attracted international attention for the extent to which it reversed its previous multiculturalist policies, and its policies on cultural assimilation have been described as the toughest in Europe.[35] For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


The multicultural policy consensus regarded the presence of immigrant cultural communities as non-problematic, or beneficial. Immigration was not subject to limits on cultural grounds: in practice, the immigration rate was determined by demand for unskilled labour, and later by migration of family members. Gross non-Western immigration was about three million, but many of these later returned.[36] Net immigration, and the higher birth rate of the immigrant communities, have transformed the Netherlands since the 1950s. Although the majority are still ethnic Dutch, in 2006 one fifth of the population was of non-Dutch ethnicity, about half of which were of non-western origin [45]. Immigration transformed Dutch cities especially: in Amsterdam, 55% of young people are of non-western origin (mainly Turkish and Moroccan) [37]. This situation prompted opposition to multiculturalism to become more structured at the end of the 1990s.


Intellectual critique

In 1999, the legal philosopher Paul Cliteur attacked multiculturalism in his book 'The Philosophy of Human Rights'[38] Cliteur rejects all political correctness on the issue: western culture, the Rechtsstaat (rule of law), and human rights are superior to non-western culture and values. They are the product of the Enlightenment: Cliteur sees non-western cultures not as merely different, but as anachronistic. He sees multiculturalism primarily as an unacceptable ideology of cultural relativism, which would lead to acceptance of barbaric practices, including those brought to the Western World by immigrants. Cliteur lists infanticide, torture, slavery, oppression of women, homophobia, racism, anti-Semitism, gangs, female circumcision, discrimination by immigrants, suttee, and the death penalty. Cliteur compares multiculturalism to the moral acceptance of Auschwitz, Stalin, Pol Pot and the Ku Klux Klan. Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Rechtsstaat is a term borrowed from German jurisprudence which literally means a law-based state or constitutional state. It is a state in which the exercise of governmental power is constrained by the law, and is often tied to the Anglo-American concept of the rule of law. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Cultural relativism is the principle that beliefs and activities should be interpreted in terms of his or her own culture. ... Occident redirects here. ... In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Slave redirects here. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... A gang is a group of individuals who share a common identity and, in current usage, engage in illegal activities. ... Female genital cutting (FGC) refers to a number of procedures performed for cultural, rather than medical, reasons on the female genitalia. ... Suttee is an ancient Indian funeral practice in which the widow was immolated alive on her husband’s funeral pyre. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), aliases Pol, Pouk, Hay, Grand-Uncle, First Brother, 87, Phem, 99, and best known as Pol Pot[1], was the leader of the communist movement called Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...


Cliteur's 1999 work is indicative of the polemic tone of the debate, in the following years. Most of the 'immigrant barbarities' which he names are regularly cited by opponents of multiculturalism, sometimes as a reductio ad absurdum, but also as factual practices of immigrants in the Netherlands. Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Reductio ad absurdum (Latin: reduction to the absurd) also known as an apagogical argument, reductio ad impossibile, or proof by contradiction, is a type of logical argument where one assumes a claim for the sake of argument, derives an absurd or ridiculous outcome, and then concludes that the original assumption...


In 2000, Paul Scheffer - a member of the PvdA (Labour Party) and subsequently a professor of urban studies - published his essay 'The multicultural drama',[39] an essay critical of both immigration and multiculturalism. Scheffer is a committed supporter of the nation-state, assuming that homogeneity and integration are necessary for a society: the presence of immigrants undermines this. A society does have a finite 'absorptive capacity' for those from other cultures, he says, but this has been exceeded in the Netherlands. Specifically: The Labour Party (in Dutch: Partij van de Arbeid, PvdA) is a Dutch social-democratic political party. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...

  • a huge influx of people from diverse cultural backgrounds, in combination with multiculturalism, resulted in spontaneous ethnic segregation.
  • the Netherlands must take its own language, culture, and history seriously, and immigrants must learn this language, culture, and history.
  • multiculturalism and immigration led to adaptation problems such as school drop-out, unemployment, and high crime rates.
  • a society which does not respect itself (its Dutch national identity) also has no value for immigrants
  • multicultural policy ignored Dutch language acquisition, which should be a priority in education.
  • Islam has not yet reformed itself, and does not accept the separation of church and state. Some Muslims did not accept the law in Amsterdam because its mayor was Jewish.
  • immigrants must always lose their own culture - that is the price of immigration, a "brutal bargain" (quote from Norman Podhoretz)

Scheffer approvingly quoted the Dutch sociologist J.A.A. van Doorn as saying that the presence of immigrants in the Netherlands had "put the clock back" by 100 or 150 years. The high immigration rate and the lack of integration threatened society, and must be stopped. His essay had a great impact, and led to what became known as the 'integration debate'. As in the essay, this was not simply about multiculturalism, but about immigration, Islam, the national identity, and national unity. Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Norman Podhoretz (b. ...


In 2002, the legal scholar Afshin Ellian - a refugee from Iran - advocated a monocultural Rechtsstaat in the Netherlands.[40] A liberal democracy cannot be multicultural, he argued, because multiculturalism is an ideology and a democracy has no official ideology. What is more, according to Ellian, a democracy must be monolingual. The Dutch language is the language of the constitution, and therefore it must be the only public language - all others must be limited to the private sphere. The Netherlands, he wrote, had been taken hostage by the left-wing multiculturalists, and their policy was in turn determined by the Islamic conservatives. Ellian stated that there were 800 000 Muslims in the country, with 450 mosques, and that the Netherlands had legalised the "feudal system of the Islamic Empire". Democracy and the rule of law could only be restored by abolishing multiculturalism. Afshin Ellian (Tehran, Iran, 27 February 1966) is a Dutch professor of law, philosopher, and poet. ... Rechtsstaat is a term borrowed from German jurisprudence which literally means a law-based state or constitutional state. It is a state in which the exercise of governmental power is constrained by the law, and is often tied to the Anglo-American concept of the rule of law. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Monoglottism (Greek monos, alone, solitary, + glotta, tongue, language) is the condition of being able to speak only a single language. ... Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ...


Political reaction

The intellectual rejection of multiculturalism was accompanied by a political transformation, which led to the abandonment of official multiculturalism. It is often described in the Dutch media as a populist 'revolt' against the elite. The catalyst was Pim Fortuyn. He was a critic of multiculturalism, and especially of what he called the "Islamisation of the Netherlands", but succeeded primarily because of his charisma.[citation needed] Unlike the intellectual critics, who wrote for fellow members of the elite, Fortuyn mobilised millions of disillusioned voters. Overturning the political stability of the 1990s, Fortuyn came close to being prime minister of the Netherlands.[41] When he was assassinated in May 2002, his supporters saw him as a national martyr in the struggle against multiculturalism, although he was in fact shot by an animal rights activist who said that he killed Fortuyn because he targeted "the weak parts of society to score points". Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuyn Wilhelmus Simon Petrus (Pim) Fortuyn (pronounced ; officially spelt Fortuijn), (February 19, 1948 – May 6, 2002), was a controversial, openly gay, charismatic[1] right-wing politician in the Netherlands who formed his own party Lijst Pim Fortuyn (List Pim Fortuyn or LPF). ... For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Animal liberation redirects here. ...


Following Fortuyn's death, open rejection of multiculturalism and immigration ceased to be taboo. To a large extent, open racism also ceased to be taboo: negative reactions to immigrants became the norm, for a section of the population. The new cabinet, under premier Jan-Peter Balkenende instituted a hard-line assimilation policy, enforced by fines and deportation, accompanied by far tighter controls on immigration and asylum. Many former supporters of multiculturalism shifted their position. In a 2006 manifesto "one country, one society",[42] several of them launched an appeal for a homogeneous society. This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Prime Minister of the Netherlands Dr. Jan Peter Balkenende   listen? (* May 7, 1956) is Prime Minister of The Netherlands since July 22, 2002. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ...


The most prominent figure in the post-Fortuyn debate of the issue was Ayaan Hirsi Ali. Her first criticisms of multiculturalism paralleled those of the early liberal-feminist critics in the United States - the emphasis on group identity and group rights diminished individual liberty for those within the minorities, and especially for women. As time went on, her criticism was increasingly directed at Islam itself, and its incompatibility with democracy and western culture. By 2004 she was the most prominent critic of Islam in Europe. When she scripted a short film on Islamic oppression of women, featuring texts from the Quran on the naked bodies of women, its director Theo van Gogh was assassinated by an Islamist. Threatened with death and heavily guarded, she spent most of her time in the United States, and moved to Washington in 2006 to work for the American Enterprise Institute. In 2006 she also expressed support for the Eurabia thesis - that Europe is being fully Islamised, and that its non-Muslim inhabitants will be reduced to dhimmitude.[43] In a speech for CORE in January 2007, she declared that Western culture was overwhelmingly superior:[44] Ayaan Hirsi Ali, MA ( ; Somali: ; born Ayaan Hirsi Magan 13 November 1969[2] in Mogadishu, Somalia) is a Dutch feminist and political writer, daughter of the Somali scholar, politician, and revolutionary opposition leader Hirsi Magan Isse. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Group rights are rights that all members of a group have by virtue of being in that group. ... This article deals with the history and the evolution of the Islamic religion in Europe. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Theo van Gogh (IPA: ) (July 23, 1957–November 2, 2004) was a Dutch film director, television producer, publicist and actor. ... The American Enterprise Institutes Logo The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a neoconservative think tank, founded in 1943. ... Cover of The Economist magazine, June 24-30, 2006 edition Eurabia is a neologism that denotes a scenario where Europe allies itself and eventually merges with the Arab world. ... Islamicization is a neologism coined to describe the process of a societys conversion to the religion of Islam, or the increase in observance by an already Muslim society. ... The word dhimmitude is a neologism, imported from the French language, and derived from the Arabic language word dhimmi. ... CORE may refer to: The Congress of Racial Equality in the USA. The Coordinated Online Register of Electors in the United Kingdom. ...

...my dream is that those lucky enough to be born into a culture of "ladies first" will let go of the myth that all cultures are equal. Human beings are equal; cultures are not.

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has continuous high immigration rates, among the highest in the EU. Most of the immigrants of the last decades came from the Indian sub-continent or the Caribbean, i.e from former British colonies. In 2004 the number of people who became British citizens rose to a record 140,795 - a rise of 12% on the previous year. This number had risen dramatically since 2000. The overwhelming majority of new citizens come from Africa (32%) and Asia (40%), the largest three groups being people from Pakistan, India and Somalia.[45] Download high resolution version (700x933, 141 KB)Entrance to Gerrard Street, Chinatown, London. ... Download high resolution version (700x933, 141 KB)Entrance to Gerrard Street, Chinatown, London. ... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ... Leicester Square at night in 2005: a view towards the northeast corner. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


In the UK, supporters of the Labour government's approach believed it was defending the rights of minorities to preserve their culture, whilst encouraging their participation as citizens — that is, integrating without assimilating. Critics argue that the policy fails on all counts: if social conditions and insularity become barriers to the integration of minorities, then multiculturalism does not properly function. There is now a lively debate in the UK over whether explicit multiculturalism and "social cohesion and inclusion" are in fact mutually exclusive. In the wake of the July 7 Bombings 2005 (which left over 50 people dead) the opposition Conservative shadow home secretary called on the government to scrap its "outdated" policy of multiculturalism. The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... On Thursday 7 July 2005 a series of four bomb attacks struck Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Prominent critics of multiculturalism include Yasmin Alibhai-Brown, Ugandan-born author of After Multiculturalism, and one-time black activist Trevor Phillips, the chairman of the Commission for Racial Equality. In 2006, Phillips was criticised by London mayor Ken Livingstone, who accused him of fuelling hostility towards ethnic minorities by critiquing the principle of multiculturalism. Livingstone then accused Phillips of being so right-wing that he would 'soon be joining the British National Party'.[46] Yasmin Alibhai-Brown (born Yasmin Damji on 10 December 1949) is a Uganda-born journalist, based in London; she only hyphenated her surname after her second marriage in 1990. ... Trevor Phillips Trevor Phillips OBE (born in London on December 31, 1953) is a Black British Labour politician and former political journalist of Guyanese origins. ... The Commission for Racial Equality is a non-governmental organisation in the United Kingdom which tackles racial discrimination and promotes racial equality. ... Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945) became Mayor of London on the creation of the post in 2000 having previously been Labour Leader of the Greater London Council from 1981 until it was abolished in 1986. ... The British National Party (BNP) is a white nationalist political party in the United Kingdom. ...


In the May 2004 edition of Prospect Magazine, David Goodhart, the Editor, temporarily couched the debate on multiculturalism in terms of whether a modern welfare state and a "good society" is sustainable as its citizens become increasingly diverse. [46] Open criticism of multiculturalism - hitherto sometimes disingenuously equated with racism, jingoism and xenophobia by the political Left[citation needed] - given Prospect's pedigree and reputation, was thereafter firmly part of the mainstream. Since then events such as the London bombings have shifted the debate away from sustainability and cohesion, and towards a focus on the uneasy bedfellows of free speech and security. Prospect logo Prospect is a liberal monthly British essay and comment magazine covering a wide range of topics, but specialising in politics and current affairs. ... David Goodhart is the Editor of Prospect, a British current affairs magazine. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In November 2005 John Sentamu, the first member of an ethnic minority to be appointed as Archbishop of York stated, “Multiculturalism has seemed to imply, wrongly for me: let other cultures be allowed to express themselves but do not let the majority culture at all tell us its glories, its struggles, its joys, its pains.” [47]. Criticisms have also been voiced by bishop Nazir Ali of Rochester. John Tucker Mugabi Sentamu, PhD, (born 10 June 1949 in Kampala, Uganda) is the 97th Archbishop of York, Metropolitan of the province of York, and Primate of England. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ...


The Archbishop's sentiments reflect the widespread opinion among the UK population that the enforcement of de facto multiculturalism often involves asymmetrical - even assimilationist - concessions or unnecessary sacrifices made by the majority culture; whilst minority cultures are allowed to remain distinct, British culture and traditions are sometimes perceived as exclusive and adapted accordingly, often without the consent of the local population. Recent examples include the cancellation of public fires[47] (associated with Guy Fawkes Night), the proposed 'multicultural reinterpretation' of the York Mystery Plays[48] and the Birmingham 'Winterval'[49] controversy. Critics argue that this practice misinterprets multiculturalism completely - the concept of a culturally diverse, not homogenised, society - and betrays the sycophancy of the political elite. Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes Night (more commonly known as Bonfire night and sometimes Fireworks Night) is an annual celebration on the evening of the 5th of November. ... The York Mystery Plays refers to a cycle of forty-eight Mystery Plays based on stories taken from the Bible, performed around Corpus Christi day in the city of York, England from the Middle Ages until 1569. ... Winterval is a portmanteau word coined to describe all festivities taking place around the middle of winter. ...


In August 2006, the community and local government secretary Ruth Kelly made a speech, which some saw as signalling the end of multiculturalism as official policy.[50] In November 2006, Prime Minister Tony Blair stated that Britain has certain "essential values" and that these are a "duty". He did not reject multiculturalism as such, but he included British heritage among the essential values:[51] Ruth Maria Kelly (born 9 May 1968) is a British politician. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ...

"When it comes to our essential values - belief in democracy, the rule of law, tolerance, equal treatment for all, respect for this country and its shared heritage - then that is where we come together, it is what we hold in common."

Critics have since pointed out, however, that these values do little to distinguish Britain from the rest of Western society.[citation needed] ..


Germany

Multiculturalism was more controversial in Germany, and the policy consensus weaker, than in Britain and the Netherlands (German history makes policy on minorities and national identity a delicate issue). However, the reaction against multiculturalism from the late 1990s was comparable. In Germany the national debate centred around the concept of Leitkultur or leading culture. Originally a form of multiculturalism proposed by the Orientalist Bassam Tibi (comparable to the 'constitutional patriotism' of Jürgen Habermas), the word Leitkultur quickly came to indicate cultural assimilation into German culture. It is widely used by opponents of multiculturalism to indicate their alternative, a de facto monoculturalism. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The German language term Leitkultur is a politically controversial concept, first introduced in 1998 by the German orientalist Bassam Tibi. ... Bassam Tibi, born 1944 in Damascus, is a political scientist of Syrian origin with German citizenship known for his analysis of international relations concerning Islamic countries and civilisation. ... Jürgen Habermas (IPA: ; born June 18, 1929) is a German philosopher and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory and American pragmatism. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Japan and South Korea

Japanese society, with its ideology of homogenity, has traditionally been intolerant of ethnic and other differences.[52] People identified as different might be considered "polluted" —- the category applied historically to the outcasts of Japan, particularly the hisabetsu buraku, "discriminated communities," often called burakumin, a term some find offensive —- and thus not suitable as marriage partners or employees.[53] Men or women of mixed ancestry, those with family histories of certain diseases, and foreigners, and members of minority groups faced discrimination in a variety of forms. In 2005, a United Nations report expressed concerns about racism in Japan and that government recognition of the depth of the problem was not total.[54][55] The author of the report, Doudou Diène (Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights), concluded after a nine-day investigation that racial discrimination and xenophobia in Japan primarily affects three groups: national minorities, Latin Americans of Japanese descent, mainly Japanese Brazilians, and foreigners from other Asian countries.[56] In 2005, a United Nations report expressed concerns about racism in Japan and that government recognition of the depth of the problem was not total. ... Arudou Debito Arudou Debito (有道 出人 Arudō Debito), a naturalized Japanese citizen born in the United States, is a teacher, author and controversial activist. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... Burakumin (: buraku, community or hamlet + min, people), or hisabetsu buraku ( discriminated communities / discriminated hamlets) are a Japanese social minority group. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Doudou Diène is a Special Rapporteur (to the United Nations) on Racism. ... Special Rapporteur is a title given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations who bear a specific mandate from the former UN Commission on Human Rights to investigate, monitor and recommend solutions to human rights problems. ... The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a commission supervised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is composed of representatives from 53 member states, and meets each year in regular session in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. ... In 2005, a United Nations report expressed concerns about racism in Japan and that government recognition of the depth of the problem was not total. ... Dekasegi (also spelt as Dekasegui or Dekassegui) is a term used in Latin American cultures to refer to people of Japanese descent who have migrated to Japan, having taken advantage of Japanese citizenship and immigration laws. ... A Japanese-Brazilian is an ethnically Japanese person born in Brazil. ...


Japan accepted just 16 refugees in 1999, while the United States took in 85,010 for resettlement, according to the UNHCR. New Zealand, which is smaller than Japan, accepted 1,140 refugees in 1999. Just 305 persons were recognized as refugees by Japan from 1981, when Japan ratified the U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, to 2002. [57] [58] Japanese Minister Taro Aso has called Japan a “one race” nation.[59] Like their Japanese neighbors, Koreans tend to equate nationality or citizenship with membership in a single, homogeneous ethnic group or "race" (minjok, in Korean). A common language and culture also are viewed as important elements in Korean identity. The idea of multiracial or multiethnic nations, like Canada or the United States, strikes many Koreans as odd or even contradictory. This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees is an international convention that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum. ... Taro Aso Taro Aso (麻生太郎 Asō Tarō, born September 20, 1940 in Iizuka, Fukuoka) is the Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Government of Japan. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ...


Both Japan and South Korea are among the world's most ethnically homogeneous nations.


France

French political thought is generally reluctant to endorse multiculturalism, which it often identifies with communitarism, which is in turn perceived as in contradiction with French republican values. French official policy pursues integration (major public events such as football matches involving the French team, or the transfer to the Panthéon of the remains of the novelist Alexandre Dumas, père, celebrate this aspect), and does not accord specific support to linguistic and cultural minorities as such, be they of French origin or from further afield. The multi-racial character of much of French urban society is an evidence and official policy is generally favourable to métissage. (Hence expressions such as black, blanc, beur.) Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing classical liberalism, capitalism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Soccer redirects here. ... The Panthéon Interior Dome of the Panthéon Entrance of the Panthéon Voltaires statue and tomb in the crypt of the Panthéon The Panthéon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Pantheon, meaning All the Gods) is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


Multiculturalism and Islam in the West

There is a developing distaste toward the idea and policies of multiculturalism in Europe, especially, as stated earlier, in the Netherlands, Denmark, United Kingdom and Germany.[citation needed] The belief behind this backlash on multiculturalism is that it purportedly creates friction within society.


In Canada, the possible introduction of sharia family courts became a contentious issue, and received much media attention.[60][61] This article is about Islamic religious law. ...


From the late 1990s multiculturalism came under sustained intellectual attack in Western Europe largely, but not exclusively, from the political right.[citation needed] The reaction was more vehement than in North America, since it was associated with several other factors - the return of explicit nationalism as a political force, the revival of national identity, the rise of euroscepticism, and concerns about Islam in Europe. The period saw the rise of anti-immigrant populism in Europe, which was uniformly, sometimes fanatically, hostile to multiculturalism. The debate became increasingly polarised, and increasingly associated with Islam and terrorism.[citation needed] The multiculturalism issue merged with the immigration policy issue. The most extreme rejection of multiculturalism comes from supporters of the Eurabia concept. Islam is seen as a political movement comparable to fascism, which is attempting to seize control of Europe, and to destroy its civilisation. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Euroscepticism has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Cover of The Economist magazine, June 24-30, 2006 edition Eurabia is a neologism that denotes a scenario where Europe allies itself and eventually merges with the Arab world. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ...


Post-multiculturalism in Europe

Following the collapse of the consensus on multiculturalism, several European Union countries have introduced policies for 'social cohesion', 'integration', and (sometimes) 'assimilation'. They are sometimes a direct reversal of earlier multiculturalist policies, and seek to assimilate immigrant minorities and restore a de facto monocultural society. The policies include: De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

  • compulsory language courses in the national language, assessed by a compulsory language test - for immigrants, and in some cases for those of immigrant descent
  • compulsory courses and/or tests on national history, on the constitution and the legal system, see Life in the United Kingdom test
  • introduction of an official national history, such as the national canon defined for the Netherlands by the van Oostrom Commission,[62] and promotion of that history, for instance by exhibitions about national heroes.
  • official campaigns to promote national unity, and individual identification with the nation - such as the campaign Du bist Deutschland [48] in Germany
  • official lists of national values, and tests of acceptance of these values
  • tests designed to elicit 'unacceptable' values, such as the "Muslim-test" in Germany. In Baden-Württemberg immigrants are asked what they would do, if their son says he is a homosexual. (The expected answer is that they would accept it).[63]
  • restriction on spouses or children joining immigrants already in the country, and age and income restrictions on non-western marriage partners, sometimes with language tests for potential spouses, in their country of origin
  • official declarations specifying that only the national language may be spoken in certain areas.
  • language prohibitions in schools, universities, and public buildings. Language bans have also been proposed for public transport and hospitals.
  • prohibitions on Islamic dress - especially the niqab (often misnamed as burqa).[64]
  • introduction of an oath of allegiance or loyalty oath for immigrants, usually following naturalisation and during a compulsory ceremony.

Some of the measures, especially those seeking to promote patriotic identification, have an element of kitsch. In the Netherlands, the naturalisation ceremony includes a gift symbolising national unity. In Gouda it is a candle in the national colours red-white-blue, in Amsterdam a Delftware potato with floral motives.[65] A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Life in the United Kingdom test is a computer-based test for individuals seeking Indefinite Leave to Remain in the UK or naturalisation as a British citizen. ... The Western canon is a canon of books and art (and specifically one with very loose boundaries) that has allegedly been highly influential in shaping Western culture. ... Frits van Oostrom (1953-), born in Utrecht, The Netherlands, is University Professor for the Humanities at the Utrecht University. ... Sir Galahad, a hero of Arthurian legend In many myths and folk tales, a hero is a man or woman (the latter often called a heroine), traditionally the protagonist of a story, legend or saga, commonly possessed of abilities or character far greater than that of a typical person, which... You are Germany (in German Du bist Deutschland) was a social marketing campaign in Germany. ... Value is a term that expresses the concept of worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies or actions. ... Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Minister-President Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... Mass transit redirects here. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... “Higab” redirects here. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges his duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to his monarch or country. ... A loyalty oath is an oath of loyalty to an organization, institution, or state to which an individual is a member. ... -1... Kitsch is a term of German origin that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior copy of an existing style. ... Goudas 15th Century Town Hall Flag of Gouda Goudas Cheese Market Gouda (population 71,797 in 2004) is a city in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Delftware panel. ...


There are proposed measures which go much further than these. They typically, but not always, come from firmly right-wing parties and their supporters. Although implementation is not on the political agenda in any EU state, the proposals illustrate the 'post-multicultural' climate: a loyalty oath for all citizens, legal prohibition of public use of a foreign language, cessation of all immigration, withdrawal from the European Union, a compulsory (non-military) national service,[66]; in rare cases a ban on the construction of mosques,[67] closure of all Islamic schools,[68] or a complete ban on Islam.[69] In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... No European Union member state has ever chosen to withdraw from the European Union, though some dependent territories or semi-autonomous areas have left. ... National service is a common name for compulsory or voluntary military service programs. ...


Polarization

Although such policies often have the stated aim of reviving national unity, one result has been an increased polarization.[70] With the disappearance of former taboos, open criticism of the culture and values of specific minorities became common. Muslims in Britain or the Netherlands may occasionally hear that their culture is backward, that western culture is superior, and that they are obliged to adopt it. In turn, overly-defensive reactions[71] include an increased self-identification as 'Muslims', and adoption of Islamic dress by women and 'Islamic' beards by men. Part of the Muslim minority is now hostile to the society they live in, and sympathetic to terrorism.[72] In Amsterdam's secondary schools, about half the Moroccan minority does not identify with the Netherlands: they see their identity as 'Muslim', and regularly express anti-western views but, nevertheless, do not want to return to their historical homeland.[73] In turn society is increasingly hostile to Muslims: a survey showed that 18% in Britain think that "a large proportion of British Muslims feel no sense of loyalty to this country and are prepared to condone or even carry out acts of terrorism".[74] A TNS/Global poll showed that 79% in Britain would feel "uncomfortable living next to a Muslim".[75] A major attitude survey of teenagers in Flanders showed that 75% refuse to have a relationship with a black person, a Muslim, or an immigrant. Half want all immigration stopped, and 41% say they distrust anyone from another ethnic background.[76] In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Occident redirects here. ... “Higab” redirects here. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ...


In some cases the rejection of the multicultural consensus in Europe included the revival of a traditional national identity which was often defined by ethnicity.[citation needed]. Paradoxically, that excludes not only first-generation immigrants, but their identifiable descendants, from full membership of the nation. New terms for minorities of immigrant descent have come into use: the (originally geological) term allochtoon in Belgium and the Netherlands, and 'nichtdeutsche Herkunft' or 'ndH' in Germany ('non-German origin'). Both are applied regardless of citizenship. The renewed emphasis on historical culture places higher demands on cultural assimilation; immigrants may be encouraged to learn, for example, to identify and describe cultural heroes and historical figures such as Isambard Kingdom Brunel and William of Orange.[77] Moreover, in an already culturally diverse population, the promulgation of semi-official 'national values' may prove divisive and/or exclusive. For instance, the 'Muslim test' in Baden-Württemberg implies that those who do not accept homosexuality cannot be German. It was criticised for this and for the supposed hypocrisy of having been introduced by a German Christian-Democrat administration. This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... In geology, rocks or sections or units of rocks which have been moved from their original site of formation are called allochthon (from greek allo = other, and chthon = earth). ... Allochtoon (plural: Allochtonen) is a Dutch language word, literally meaning originating from elsewhere. It is defined as the opposite of the word autochtoon (in English, autochthonous or autochtone) literally meaning originating from here. In current Dutch society the word has various meanings. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... A culture hero is a historical or mythological hero who changes the world through invention or discovery. ... Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ... William of Orange (French: Guillaume, Dutch: Willem) is the name of several historical people. ... Hypocrisy is the act of condemning or calling for the condemnation of another person when the critic is guilty of the act for which he demands that the accused be condemned. ... The Christian Democratic Union (CDU - Christlich-Demokratische Union) is a political party in Germany. ...


Issues of nationality and loyalty can be divisive. In the Netherlands, the Party for Freedom of anti-immigration politician Geert Wilders opposed the nomination of two ministers because they had dual nationality. The party subsequently proposed a motion of no confidence in both ministers. The party doubts their loyalty to the Netherlands, in cases of conflict with their countries of origin (Turkey and Morocco).[78] According to an opinion poll[79] more than half the population agrees with the party. Opinion is sharply divided by political party: 96% of Wilders' voters agree with him, and 93% of GreenLeft voters disagree. This article is about the Party of Freedom previously known as Group Wilders. ... Geert Wilders (born September 6, 1963 in Venlo) is a Dutch right-wing politician who is best known for his views favoring the restriction of immigration, particularly from non-Western countries, and his criticism of Islam. ... Multiple citizenship is simultaneous citizenship in two or more countries (whether it is recognized by all countries or not). ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... GroenLinks (GL, English: GreenLeft) is a Dutch Green political party. ...


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is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Larry Phillip (Phil) Fontaine, OM, (born September 20, 1944) is an Aboriginal Canadian leader. ... The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ... The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... KarÄ«m al-HussaynÄ«, Ä€gā Khān IV KBE CC GCC (Arabic: سمو الأمیر شاہ کریم الحسیني آغا خان الرابع) -- (born December 13, 1936) is the current (49th) Imām of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims. ... Motto: Fortunae meae, multorum faber[1] Location of Gatineau in Quebec, Canada Coordinates: , Country  Canada Province  Quebec Administrative Region Outaouais Amalgamated 2002 Government  - Mayor Marc Bureau  - Governing body Gatineau City Council  - MPs Lawrence Cannon, Richard Nadeau, Marcel Proulx  - MNAs Roch Cholette, Stéphanie Vallée, Charlotte LÉcuyer, Norman MacMillan... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Founded and guided by Aga Khan, the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) focuses on health, education, culture, rural development, institution-building and the promotion of economic development. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Asiaweek, the English edition, was a news magazine focusing on Asia, published weekly by Asiaweek Limited, a subsidiary of Time Inc. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... The Courier-Mail is the only daily newspaper published in Brisbane, Australia. ... The Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) is an Australian Government department. ... The American Enterprise Institutes Logo The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a neoconservative think tank, founded in 1943. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuyn Wilhelmus Simon Petrus (Pim) Fortuyn (pronounced ; officially spelt Fortuijn), (February 19, 1948 – May 6, 2002), was a controversial, openly gay, charismatic[1] right-wing politician in the Netherlands who formed his own party Lijst Pim Fortuyn (List Pim Fortuyn or LPF). ... Geert Wilders (born September 6, 1963 in Venlo) is a Dutch right-wing politician who is best known for his views favoring the restriction of immigration, particularly from non-Western countries, and his criticism of Islam. ... Party for the Netherlands (Dutch: Partij voor Nederland) (PVN) is a Dutch right-wing Fortuynist political party founded in by Dutch parliament member Hilbrand Nawijn. ... Hilbrand Pier Anne Nawijn (Kampen, 8 August 1948) is a Dutch politician,and until the 22nd of June 2005 a member of Lijst Pim Fortuyn. ... Party for the Netherlands (Dutch: Partij voor Nederland) (PVN) is a Dutch right-wing Fortuynist political party founded in by Dutch parliament member Hilbrand Nawijn. ... Hilbrand Pier Anne Nawijn (Kampen, 8 August 1948) is a Dutch politician,and until the 22nd of June 2005 a member of Lijst Pim Fortuyn. ...

See also

Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. ... cross-cultural may refer to cross-cultural studies, a comparative tendency in various fields of cultural analysis any of various forms of interactivity between members of disparate cultural groups (see also cross-cultural communication, interculturalism, intercultural relations, hybridity, cosmopolitanism, transculturation) the discourse concerning cultural interactivity, sometimes referred to as cross... Cultural mosaic is a term used to describe the patchwork quilt of ethnic groups, languages and cultures that co-exist within Canadian society. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Main articles: Pluralism and Multiculturalism Cultural pluralism exists when all groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities. ... Cultural competence is a term used for the ability of people of one culture to understand and feel comfortable with the cultures of other people. ... Global justice is a concept in political philosophy denoting justice between societies or between individuals in different societies, as opposed to within a specific society. ... An approach to the viewing of society based on understandings of its diachronic, structural, secular, material?, functional relations as opposed to historical, metaphysical/symbolic, religious/cultural/ethnic understandings. ... The concept of ethnic origin is an attempt to classify people, not according to their current nationality, but according to where their ancestors came from. ... This box:      Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. ... This article or section should be merged with nation-building Nation building is the use of armed force in the aftermath of a conflict to underpin an enduring transition to democracy. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ... Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. ... The Global Centre for Pluralism on Sussex Drive, Ottawa. ... Interculturalism is the philosophy of exchanges between cultural groups within a society. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Transculturation is a term coined by Fernando Ortiz in 1947 to describe the phenomenon of merging and converging cultures. ... Teaching for social justice is an educational philosophy that proponents argue provides justice and equity for all learners in all educational settings. ...

Further reading

  • Ankerl, Guy. Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU PRESS, 2000, ISBN 2-88155-004-5
  • Chiu, C.-Y. & Lueng, A. (2007). Do Multicultural Experiences Make People More Creative? In-Mind Magazine.
  • Gottfried, Paul Edward. (2002) "Multiculturalism and the Politics of Guilt: Toward a Secular Theoracy," (University of Missouri).
  • Icart, Jean-Claude. “Racism in Canada.” Across Cultures. Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 2007. <http://www.nfb.ca/acrosscultures/>.
  • Jedwab, Jack. “The Diverse Family of Canadians: Documenting the Immigrant Experience in Canada.” Across Cultures. Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 2007. <http://www.nfb.ca/acrosscultures/>.
  • Kukushkin, Vadim. “’Strangers Within Our Gates’: The Legacy of Intolerance.” Across Cultures. Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 2007. <http://www.nfb.ca/acrosscultures/>.
  • Stephens, J. (2006) Multiculturalism.

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Ayn Rand Institute: Culture and Multiculturalism (0 words)
Multiculturalism is a growing force in America’s universities and public life.
In brief, multiculturalism is the view that all cultures, from that of a spirits-worshiping tribe to that of an advanced industrial civilization, are equal in value.
Multiculturalism seeks to obliterate the value of a free, industrialized civilization (which today exists in the West and elsewhere), by declaring that such a civilization is no better than primitive tribalism.
Debbie O'Hara -- The Fraud of Multiculturalism (1938 words)
Multiculturalism is a euphemism for the myth of diversity.
Multiculture is causing horrendous dissension between the races, genders and among family members.
Multiculturalism is a long chain of victimization and revenge that favors only certain sub-groups of people.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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