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Encyclopedia > Mulsum

The eating and drinking habits of the Romans changed over the long (over 1000 years) duration of their ancient civilization. These habits were affected by the influence of Greek culture, the political changes from kingdom to republic to empire, and the enormous expansion of the empire which brought many new culinary habits and cooking techniques from the provinces. The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ...


In the beginning the differences between social classes were not very great, but the disparity grew as the empire grew.

Contents


Meals

Traditionally in the morning a breakfast was served, the ientaculum or iantaculum, at noon the main meal of the day, the cena, and in the evening the vesperna. Due to the influence of Greek habits and also the increased import of and consumption of foreign foods, the cena increased in size and diversity and was consumed in the afternoon, the vesperna was abandoned, and a second breakfast was introduced around noon, the prandium. Breakfast is a meal preceding lunch or dinner and usually eaten in the morning. ...


In the lower strata of society the old routine was preserved, because it corresponded more closely with the daily rhythm of manual labor.


Ientaculum

Originally flat, round loaves made of spelt (a cereal grain closely related to wheat) with a bit of salt were eaten; in the higher classes also eggs, cheese and honey, along with milk and fruit. In the imperial period, around the beginning of the Common Era, bread made of wheat was introduced and with time more and more baked products began to replace this spelt bread. Binomial name Triticum aestivum spelta L. Spelt (Triticum aestivum spelta) is a subspecies of common wheat. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a caryopsis). ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... A carton of free-range chicken eggs Ostrich egg Bird eggs are a common food source. ... Cheese is a food made from the curdled milk of cows, goats, sheep, or other mammals. ... Honey honey comb A capped frame of honeycomb Honey is a sweet and viscous fluid produced by bees and other insects from the nectar of flowers. ... A glass of cow milk Milk most often means the nutrient liquid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Catalonia. ... The Common Era (CE), sometimes known as the Christian Era or Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 until the present. ... Species T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ...


Prandium

This second breakfast was richer and mostly consisted of the leftovers of the previous day's cena.


Cena

Among members of the upper classes, who did not engage in manual labor, it became customary to schedule all business obligations in the morning. After the prandium the last responsibilities would be discharged and then a visit would be made to the baths. Around 3 o'clock, the cena would begin. This meal could last until late in the night, especially if guests were invited, and would often be followed by a comissatio (a round of drinks). Roman public baths in Bath, England. ... Melbourne skyline at night Night or Nighttime is the period in which the Sun is below the horizon. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ...


Especially in the period of the kings and the early republic, but also in later periods (for the working classes), the cena essentially consisted of a kind of porridge, the puls. The simplest kind would be made from spelt, water, salt and fat. The more sophisticated kind was made with olive oil, with an accompaniment of assorted vegetables whenever possible. The richer classes ate their puls with eggs, cheese and honey, and (only occasionally) meat or fish. See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Porridge & Milk For the British TV comedy, see Porridge (TV) Porridge (also known in American English as hot cereal or mush), is a simple dish made by boiling oats (normally crushed oats, occasionally oatmeal) or another meal in water, milk or both. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... For the cartoon character, see Olive Oyl. ... Vegetables in a market Tomatoes growing in a vegetable garden Venn diagram representing the relationship between fruits and vegetables For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... Various meats Meat, in its broadest modern definition, is all animal tissue intended to be used as food. ... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus: one of the most abundant species of fish in the world. ...


Over the course of the Republican period, the cena developed into two courses, a main course and a dessert with fruit and seafood (e.g. molluscs, shrimp). By the end of the Republic, it was usual for the meal to be served in three parts: first course, main course, and dessert.


Table culture

From 300 BC, Greek customs started to influence the culture of higher class Romans. Growing wealth led to ever larger and more sophisticated meals. Nutritional value was not regarded as important: on the contrary, the gourmets preferred food with low food energy and nutrients. Easily digestible foods and diuretic stimulants were highly regarded. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC Years: 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC - 300 BC - 299 BC 298 BC... A gourmet is a person with a discriminating palate and who is knowledgeable in fine food and drink. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... A diuretic is any drug that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ...


At the table loose and easy clothing was worn (the vestis cenatoria), and the dinner was consumed in a special dining room, which later was to be called triclinium. Here one would lie down on a specially designed couch, the lectus triclinaris. Around the round table, the mensa, three of these lecti were arranged in the shape of a horseshoe, so that slaves could easily serve, and a maximum of three diners would recline at each lectus. In imperial times, the only people allowed a place on a lectus were men. More tables for the beverages stood beside the couches. All heads were oriented towards the central table, with left elbows propped on a cushion and feet at the outside of the dinner-couch. In this fashion at most nine people could dine together at one table. Further guests had to sit on chairs. Slaves normally had to stand. Slavery is a condition in which one person, known as a slave, is under the control of another. ...


Feet and hands were washed before the cena. The food would be taken with the fingertips and two kinds of spoons, the larger ligula and the smaller cochlear with a needle thin grip, which was used as prong when eating snails and molluscs, in practice substituting for the modern fork. At the table, larger pieces would be cut up to be served on smaller plates. After each course the fingers were washed again and napkins (mappae) were customary to wipe one's mouth. Guests could also bring their own mappae to take home the leftovers from the meal or small gifts (the apophoreta). Garden Snail photographed in the USA. The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... A fork is a tool consisting of a handle with several narrow tines (usually two to four) on one end. ...


A custom alien to many other cultures is that the Romans threw everything that could not be eaten (e.g. bones and shells) onto the floor, from where it was swept away by a slave. Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ...


In summer, it was popular to eat outside. Many houses in Pompeii had stone couches at a particularly beautiful spot in the garden for just that purpose. People lay down to eat only on formal occasions. If the meal was routine, they ate while seated or even standing. Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. ...


Entertainment

During a dinner for guests, musicians, acrobats or poets would perform and dinner conversation played an important role. Dances were not usual, as it was considered improper and would not mix well with table manners, although during the comissatio this habit was often disregarded. To leave the table for bodily functions was considered inappropriate and restraining oneself was considered good manners. After the main course, during a pause, an offering was made to the Lares, the spirits of the house. This offering normally consisted of meat, cake and wine. The cake was usually coloured with saffron. Lares (pl. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ...


Typical dishes

Foods originating in the Americas were, of course, unknown to the Romans. They include potatoes, tomatoes, paprika or capsicums (bell peppers), chile peppers, maize (corn), pumpkins, turkey and many others. The Americas (sometimes referred to as America) is the area including the land mass located between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, generally divided into North America and South America. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, grown for its starchy tuber. ... Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family, native to Central and South America, from Mexico to Peru. ... The paprikaplant is sexy ... Species (incl. ... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Pumpkins Pumpkin attached to a stalk A pumpkin is a squash vegetable, most commonly orange in colour when ripe, that grows as a fruit (gourd from a trailing vine of the genus Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae). ...


The starter

This part of the meal was called gustatio or promulsis. It generally consisted of light, appetising dishes. The usual drink was mulsum, a mixture of wine and honey. Eggs - mostly hens' eggs, but also duck, goose and, on rare occasions, even peacocks' eggs - played an important part. Other essential constituents of the starter were salads and vegetables. At large feasts several starter dishes were served one after another. Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of grapes and grape juice. ... Honey honey comb A capped frame of honeycomb Honey is a sweet and viscous fluid produced by bees and other insects from the nectar of flowers. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis Cnemiornis(extinct) † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ... Peacock re-directs here; for alternate uses see Peacock (disambiguation). ... A salad is a food item generally served either before or after the main dish as a separate course, as a main course in itself, or as a side dish accompanying the main dish. ... Vegetables in a market Tomatoes growing in a vegetable garden Venn diagram representing the relationship between fruits and vegetables For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ...


The usual salad and vegetable plants were:

Other starters were: Binomial name Vicia faba L. Vicia faba, the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, horse bean, field bean or tic bean is a species of bean (Fabaceae) native to north Africa and southwest Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere. ... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. The chickpea, garbanzo bean or bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) is an edible pulse of the Leguminosae or Fabaceae family, subfamily India. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum L. A pea is the small, edible round green bean which grows in a pod on the leguminous vine Pisum sativum. ... For other uses of the word see: Lupin (disambiguation) Species over 150 recognised species, including: Lupinus albus Lupinus angustifolius Lupinus arboreus Lupinus luteus Lupinus mutabilis Lupinus nootkatensis Lupinus polyphyllus Lupinus x regalis Lupinus texensis Lupin, often spelled lupine in the US, is the common name for members of the genus... Pollice Verso, an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, is a well known history painters researched conception of a gladiatorial combat. ... Binomial name Lens culinaris Medikus The lentil (Lens culinaris) is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, grown for its lens-shaped seeds. ... Cultivar Group Brassica oleraceaCapitata Group The cabbage (Brassica oleracea Capitata Group) is a plant of the Family Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae). ... Vinegar is often infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Curly kale Kale is a form of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group) in which the central leaves do not form a head. ... Saltpeter is variously: potassium nitrate (niter); or sodium nitrate (soda niter) ... Trinomial name Beta vulgaris var. ... An elder can refer to various topics: Elder (administrative title) Elder (religious) Elder - person of knowledge or high degree Elderberry plant (Sambucus) Box-elder plant (maple) Box elder bug (Leptocoris trivittatus or Boisea trivittatus) Elderly person - see: Old age William Henry Elder bishop and Archbishop of Cincinnati Joycelyn Elders Elder... Mallow is the common name of several closely related genera of plant in the family Malvaceae: Malva (Mallow) Althaea (Marsh mallow) Callirhoe (Poppy mallow) Kosteletzkya (Seashore mallow) Lavatera (Tree mallow or rose mallow) Malvaviscus - Turks cap mallow Sidalcea (Greek mallow) Sphaeralcea - Globemallow Plants of the genus Malva are herbaceous... Species (Alaska orach) (Crownscale saltbush) (Garden or Red orach) (Prostrate orach) (Redscale orach) (Siberian saltbush) many more Atriplex is a plant genus whose hundred or so members go by the common names of saltbush and orach (or orache). ... Binomial name Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fenugreek, also called methi, is a crop plant grown as a potherb and for the spice made from its seeds. ... Species See text Nettle (Urtica) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Urticaceae, mostly perennial herbs but some are annual and a few are shrubby. ... Binomial name Rumex acetosa The common sorrel, or spinach dock, is a perennial herb, which grows abundantly in meadows in most parts of Europe and is cultivated as a leaf vegetable. ... Binomial name Olea europaea L. The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Binomial name Allium ampeloprasum (Linnaeus) J. Gay The Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. ... Binomial name Allium cepa L. Onion in the general sense can be used for any plant in the Genus Allium but used without qualifiers usually means Allium cepa L., also called the garden onion. ... Binomial name Cucumis sativus L. The cucumber is the edible fruit of the cucumber plant Cucumis sativus, which belongs to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, as do melons and squash. ... Binomial name Cucumis melo L. The melon is the fruit and plant of a typically vine-like (climber and trailer) herb that was first cultivated more than 4000 years ago (~ 2000 BC) in Persia and Africa. ... Binomial name Capparis spinosa Linnaeus, 1753 A Caper (Capparis spinosa) is a shrub from the Mediterranean region. ... Cress can refer to several edible members of the family Brassicaceae used as leaf vegetables including watercress land cress (also known as Belle Isle cress, Early yellowrocket, American cress, dryland cress, upland cress, cassabully, creasy salad, Early winter cress, American cress and American watercress). ...

  • Mushrooms, such as boletus, field mushroom and truffles.
  • Stewed and salted snails, raw or cooked clams, sea urchins and small fish
  • After the Republican period, light meat dishes were also served as starters. One example is dormice, which were bred in special enclosures called gliaria before being fattened-up in clay pots. Small birds like thrushes were also served.

Basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the fungus Leucocoprinus sp. ... Members of the order Boletales (commonly referred to as Boletes) are mushrooms characterized by holding their spores in small pores on the underside of the mushroom, instead of gills (as are found in agarics). ... Species Truffle describes a group of edible mycorrhizal (subterranean) fungi (genus Tuber, class Ascomycetes, division Mycota). ... Garden Snail photographed in the USA. The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. ... Maxima clam (Tridacna maxima) Clams are shelled marine or freshwater mollusks belonging to the class Bivalvia. ... Subclasses Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Group of black, long-spined Caribbean sea... Subfamilies and Genera Graphiurinae Graphiurus Leithiinae Dryomys Eliomys Hypnomys Myomimus Selevinia Myoxinae Glirulus Muscardinus Glis Dormice are Old World mammals in the family Gliridae, part of the rodent (Rodentia) order. ... Genera 22 genera, see text The Thrushes, family Turdidae, are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. ...

Main dish

Often, an intermediate dish was served before the real caput cenae. The decoration of this dish could be more important than the actual ingredients.


The main dish usually consisted of meat. Common dishes were:

  • Beef, though not very popular as cattle were working animals, used for such tasks as ploughing or pulling carts, so that their meat was usually very tough and had to be cooked for a long time to make it edible. Even calf meat was not popular; only a few recipes for it are known.
  • Pork was the most usual and best liked meat. All parts of the pig were eaten, and more unusual parts like the breasts and uterus of young sows were considered delicacies.
  • Wild boar were also bred and fattened before slaughtering.
  • Geese were bred and sometimes fattened. The technique of stuffing was already known, and the liver of stuffed geese was a special delicacy, as it is today.
  • Chicken was more expensive than duck. Other birds like peacocks and swans were eaten on special occasions. Capons and poulards were considered special delicacies. In 161 BC, the Consul C. Fannius prohibited the consumption of poulards, though the ban was ignored.
  • Sausages, farcimen, were made of beef and pork according to an astonishing diversity of recipes and types. Particularly widespread was the botulus, a blood sausage which was sold on the streets. The most popular type of sausage was the lucanica, a short, fat, rustic pork sausage, the recipe for which is still used today in Italy and other parts of the world. Also the Brazilian linguiça is one of the heirs of this Roman sausage.
  • For special effects, whole pigs were stuffed with sausages and fruit, roasted and then served on their feet. When cut the sausages would spill from the animal like entrails. Such a pig was called a porcus Troianus ("Trojan pig"), a humorous reference to the Trojan Horse.
  • Hares and rabbits were bred, the former with little success, making them as much as four times more expensive than rabbits. Hares therefore were regarded as a luxury; shoulder of hare was especially favoured.

Fish was served only in later periods, and it remained more expensive than simpler meat types. Breeding was attempted in freshwater and saltwater ponds, but some kinds of fish could not be fattened in captivity. Among these was the most popular, mullus, the goatfish. At a certain time this fish was considered the epitome of luxury, above all because its scales exhibit a bright red colour when it dies out of water. For this reason these fish were occasionally allowed to die slowly at the table. There even was a recipe where this would take place in garum, in the sauce. At the beginning of the imperial era, however, this custom suddenly came to an end, which is why mullus in the feast of Trimalchio (see the Satyricon) could be shown as a characteristic of the parvenu, who bores his guests with an unfashionable display of dying fish. Beef A salt beef with mustard bagel Beef is meat obtained from a bovine. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (called cows in vernacular usage, kine [archaic], or ky as the Scots plural of coo) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Two halves of a pig being delivered Pork is the meat taken from pigs. ... Species Sus barbatus Sus bucculentus Sus cebifrons Sus celebensis Sus domesticus Sus heureni Sus philippensis Sus salvanius Sus scrofa Sus timoriensis Sus verrucosus Pigs are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae family. ... Genera/Species Cygnus Bechstein 1803 Cygnus cygnus Cygnus buccinator Cygnus columbianus Cygnus bewickii Cygnus atratus Cygnus atratus sumnerensis Cygnus melancoryphus Cygnus olor Cygnus sumnerensis Coscoroba Reichenbach 1853 Coscoroba coscoroba Swans are large water birds of the family Anatidae, which also includes geese and ducks. ... A capon, soon to be roasted for a Christmas dinner. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 166 BC 165 BC 164 BC 163 BC 162 BC - 161 BC 160 BC 159 BC... Chinese pork sausages A sausage consists of ground meat (and sometimes other animal parts), herbs and spices, and possibly other ingredients, generally packed in a casing (traditionally the intestines of the animal, though now often synthetic), and preserved in some way, often by curing or smoking. ... Morcilla cocida: Spanish-style blood sausage Blood sausage or black pudding or blood pudding is a sausage made by cooking down the blood of an animal with meat, fat or filler until it is thick enough to congeal when cooled. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy Troy ( Ancient Greek Τροία Troia or Τροάς Troas also Ίλιον; Turkish:Truva, Hisarlık 39°58′N 26°13′E, Latin: Troia, Ilium) is a legendary city, scene of the Trojan War, described in the Trojan War cycle, especially in the Iliad, one of the two... 19th century etching of the Trojan Horse The Trojan Horse is part of the myth of the Trojan War, as told in Virgils Latin epic poem The Aeneid. ... Species Many, see text Hares and jackrabbits belong to family Leporidae, and mostly in genus Lepus. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae, found in many parts of the world. ... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus: one of the most abundant species of fish in the world. ... Genera Mulloidichthys Mullus Parupeneus Pseudupeneus Upeneichthys Upeneus Goatfish are tropical marine perciform fish of the family Mullidae. ... For the computer protocol, see SAUCE In cooking, a sauce is a liquid served on or used in the preparation of food. ... Trimalchio is a character in the Roman novel The Satyricon by Petronius. ... Satyricon, or the Petronii Arbitri Saturicon, is a book of randy and satirical Neroic tales by Petronius Arbiter, of whom little is known. ...


There were no side dishes or accompaniments in today's sense, although bread was consumed by all classes following the introduction of wheat. Thereafter only the poorest, with no access to an oven, had to continue eating puls. Bread, which existed in a large number of different varieties, quickly became exceptionally popular and public bakeries were established in Rome from 270 A.D. European sweetbread (strucla) Four loaves French bread has a somewhat rigid crust Breads and Bread Rolls at a bakery Continental Italian Bread Tin Vienna Bread Bread in a traditional oven, in Portugal, with hot coal in front For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ...


Garum, also known as liquamen, was the universal sauce added to everything. It was prepared by subjecting salted fish, in particular mackerel intestines, to a very slow thermal process. Over the course of two to three months, in an enzymatic process stimulated by heating, usually by exposure to the sun, the protein-laden fish parts decomposed almost entirely. The resulting mass was then filtered and the liquid traded as garum, the remaining solids as alec - a kind of savoury spread. Because of the smell it produced, the production of garum within the city was banned. Garum, supplied in small sealed amphorae, was used throughout the Empire and totally replaced salt as a condiment. Today similar sauces are produced in Thailand and Vietnam, usually sold abroad under the description "fish sauce". Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. ... Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ...


Spices, especially pepper, but hundreds of other kinds too, were imported on a large scale and used copiously. One very popular spice was silphium; however, as it could not be cultivated it finally became extinct through overcropping of the wild plant. The inherent flavours of vegetables and meat were completely masked by the heavy use of garum and other seasonings. It was considered an indication of the highest achievement in culinary art if a gourmet could tell neither by sight, nor smell, nor taste what the ingredients of a dish were. Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Ancient silver coin from Cyrene depicting a stalk of Silphium. ...


Dessert

Among fruits, grapes were the most preferred. The Romans distinguished between grapes for wine-making and grapes as food. Raisins were also produced. After grapes, figs and dates played a major part and pomegranates were eaten in many varieties. Quinces, various types of apples, and apricots were grown. Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera is a palm, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Species  L.  Balf. ... Binomial name Cydonia oblonga Mill. ... Binomial name Malus domestica Borkh. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. The Apricot (Prunus armeniaca, syn. ...


Cold clams and oysters (which were bred on a large scale), which were originally dessert dishes, later became starters. Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron, opened The name oyster is used for a number of different groups of mollusks which grow for the most part in marine or brackish water. ...


Cakes, made of wheat and usually soaked in honey, played a big part. Certain kinds of nuts were also available, and they were thrown at festivals much as sweets are today. Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel Chestnut // Botanical definition A nut in botany is a simple dry fruit with one seed (rarely two) in which the ovary wall becomes very hard (stony or woody) at maturity, and where the seed remains unattached or unfused with the ovary wall. ...


Alcoholic drinks

Besides water, which had been readily available in good quality throughout Rome since about 300 BC, and which could also be served warm or cooled with snow, there was mulsum (a mixture of wine and honey) as well as various types of wine itself (normally diluted with water). Wine was often heavily manipulated; for example, there were recipes for making white wine out of red and vice versa. Also, a precursor of Glühwein was known, conditum paroxum (a mixture of wine, honey, pepper, laurel, dates, mastic, and saffron), which was boiled and consumed hot or cold. A girl in a swimming pool Water (from the Old English waeter; c. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC Years: 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC - 300 BC - 299 BC 298 BC... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of grapes and grape juice. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Mulled wine Mulled wine, also known by the German name Glühwein and the French name vin chaud, is wine, usually red wine, combined with spices and usually served hot. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name Laurus nobilis L. The Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae), also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, or just Laurel, is an evergreen tree or large shrub reaching 10–18 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera is a palm, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Binomial name Pistacia lentiscus L. Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 3-4 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Iberia east to Turkey. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ...


In a comissatio an arbiter bibendi or "master of the drinking" was chosen by a game of dice: he would establish the proportion of wine to water as well as how much everyone could drink. He could also demand poems or other recitations or speeches from the participants. Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ...


The guests wore wreaths, originally probably intended to prevent headaches and other negative effects from the rich alcohol consumed, later simply as decoration. These wreaths were made of many different flowers and perfumes. The type of wreath you wore represented the position you held within the upper-class.


Vomitorium

A popular misconception is that the Romans made use of a room called a vomitorium for the express purpose of vomiting between meals to make room for more food. Only a very small minority of the highest classes indulged in the practice of deliberately vomiting. A vomitorium is actually an architectural feature – a passage situated below or behind a tier of seats in an amphitheatre, through which the crowds could "spew out" at the end of a show. [1] Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... The name amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is given to a public building of the Classical period (being particularly associated with ancient Rome) which was used for spectator sports, games and displays. ...


Literature

  • Gaius Petronius Arbiter: cena Trimalchionis (The feast of Trimalchio) - A satirical sketch of a feast at the home of a nouveau riche in the Roman imperial period. ISBN 3-423-09148-9

Apicius, (bee-keeper), was a name applied to three celebrated Roman epicures, the first of whom lived during the Republic; the second of whom, Marcus Gavius Apicius—the most famous in his own time—lived under the early Empire; the third of whom, probably no relation, was the late 4th... This article is about the Roman author Petronius. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO) (234 - 149 BC), Roman statesman, surnamed The Censor, Sapiens, Priscus, or Major (the Elder), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson), was born at Tusculum. ...

External links

  • In Pompeii, Eat Like it is A.D. 79


  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman cuisine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2428 words)
The usual drink was mulsum, a mixture of wine and honey.
Certain kinds of nuts were also available, and they were thrown at festivals much as sweets are today.
Besides water, which had been readily available in good quality throughout Rome since about 300 BC, and which could also be served warm or cooled with snow, there was mulsum (a mixture of wine and honey) as well as various types of wine itself (normally diluted with water).
Wohlers Descendants (3967 words)
Walers) was born 1736 in Bredenbeck, and died 16 Jul 1802 in Kutenholz.
Fitschen, born 01 Dec 1797 in ; Häusling in Wedel; died 09 Mar 1845 in Wedel.
Walers) was born in Bredenbeck; 1819 Müller in Bredenbeck, and died Bef.
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