FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Mule" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mule
Mule
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Equidae
Genus: Equus
Species: E. caballus + asinus
Binomial name
Equus mule?

In its common modern meaning, a mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse, which is classified as a kind of F1 hybrid. The reverse, the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey, is called a hinny. The term "mule" (Latin mulus) was formerly applied to the infertile offspring of any two creatures of different species. The mule, easier to breed[citation needed] and usually larger in size than a hinny, has monopolized the attention of breeders[citation needed]. The chromosome match-up more often occurs when the jack (male donkey) is the sire and the mare (female horse) is the dam. Sometimes people let a stallion (male horse) run with a jenny (female donkey) for as long as six years before she becomes pregnant. Mules and hinnies are almost always sterile (see fertile mules below for rare cases). The sterility is attributed to the differing number of chromosomes of the two species: donkeys have 62 chromosomes, whereas horses have 64. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Mule has several meanings: The mule a hybrid of a horse and a donkey. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Equus is Latin for horse; it may refer to: Equus, the genus of horses and their close relatives. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... F1 hybrids is a term used in genetics and selective breeding. ... Binomial name A hinny is the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey (jennet or jenny). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Father (disambiguation). ... 13 year old Peruvian Paso mare A broodmare and foal In English, a mare (an old Germanic word) is a female horse; the word is also an etymological root of marshal (originally marescalcus horse servant). Mares are considered easier to handle than males, which are called stallions or after castration... A stallion A stallion is a male horse that has not been castrated. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ...


A female mule, called a "molly", that has estrus cycles and can carry a fetus, can occasionally occur naturally as well as through embryo transfer. Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ...

Contents

Biology

Size

The median weight range for a mule is between 270 kg (600 lb) and 410 kg (900 lb).[1]


Characteristics

A grey mule
A grey mule

In its short thick head, long ears, thin limbs, small narrow hooves, short mane, absence of chestnuts (horny growths) inside the hocks, and tail hairless at the root, the mule looks like a donkey; in height and body, shape of neck and croup, uniformity of coat, and teeth, it appears horse-like; the mule comes in all sizes, shapes and conformities. There are mules that resemble quarter horses, huge draft mules, fine-boned racing mules, shaggy pony mules and many more types. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Look up mane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Close-up of chestnut The chestnut of this horse is seen as a tan scab-like object on its inner right front leg, just above its knee. ... The hock is the tarsal joint of a digitigrade quadruped, such as a horse or dog. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ...


A mule does not sound exactly like a donkey or a horse. Instead, a mule makes a sound that is similar to a donkey's but also has the whinnying characteristics of a horse (often starts with a whinny, ends in a hee-haw). Sometimes, mules whimper. The coat of mules comes in the same variety as that of horses. Common colors are Sorrel, Bay, Black, and Grey. Less common are White, Roans (both blue and red), Palomino, Dun, and Buckskin. Least common are Paint mules or Tobianos.


The mule possesses the sobriety, patience, endurance and sure-footedness of the donkey, and the vigour, strength and courage of the horse. Operators of working animals generally find mules preferable to horses: mules show less impatience under the pressure of heavy weights, and their skin, harder and less sensitive than that of horses, renders them more capable of resisting sun and rain. Their hooves are harder than horses', and they show a natural resistance to disease and insects. Many North American farmers with clay soil found mules superior as plow animals, especially in the U.S. state of Missouri, hence the expression "stubborn as a Missouri mule"[citation needed]. Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Mules are generally less tolerant towards dogs than horses[citation needed]. They are also capable of striking out with any of their hooves in any direction[citation needed].

Mule headcount in 2003
Mule headcount in 2003

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mules in 2003 as a percentage of the top market (China - 4,194,000). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mules in 2003 as a percentage of the top market (China - 4,194,000). ...

Distribution

FAO reports that China was the top market for mules in 2003 closely followed by Mexico and many Central and South American nations. Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...


Fertile mules

Several female mules have produced offspring when mated with a purebred horse or donkey. Since 1527 there have been more than 60 documented cases of foals born to female mules around the world. It must be noted that there are no recorded cases of fertile mule stallions. Mules and hinnies have 63 chromosomes that are a mixture of one from each parent. The different structure and number usually prevents the chromosomes from pairing up properly and creating successful embryos. In most fertile mule mares, the mare passes on a complete set of her maternal genes (i.e., from her horse/pony mother) to the foal[citation needed]; a female mule bred to a horse will therefore produce a 100% horse foal[citation needed]. Some examples of recorded fertile mules include: A Shetland Pony A pony is any of several horse breeds with a specific conformation and temperament. ...

  • Cornevin and Lesbre stated that in 1873 an Arab mule in Africa was bred to a stallion and produced female offspring.[citation needed] The parents and the offspring were sent to the Jardin d'Acclimatation in Paris. The mule produced a second female offspring sired by the same stallion and then two male offspring, one sired by a donkey and the other by a stallion. The female progeny were fertile, but their offspring were feeble and died at birth.
  • Cossar Ewart recorded an Indian case in which a female mule gave birth to a male colt[citation needed].
  • The best documented fertile mule mare was "Krause" who produced two male offspring when bred back to her own sire (biological father).
  • In the 1920s, "Old Beck", a mare mule at Texas A&M, produced a mule daughter called "Kit"[citation needed]. When Old Beck was bred to a horse stallion she produced a horse son (i.e., the horse stallion sired horse foals). When bred to a donkey, she produced mule offspring.
  • Likewise, a mare mule in Brazil has produced two 100% horse sons sired by a horse stallion[citation needed].
  • In Morocco, a mare mule produced a male foal that was 75% donkey and 25% horse, i.e., she passed on a mixture of genes instead of passing on her maternal chromosomes in the expected way[citation needed].
  • There is an unverified case of a mare mule that produced a mule daughter[citation needed]. The daughter was also fertile and produced a horse-like foal with some mule traits; this was dubbed a "hule". There are no reports as to whether the mule was fertile.
  • A comparable case is that of a fertile hinny (donkey mother, horse sire - the reverse of a mule) in China[citation needed]. Her offspring, named "Dragon Foal", was sired by a donkey. Scientists expected a donkey foal if the mother had passed on her maternal chromosomes in the same way as a mule. However, Dragon Foal resembles a strange donkey with mule-like features. Her chromosomes and DNA tests confirm that she is a previously undocumented combination.

This article is about the capital of France. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... Texas A&M University redirects here. ...

The modern mule

An "Appaloosa" mule
An "Appaloosa" mule

After World War II, mules fell on hard times. The use of mules for farming and transportation of agricultural products gave way to modern tractors and trucks. A dedicated number of mule breeders, however, continued the tradition as hobby and continued breeding the great lines of mammoth jacks started in the United States by George Washington with the gift from the King of Spain of two Catalan Jacks. These hobby breeders began to utilize better mares for mule production until today's modern saddle mule emerged. Exhibition shows where mules pulled heavy loads have now been joined with mules competing in Western and English Pleasure riding, as well as dressage and hunter jumper competition. There is now a cable TV show produced by Meredith Hodges of the Lucky Three Ranch dedicated to the training of donkeys and mules. Mules, once snubbed at traditional horse shows, have, through the efforts of riders like Meredith Hodges, been accepted for competition at the most exclusive horse shows in the world in all disciplines. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...


The mule clone

In 2003, researchers at University of Idaho and Utah State University found a way to get mules to reproduce—by cloning the first mule as part of Project Idaho. The research team includes Gordon Woods, UI professor of animal and veterinary science, Kenneth L. White, USU professor of animal science, and Dirk Vanderwall, UI assistant professor of animal and veterinary science. The baby mule, Idaho Gem, was born May 4. It is the first clone of a hybrid animal. Veterinary examinations of the foal and its surrogate mother showed them to be in good health soon after birth. The foal's DNA comes from a fetal cell culture first established in 1998 at the University of Idaho. The University of Idaho is the states prominent institution of higher learning, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County. ... Utah State University (USU) is a public land-grant university whose main campus is located in Logan, Utah. ... Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mules of a different color

An Argentine pack mule.
An Argentine pack mule.

Mules today come in all shapes, sizes and colors, from minis under 50 pounds to maxis over 1000 pounds, and in many different colors. Mules from appaloosa mares produce wildly colored mules, much like their appaloosa horse relatives, but with even wilder skewed colors. The appaloosa color is produced by a complex of genes known as the Leopard Complex (Lp). Mares homozygous for the Lp gene bred to any color donkey will produce an appaloosa colored mule. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1102 KB) JUANCITO (Remonta Inesperado), el mejor mulo de la Argentina, de expedición en Península Mitre, Tierra del Fuego. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1102 KB) JUANCITO (Remonta Inesperado), el mejor mulo de la Argentina, de expedición en Península Mitre, Tierra del Fuego. ... Argentina is a country in southern South America, situated between the Andes in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east. ...


See also

Binomial name Subspecies E. a. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... The definition of jennet varies depending on location and on the antiquity of the usage. ... Binomial name Equus kiang , The Kiang (Equus kiang) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family. ... Binomial name A hinny is the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey (jennet or jenny). ... Binomial name Equus hemionus Pallas, 1775 The onager (Equus hemionus) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family and native to the deserts of Syria, Iran, Pakistan, India, Israel, and Tibet (China). ... M.U.L.E. is a seminal multiplayer video game written in 1983 by Dan Bunten of Ozark Softscape. ...

References

  1. ^ "Mule". The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General XVII. (1888). Henry G. Allen and Company. 15. Retrieved on 2007-12-26. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Grass is a natural source of nutrition for a horse Equine nutrition refers to the feeding of horses, ponies, mules, donkeys and other equids. ... Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight instinct. ... Laura knows far more about horses than Sarah ever will, ever. ... Horse breeding is the process of using selective breeding to produce additional individuals of a given phenotype, that is, continuing a breed. ... See Equine conformation ... Wild horses on the range, showing a wide range of coat colors Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colours and distinctive markings. ... For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Tack is a term used to describe any of the various equipment and accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... a horse carries a bit in its mouth, held on by a bridle. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ... A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... Horse in harness with horse collar A Horse harness is a type of horse tack that allows a horse or other equid to be hitched to pull various horse-drawn vehicles such as a carriage, wagon, plow or sleigh. ... English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ... Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... A Welsh Cob in harness Driving, when applied to horses, Ponies, mules, or donkeys, is a broad term for hitching equines to a wagon, carriage, cart, sleigh, or other conveyance by means of a harness and working them in this form. ... Horse training refers to a wide variety of practices that teach horses to perform certain behaviors when asked to do so by humans. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... A riders equitation is her/his ability to ride correctly with a strong, supple position and effective aids. ... Reconstruction, left forefoot skeleton (third digit emphasized yellow) and longitudinal section of molars of selected prehistoric horses The evolution of the horse involves the gradual development of the modern horse from the fox-sized, forest-dwelling Hyracotherium. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... This 15th century depiction of Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I shows a well-bred Medieval horse with arched neck, refined head and elegant gait. ... A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... // Light or saddle horse breeds Heavy or draft horse breeds This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Binomial name A hinny is the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey (jennet or jenny). ... A zebra/donkey hybrid A zebroid is a cross between a zebra and any other equid: essentially, a zebra hybrid. ... Binomial name A zeedonk (also spelled zedonk) (also known as zebrass, zebronkey, zonkey, zebadonk, zenkey, zebrinny, or deebra) is a cross between a zebra and a donkey. ... A zony is the offspring of a zebra stallion and a pony mare. ... It has been suggested that Zebrula be merged into this article or section. ... This Tree of Life article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Quagga (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Equus hemionus hemippus Geoffroy, 1855 The Syrian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus hemippus) was a wild ass found in the mountains and desert/steppe of Syria. ... Trinomial name Equus ferus ferus Boddaert, 1785 The Tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, was the Eurasian wild horse. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mule Deer (DesertUSA) (0 words)
Mule Deer antlers are normally smaller and branch to form 2 equal forks, while the male White-tailed Deer has forward curving antlers with a number of points (tines) branching from the main beam.
Mule Deer have large ears that move constantly and independently, from whence they get their name, "Mule" or "Burro Deer." They do not run as other deer, but have a peculiar and distinctive bounding leap (stotting) over distances up to 8 yards, with all 4 feet coming down together.
Mule Deer moves between various zones from the forest edges at higher elevations to the desert floor, depending on the season.
What is a Mule? (1215 words)
A mule or hinny may be a male (horse mule or horse hinny) or a female (mare mule or mare hinny).
Mules may wear their tails "belled" as decoration, left long and full, or clipped at the top to emphasize the shape of the hip.
Mules try their best to imitate the donkey's bray, but most have a unique sound that is a combination of the horse's whinny and the grunting of the wind-down of a bray.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m