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Encyclopedia > Mulberry
Mulberry

Ripe mulberry on tree
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Genus: Morus
L.
Species

See text. Mulberry can refer to several plants, as well as many cities and geographic areas: Mulberry refers both to the mulberry tree Morus, and to the fruit of that tree. ... Larger image of ripe mulberry on tree, taken by self File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae Moraceae (mulberry family) Rosaceae (rose family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) For the Philippine municipality, see Rosales, Pangasinan. ... Genera Antiaris Artocarpus - Breadfruit, Jackfruit Brosimum Broussonetia - Paper Mulberry Castilloa Cecropia Chlorophora Dorstenia Ficus - Fig, Banyan Maclura - Osage-orange Morus - Mulberry Musanga Pseudolmedia Streblus Treculia The flowering plant family Moraceae (Mulberry family) comprises some 40 genera and over 1000 species of plants widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, less common... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

found in booneville california


Mulberry (Morus) is a genus of 10–16 species of deciduous trees native to warm, temperate, and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and North America, with the majority of the species native to Asia. Deciduous forest after leaf fall Like many deciduous plants, Forsythia flowers during the leafless season For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


The closely related genus Broussonetia is also commonly known as mulberry, notably the Paper Mulberry Broussonetia papyrifera. Species Broussonetia kaempferi Broussonetia kazinoki Broussonetia kurzii Broussonetia papyrifera Broussonetia is a genus of four species of trees in the family Moraceae, native to eastern Asia. ... Binomial name Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. ...


Mulberries are fast-growing when young, but soon become slow-growing and rarely exceed 10-15 m tall. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, often lobed, more often lobed on juvenile shoots than on mature trees, and serrated on the margin. The fruit is a multiple fruit, 2-3 cm long. Mulberries begin as white to pale yellow with pink edges. They are red when ripening. A fully ripened mulberry is dark purple to black, edible, and sweet with a good flavor in several species. Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Species

The taxonomy of Morus is complex and disputed. Over 150 species names have been published, but only 10-16 are generally cited as being accepted, though different sources cite different selections of accepted names. The classification is also complicated by widespread hybridisation, with the hybrids being fertile. // This article is about a biological term. ...


The following species are generally accepted:

  • Morus alba (White Mulberry; eastern Asia)
  • Morus australis (Chinese Mulberry; southeastern Asia)
  • Morus mesozygia (African Mulberry; southern and central Africa)
  • Morus microphylla (Texas Mulberry; south central North America: Texas, Mexico)
  • Morus nigra (Black Mulberry; southwest Asia)
  • Morus rubra (Red Mulberry; eastern North America)

The following, all from eastern and southern Asia, are additionally accepted by one or more taxonomic lists or studies; synonymy as given by other lists or studies is indicated in brackets: Binomial name Morus alba L. The White Mulberry (Morus alba) is a short-lived, fast-growing, small to medium sized tree to 15-20 m tall, native to eastern Asia. ... Binomial name Morus nigra L. Black Mulberry (Morus nigra) is a species of mulberry. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ...

  • Morus atropurpurea
  • Morus bombycis (M. australis)
  • Morus cathayana
  • Morus indica (M. alba)
  • Morus japonica (M. alba)
  • Morus kagayamae (M. australis)
  • Morus laevigata (M. alba var. laevigata, M. macroura)
  • Morus latifolia (M. alba)
  • Morus liboensis
  • Morus macroura (M. alba var. laevigata)
  • Morus mongolica (M. alba var. mongolica)
  • Morus multicaulis (M. alba)
  • Morus notabilis
  • Morus rotundiloba
  • Morus serrata (Himalayan Mulberry; M. alba var. serrata)
  • Morus tillaefolia
  • Morus trilobata (M. australis var. trilobata)
  • Morus wittiorum

Binomial name Morus serrata Roxb. ...

Uses and cultivation

The ripe fruit is edible and is widely used in pies, tarts, wines and cordials. The fruit of the Black Mulberry, native to southwest Asia, and the Red Mulberry, native to eastern North America, have the strongest flavour. The fruit of the White Mulberry, an east Asian species which is extensively naturalised in urban regions of eastern North America, has a different flavour, sometimes characterised as insipid. The mature fruit contains significant amounts of resveratrol. It is known, though, that unripe fruit and green parts of the plant have a white sap that is intoxicating and mildly hallucinogenic.[1] Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ...


Black, red and white Mulberry are widespread in Northern India, Armenia, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan, where the tree and the fruit are known by the Persian-derived names Toot (Mulberry) or Shahtoot (King's or "Superior" Mulberry). Jams and sherbets are often made from the fruit in this region. The black mulberry was imported into Britain in the 17th. century in the hope that it would be useful in the cultivation of silkworms. It was much used in folk medicine, especially in the treatment of ringworm. “Farsi” redirects here. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... Sherbet (Etymology: Turkish & Persian; Turkish serbet, from Persian & Urdu sharbat, from Arabic sharba drink) (British and American English) or Sherbert (Australian English and New Zealand English, also a variant used in American English) historically was a cool effervescent or iced fruit soft drink. ...


Mulberry leaves, particularly those of the White Mulberry, are ecologically important as the sole food source of the silkworm, the pupa/cocoon of which is used to make silk. Other Lepidoptera larvae also sometimes feed on the plant including Common Emerald, Lime Hawk-moth and The Sycamore. The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Binomial name Hemithea aestivaria Hübner, 1799 The Common Emerald (Hemithea aestivaria) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name Mimas tiliae Linnaeus, 1758 The Lime Hawk-moth (Mimas tiliae) is a moth of the family Sphingidae. ... Binomial name Acronicta aceris Linnaeus, 1758 The Sycamore (Acronicta aceris) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ...


Mulberries can be grown from seed, and this is often advised as seedling-grown trees are generally of better shape and health. However, they are most often planted from large cuttings, which take root readily.


Anthocyanins from mulberry fruits


Anthocyanins are edible pigments, which hold potential use as natural food colourants. As the safety of synthetic pigments are doubted and in the wake of increasing demand for natural food colourants their significance in food industry increase. Anthocyanins are reported to yield attractive colours such as orange, red and blue. Since they are water-soluble their incorporation into aqueous food systems is easy. Apart from the colouring property anthocyanins are also known to possess antioxidant property and improve visual acuity. They also possess antineoplastic, radiation –protective, vasotonic, vasoprotective, anti-inflammatory, chemo and hepato - protective properties. Xueming Liu and his co workers at the Sericultural Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China in 2004 developed a cheap and industrially feasible method for purification of anthocyanins from mulberry fruit which could be used as a red food colourant of high colour value (of above 100). They found that out of 31 Chinese mulberry cultivars tested the total anthocyanin yield varied from 147.68 mg. to 2725.46 mg. per litre of fruit juice. Extraction and purification was done by using acidified ethanol as effluent solvent and cross-linked polystyrene copolymer - macro porous resin as adsorbant. The results indicated that total sugars, total acids and vitamins remained intact in the residual juice after removal of anthocyanins and that the residual juice could be fermented in order to produce products such as juice, wine and sauce. In many parts of the globe mulberry is grown for its fruit. The fruit is known to have many medicinal properties and used for making jam, wine etc. As the genera Morus has been domesticated over thousands of years and constantly been subjected to heterosis breeding (mainly for improving leaf yield), it would not be impossible for evolving breeds suitable for berry production. The finding offers possible industrial use of mulberry as a source of anthocyanins as natural food colourant, which could enhance the overall profitability of sericulture. Anthocyanin content was found to depend on climate and area of cultivation and it was higher on a sunny day. This finding holds promise for tropical sericulture countries for profiting from industrial anthocyanin production from mulberry through better anthocyanin recovery. This offers a challenging task to the mulberry germplasms resources across the globe, in exploration and collection of fruit yielding mulberry species; their Characterization, cataloguing and evaluation for anthocyanin content by using traditional as well as modern means and bio technology tools; developing an information system about these cultivars or varieties; training and global coordination of utilization of these genetic stocks and finally in evolving suitable breeding strategies to improve the anthocyanin content in potential breeds by collaboration with various research stations in the field of sericulture, plant genetics & breeding, biotechnology and pharmacology. For more information on mulberry, silkworms and sericulture visit http://silkwormmori.blogspot.com/ Reference: Liu, Xueming et. al. (2004): Quantification and purification of Mulberry anthocyanins with macroporous resins.; Journal of Bio medicine and Biotechnology; 2004:5 326-331, http://www.jbb.hindawi.com/.


In culture

A love story about Pyramus and Thisbe explains the color of the fruits. For the asteroid, see 88 Thisbe. ...


Notes

References and external links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mulberry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (393 words)
Mulberry (Morus) is a genus of 10–16 species of deciduous trees native to warm temperate and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and North America, with the majority of the species native to Asia.
Mulberry leaves, particularly those of the White Mulberry, are also economically important as the sole food source of the silkworm, the cocoon of which is used to make silk.
Mulberries can be grown from seed, and this is often advised as seedling-grown trees are generally of better shape and health.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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