FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Mulatto" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mulatto
? This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details.

Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mūlus.) is a person of mixed black and white ancestry or the offspring of one white parent and one black parent or someone 50% black and 50% white. It can also be used as an adjective to describe something as a light brown color.[1] Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... In biology, offspring are the product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents. ... A Masai man in Kenya Black people or blacks is a political, social or cultural classification of people. ... A group of medieval European musicians, commonly viewed as being white. 14th century fresco by Simone Martini. ...

Contents

Etymology

Mulato/Mulo/Mulus verse Muwallad

The term is thought to be derived from the Spanish and Portuguese word mulato (a small mule), which itself is derived from mulo (mule).[2][3][4] It was once a generic designation name for any hybrid. This is believed to be the reason it is considered offensive by some English-speakers[citation needed] where it is not so considered by Spanish-speakers or Portuguese-speakers.[5] The term mulato is documented in the data bank of the Real Academia Española (Spanish Royal Academy) for the first time in 1549. It states "The term mulato is documented in our diachronic data bank in 1549, whereas muladí (from mullawadí) does not appear until … the XVIII century, according to Corominas". They further state mulo has two meanings in Spanish: The first meaning is "mule", from Latin mulus. There is no proof that the term was once a generic designation for any hybrid species, but this may relate to why it can be considered offensive by some English speakers, who often prefer terms like "biracial" or "mixed race," instead. The second meaning of mulo in Spanish according to the Real Academia Española is "a person characterized by strength and vigour". Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOV Wikipedia policy is that all articles should be written from a neutral point of view. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Portuguese ( , also língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is today Galicia (Spain) and northern Portugal as Latin spoken by romanized Celtiberians about a thousand years ago. ... The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy, RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ...


Another etymology which can be found in some dictionaries and scholarly works traces the word's origins to the Arabic term muwallad, which means "a person of mixed ancestry". Muwallad literally means, "born, begotten, produced, generated; brought up, raised; born and raised among Arabs (but not of pure Arab blood). Muwallad is derived from the root word WaLaD (Arabic: ولد direct Arabic transliteration: waw, lam, dal). Walad means, "descendant, offspring, scion; child; son; boy; young animal, young one." Muwallad referred to the offspring of Arab men and foreign, non-Arab women. The term muwalladin is used in Arabic up to this day to describe the children between Arab fathers and foreign mothers. According to Julio Izquierdo Labrado[6] as well as Leopoldo Eguilaz y Yanguas as well as some Arabian sources,[7] muwallad is the etymological origin of mulato. In this context mulato would have been derived directly from muwallad rather than through muladí, a term which was applied to Spanish Christians who had converted to Islam during the Arab domination of Spain. Rather, the two words may share a common etymological muwallad base. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Muladíes (sg. ...


Demography

Latin America

Mulattos represent a significant portion of various countries in Latin America: Belize (83%) the Dominican Republic (73%), Cuba (approx. 51%), Brazil, Colombia, Panama (approx. 14%), Haiti (approx. 5%), Costa Rica (approx. 5%), Honduras, and Nicaragua. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


The roughly 200,000 Africans brought to Mexico were for the most part absorbed by the mestizo populations of mixed European and Amerindian descent. The state of Guerrero once had a large population of African slaves. Other Mexican states inhabited by people with some African ancestry, along with other ancestries, include Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Yucatan. Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups Other Spanish people, Portuguese people, Amerindian, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; French, Métis... An independent origin and development of writing is counted among the many achievements and innovations of pre-Columbian American cultures. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that comprise Mexico. ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ...


People of mixed ancestry also constitute a significant portion of the population of Puerto Rico[8]. In one recent genetic study of 800 Puerto Ricans, 61% had mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from an Amerind female ancestor, 27% inherited mitochondrial DNA from a female African ancestor and 12% had mitochondrial DNA from a female European ancestor.[9] Conversely, patrilineal input as indicated by the Y chromosome showed that 70% of Puerto Rican males in the sample have Y chromosome DNA from a male European ancestor, 20% inherited Y chromosome DNA from a male African ancestor and less than 10% inherited Y chromosome DNA from male Amerindian ancestor.[citation needed] As these tests measure only the DNA along the matrilineal line and patrilineal lines of inheritance, each test only measures the one individual who mutated into a recognizable haplogroup and in tandem the thousands, perhaps millions of descendants that subsequently mutated but remained within the haplogroup; they cannot tell exactly with certainty what percentage of Puerto Ricans have recent African ancestry. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ...


In Haiti (formerly Saint-Domingue), mulattos represented a smaller proportion of the population than in many other Latin American countries. Today they constitute about 5% of the population. In the 18th century, they made up a class of their own, the gens de couleur. Often they were highly educated and wealthy. Many Haitian mulattos were also slaveholders and as such actively participated in the suppression of the black majority. However, some also actively fought for the abolition of slavery. Distinguished mulattos such as Nicolas Suard and others were prime examples of mulattoes who devoted their time, energy and financial means to this cause. Some were also members of the Les Amis des Noirs in Paris, an association that fought for the abolition of slavery. Nevertheless, many mulattos were slaughtered by African Haitians during the wars of independence in order to secure African political power over the island. Earlier some African volunteers had already aligned themselves with the French against the mulattos during the first and second mulatto rebellion. In Haiti, mulattos initially possessed legal equality with the unmixed French population. This provided them with many benefits, including inheritance. In the 18th century, however, Europeans fearful of slave revolts had restricted their rights, but they were successfully reclaimed in 1791. Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Brazil

According to the IBGE 2000 census, 38.5% of Brazilians identified themselves as parda, or of mixed ancestry [10] [11]. This figure not only includes mulatto people but also includes other multiracial people such as people who have European and Amerindian ancestry (called caboclo).
The term mulatto (mulato in Portuguese) is not commonly used anymore in Brazilian society. Instead, other terms widely used are moreno, light-moreno and dark-moreno. These terms are not considered offensive, and focus more on the skin color than on the ethnicity (it's close to others human characteristics like tall and short). Those terms are also used for other multiracial people in Brazil and they are the popular terms for parda skin color used on the 2000 official census. A Caboclo is a person of mixed Brazilian Indian and European ancestry. ... Moreno is Spanish and Portuguese for a tanned, dark or brown-skinned person, or a reference o to a persons brown or black hair color, independent of skin or eye color. ...


United States

In the United States, the term was in the beginning also used as a term for those of mixed white and Native American ancestry. Mulatto was an official census category until 1930.[12] In the south of the country mulattos inherited slave status if the mother was a slave, although in Spanish and French-influenced areas of the South prior to the Civil War (particularly New Orleans, Louisiana) a number of mulattos were also free and slave-owning.[citation needed]. During the 1700- 1800 the term mulatto represented a American Indian child it was not used to represent mixed ancestry,the definition changed after the United States 1868 14th amendment. Government agents recruiting American Indians to join the United States, changed the identity of American Indians desendants to Negro if born from a American Indian women free or enslaved. Children born by European women and American Indian men became the identity of mulatto. In 1920 Dr. Plecker, founder of the United States office of vital records changed the identity of all American Indians born from American Indian women to Negro instead of mulattoes. Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Nickname: Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area  - City  350. ...


Criticism of the use of the term

Critics point out that the use of the term singles out Black people from the rest of the population, suggesting that they are inherently foreigners and will never be "true" citizens of the country of their birth. For example, a person of one Black parent from the Philippines is labelled as "negro" or "itim" (black), by many of the Austronesian majority and never fully accepted as part of mainstream society solely because of that person's Black phenotype, despite that person's upbringing in a thoroughly Filipino environment, possession of Filipino citizenship from birth, and unwavering allegiance to the Filipino flag. A Masai man in Kenya Black people or blacks is a political, social or cultural classification of people. ... The Austronesian people are a population group in Oceania and Southeast Asia who speak or had ancestors who spoke one of the Austronesian languages. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Philippine nationality law is currently based upon the principles of Jus sanguinis. ... Bandila redirects here. ...


See also

Quadroon, octoroon and, more rarely, quintroon were historically racial categories of hypodescent used in Latin America and parts of the 19th century Southern United States, particularly Louisiana. ... An octoroon or mustee is the offspring of a quadroon and a European parent, having ancestry that is one-eighth Negroid. ... A quintroon is the offspring of an octoroon and a European parent, having ancestry that is one-sixteenth African. ... Sambo is now seen as a derogatory term for an African American. ... The Cape Coloureds are modern-day descendants of slaves imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Half-caste. ... Rhineland Bastard was a derogatory term used in Nazi Germany to describe children of mixed German and African or Melanesian parentage. ... Tragic mulatto is a myth describing an archetypical mulatto person or fictional character, who is assumed to be sad or even suicidal because he/she is caught between the two poles of the White and Black worlds without fully belonging to/being accepted by either of them. ...

References

  1. ^ dictionary.reference.com
  2. ^ "Chambers Dictionary of Etymology". Robert K. Barnhart. (2003). Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd.. 684. 
  3. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=mulatto&sourceid=Mozilla-search
  4. ^ Dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy
  5. ^ Vania Penha-Lopes. "What Next? On Race and Assimilation in the United States and Brazil." Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 26, No. 6 (Jul., 1996), pp. 809-826
  6. ^ La esclavitud en Huelva y Palos (1570-1587). Julio Izquierdo Labrado
  7. ^ The impact of the Arabic language and culture on English and other European languages, by Habeeb Salloum
  8. ^ http://backintyme.com/essay041215.htm
  9. ^ Martínez Cruzado, Juan C. (2002). The Use of Mitochondrial DNA to Discover Pre-Columbian Migrations to the Caribbean:Results for Puerto Rico and Expectations for the Dominican Republic. KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology [On-line Journal], Special Issue, Lynne Guitar, Ed. Available at: http://www.kacike.org/MartinezEnglish.pdf [Date of access: 12 December 2006]
  10. ^ http://www.ibge.gov.br/english/presidencia/noticias/20122002censo.shtm
  11. ^ http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/censo2000/populacao/cor_raca_Censo2000.pdf
  12. ^ https://www.ipums.umn.edu/usa/voliii/inst1930.html

Footnotes

  1. In the Dominican Republic, the mulatto population has also absorbed the small number of Taíno Amerindians once present in that country.
  2. Based on a 1960 census that included colour categories such as white, Black, yellow, and mulatto. Since then, any racial components have been dropped from the Dominican census.

The reconstruction of Taino village, Cuba The Taíno are pre-Colombian indigenous inhabitants of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and some of the Lesser Antilles. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ...

Sources

  • Leopoldo Eguilaz y Yanguas (1886): Glosario de las palabras españolas (castellanas, catalanas, gallegas, mallorquinas, protugueses, valencianas y bascongadas), de orígen oriental (árabe, hebreo, malayo, persa y Turco). Granada, La Lealtad, 1886.
  • Yemen Reviews Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s. Social, Economic and Political Studies of the Middle East and Asia, vol. 57. Leiden: Brill, 1997. x, 392 pp. ISBN 90-04 10771 1 LC# JV8750.5.H33 1997 Engseng Ho, an anthropologist, discusses the role of the muwallad in the region. The term muwallad, used primarily in reference to those of 'mixed blood,' is brilliantly analyzed through ethnographic and textual information.
  • The British-Yemeni Society, Hadhrami migration in the 19th and 20th centuries
  • Yemen Articles Interwiev: Hamid Al-Gadri

External links

  • An article on the mulatto depictions in fiction
  • At Race Relations, in depth research on Mulatto's
  • Encarta's breakdown of Mulatto

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mulatto | Definition | Information | Explanation | Review | WikiCity.com - Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia, Free Content, ... (686 words)
Mulatto (also Mulato) is a term of Spanish and/or Portuguese origin describing people of mixed European and African racial descent.
Although mulattos, and even full-blooded Africans, did once represent a portion of the population in countries such as Mexico and Honduras, they were absorbed there by the mestizo populations of mixed European and Native American descent.
Furthermore to the history of the mulattos in Haiti, not only were they regarded as a class of their own - in contrast to Anglo-America where they were grouped with Blacks and saw themselves as such - but they were also free, wealthy and highly educated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m