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Encyclopedia > Mukden Incident
Mukden Incident
Japanese troops entering Shenyang during Mukden Incident
Japanese troops entering Shenyang during the Mukden Incident.
Date September 18, 1931 - February 18, 1932.
Location Inner Manchuria, China
Result Japanese Victory
Combatants
Flag of the Republic of China National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan
Commanders
Flag of the Republic of China Zhang Xueliang,
Flag of the Republic of China Ma Zhanshan,
Flag of the Republic of China Feng Zhanhai
Shigeru Honjo,
Jiro Minami
Strength
160,000 30,000 - 66,000
Casualties
 ?  ?

The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931, known in Japanese as the Manchurian Incident, occurred in southern Manchuria when a section of railroad, owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway, near Mukden (today's Shenyang) was dynamited by Japanese junior officers.[1] Imperial Japan's military accused Chinese dissidents of the act, thus providing a pretext for the Japanese occupation of Manchuria. The incident represented an early event in the Second Sino-Japanese War, although full-scale war would not start until 1937. In Chinese, this incident is referred to as the September 18 Incident (Chinese: 九·一八事变/九·一八事變Jiǔyībā Shìbiàn) or Liutiaogou Incident (Chinese:柳条沟事变/柳條溝事變Liǔtiáogōu Shìbiàn), or in Japanese as the Manchurian Incident (Kyūjitai: 滿洲事變, Shinjitai: 満州事変). Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai, Ting Chao Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Tamon, Senjuro Hayashi Strength 160,000 men 30,000 - 60,450 men Casualties  ?  ? The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 19, 1931, one day... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, China Imperial Japanese Army, Japan Commanders Gen. ... Resistance at Nenjiang Bridge was a small war fought between small forces of Chinese militias against the Japanese Imperial Army and collaborationist forces, after the Mukden Incident in which Manchuria was lost to Japan. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Marshal Zhang Xueliang Lt. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, China Imperial Japanese Army, Japan Commanders Feng Zhanhai, Ting Chao Shigeru Honjo Strength 30,000  ? Casualties  ?  ? After General Ma Zhanshan had been driven from Tsitsihar by the Japanese in the Jiangqiao Campaign he had retreated northeastward with his beaten and depleted forces and had set up... Combatants Republic of China, 19th Route Army, 5th Army Empire of Japan, Imperial Japanese Army, 2nd Independent Tank Company, Shanghai Expeditionary Force Commanders 19th Route Army: Jiang Guangnai (Chinese: 蔣光鼐), 5th Army: Zhang Zhizhong (Chinese: 張治中) Commander: Yoshinori Shirakawa (Japanese: 白川義則), Chief of staff: Kanichiro Tashiro (Japanese: 田代皖一郎) Strength 50,000 90,000 Casualties... Combatants Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies, Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan, Manchukuo Imperial Army, Manchukuo Commanders Ma Zhanshan, Ting Chao, Tang Juwu, Wang Fengge, Wang Delin, Su Bingwen, Feng Yuxiang, Yang Jingyu, Zhou Baozhong, Li Zhaolin Shigeru Honjo, Nobuyoshi Muto, Takashi Hishikari... The Battle of Rehe was fought from February 21 to March 1 of 1933 between China and Japan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Operation Nekka. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Song Zheyuan Kanichiro Tashiro Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (盧溝橋事變; also known as 七七事變, 七七盧溝橋事變 or the Lugouqiao Incident) was a battle between the Republic of Chinas National Revolutionary Army and the Empire of Japans... The Battle of Beiping-Tianjin (Traditional Chinese: 平津作戰; Simplified Chinese: 平津作战; pinyin: ) (25 July - 31 July 1937) was a battle fought during the Second Sino-Japanese War in the proximity of Beiping (now Beijing) and Tianjin. ... 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Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Bombing of Chongqing (February 18, 1938 - August 23, 1943) was a Japanese strategic bombing campaign against the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing that lasted 5 1/2 years. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Military Region 5, 9, Soviet Air Force volunteers[1] Imperial Japanese Army, Central China Expeditionary Force, 11th Army, 2nd Army, China Area Fleet, Central China Aviation Army Corps Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Xue Yue, Wu Qiwei, Zhang Fakui, Wang Jingjiu, Ou Zhentong, Yu Jishi,Duan Langru... 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Combatants National Revolutionary Army, China Imperial Japanese Army, Japan Commanders Strength 17 armies 5 divisions, 3 brigades Casualties  ? 15,000 troops The Battle of West Henan-North Hubei (Traditional: 豫西鄂北會戰; Simplified: 豫西鄂北会战; Hanyu Pinyin: ), was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the... Combatants China, National Revolutionary Army Japan, Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Ho Ying-chin Ichiro Anzai Strength 2 army groups, several companies, NRA Air Force, USAAF 70-80,000 troops in 7 divisions Casualties 13,000 Chinese and estimated 11 USAF soldiers ~20,000 The Battle of West Hunan was one... Combatants China, National Revolutionary Army Japan, Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Chang Fu-kuei, Tang Enbai Yukio Kasahara Strength 30,000 600,000 Casualties 10,000 500,000 The Second Guangxi Campaign (Late April-July, 1945) was a Chinese counteroffensive against the Japanese forces that had taken Guangxi during Operation Ichigo... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The South Manchuria Railway Company (Japanese: 南満州鉄道株式会社 Minami Manshū Tetsudō Kabushiki Gaisha; abbreviated as 満鉄 Mantetsu) was a company founded by Japan in 1906, after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), and operated in Japanese-occupied Manchuria. ... Major districts of Shenyang. ... This article is about a city. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... Look up KyÅ«jitai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary KyÅ«jitai (旧字体, きゅうじたい) is the traditional form of the Japanese kanji used before 1947. ... Shinjitai (in Shinjitai: ; in KyÅ«jitai: æ–°å­—é«”; meaning new character form), are the forms of Kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946. ...

Contents

Background

After the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan had replaced Russia as the dominant foreign power in Manchuria. Japan's China policy was conflicting throughout the 1930s. Japanese military in Manchuria and North China enjoyed some degree of independence from both the civilian government and the military authority in Tokyo. There were debates as to whether Japan should attempt to conquer and establish a sort of colonial relationship with China, or whether Japan should strengthen economic relations with China to make both countries more dependent on each other, thus making armed conflicts between the two less likely. Furthermore, the Japanese government wished to see China more fragmented because dealing with separate Chinese factions, which were often in conflict with each other, was easier and more beneficial to Japan. For example, Japan intervened in the Northern Expedition in the 1928 Jinan Incident to prevent the unification of China. On the other hand, Chinese policy during that time followed first internal pacification, then external resistance and seemed to be appeasing the Japanese as the Kuomintang (KMT) Nationalist Government was mired in a continuous campaign against the Chinese Communists and just recently fought and won the 1930 war against remnant warlords. Chinese foreign policy during this period followed the doctrine of nonresistance (traditional Chinese: 不抵抗主義; pinyin: bùdǐkàngzhǔyì). Aggressive policy by the relatively independent Japanese military authority in China, coupled with the policy of nonresistance by the Chinese central government, became the main impetus toward the Mukden Incident. Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Jinan Incident (Japanese:済南事件) or May 3rd Incident (Traditional Chinese: 五三慘案 , Simplified Chinese: 五三惨案), or Tsinan Incident, was an armed conflict between the Japanese Army allied with Northern Chinese warlords against the Kuomintangs southern army in Jinan, the capital of Shandong in 1928 during the Kuomintangs Northern Expedition. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: Zhōnggu ngchǎndǎng) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Combatants Forces of Chiang Kai-shek Forces of the coalition of Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang and Li Zongren Commanders Han Fuqu, Liu Zhi Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren Strength 600,000 800,000 Casualties ~95,000+ ~150,000+ Central Plains War (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a civil... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


The Incident

The aim of Japanese junior officers in Manchuria was to provide a pretext that would justify Japanese military invasion and replace the Chinese government in the region with either a Japanese or a puppet one. They chose to sabotage a railway section in an area near Liǔtiáo Lake (柳條湖liǔtiáohú). The fact was that the area had no official name and was not militarily important to either the Japanese or the Chinese. But it was only eight hundred meters away from the Chinese garrison of Beidaying (北大營bèidàyíng), which was stationed by troops under the command of the "Young Marshal" Zhang Xueliang. The alleged Japanese plan was to attract Chinese troops by an explosion and then blame them for having caused it to provide a pretext for a formal Japanese invasion. In addition, to make the sabotage appear more convincingly as a calculated Chinese attack on an essential transportation target — thereby masking the Japanese action as a legitimate measure to protect a vital railway of industrial and economic importance — the Japanese press labeled the site "Liǔtiáo Ditch" (柳條溝liǔtiáogōu) or "Liǔtiáo Bridge" (柳條橋liǔtiáoqiáo), when in reality the site was a small railway section laid on an area of flat land. The choice to place the explosives at this site was to preclude the extensive reconstruction that would have been necessitated had the site truly been a railway bridge. Zhang Xueliang Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Hsüeh-liang; English occasionally: Peter Hsueh Liang Chang) (3 June 1901 (according to other accounts in 1898 or 1900) in Haicheng County, Fengtian province of China – 14 October 2001 in Hawaii, United States...


Colonel Itagaki Seishiro, Lieutenant Colonel Kanji Ishiwara, Colonel Kenji Doihara, and Major Takayoshi Tanaka[2] had laid complete plans for the incident by May 31, 1931. An important part of the scheme was to construct a swimming pool at the Japanese officers' club in Mukden. This "swimming pool" was actually a concrete bunker for two 9.2-inch artillery pieces, which were brought in under complete secrecy.[3] Col. ... Kanji Ishiwara (石原 莞爾, Ishiwara Kanji, January 18, 1889 - August 15, 1949) was a Japanese military officer in the Kantogun. ... Kenji Doihara (土肥原 賢二) Doihara Kenji, August 8, 1883 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese officer and spy who served in northeastern China from 1913 and who became a major military commander in Japans invasion of China over the following decades. ... Major districts of Shenyang. ...

A section of the Liǔtiáo railway. The caption reads "railway fragment"

The plan was executed when officers of the Shimamoto Regiment, which guarded the South Manchuria Railway, arranged for sappers to place explosives near the tracks, but far enough away to do no real damage. At around 10:20PM (22:20), September 18, the explosives were detonated. However, the explosion was minor and only a 1.5 meter section on one side of the rail was damaged. In fact, a train from Changchun passed by the site on this damaged track without difficulty and arrived at Shenyang at 10:30PM (22:30). [4] Image File history File linksMetadata Mukden_1931_rail. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mukden_1931_rail. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Changchun (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located at the northeast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about a city. ...


Invasion of Manchuria

Main Article: Invasion of Manchuria Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai, Ting Chao Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Tamon, Senjuro Hayashi Strength 160,000 men 30,000 - 60,450 men Casualties  ?  ? The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 19, 1931, one day...


On the morning of September 19, the two artillery pieces installed at the Mukden officers' club opened up on the Chinese garrison nearby, in response to the alleged (by the Japanese) Chinese attack on the railway. Zhang Xueliang's small airforce was destroyed and the Chinese soldiers fled their destroyed Beidaying barracks as five hundred Japanese troops attacked the Chinese garrison of around seven thousand. The Chinese troops, mostly irregulars or new conscripts, were no match for the experienced troops the Japanese had prepared for the attack. By the evening of September 19, 1931, the fighting was over and the Japanese had occupied Mukden at the cost of five hundred Chinese and only two Japanese lives.[5] This article is about a city. ... Zhang Xueliang Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Hsüeh-liang; English occasionally: Peter Hsueh Liang Chang) (3 June 1901 (according to other accounts in 1898 or 1900) in Haicheng County, Fengtian province of China – 14 October 2001 in Hawaii, United States... This article is about a city. ...


Zhang Xueliang, under implicit approval from Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Government to adhere to the nonresistance policy, had already urged his men to not put up a fight or contest any attack, and to store away any weapons in case the Japanese invaded. Therefore, the Japanese soldiers proceeded to occupy and garrison the major cities of Changchun, Antung, and their surrounding areas. Whenever fighting broke out, it was usually due to miscommunication between the central government and the Chinese troops who were supposed to have been ordered to be nonresistant. However, in November, Ma Zhanshan, the governor of Heilongjiang, began resistance with his provincial army, followed in January by Generals Ting Chao and Li Du with their loyal Kirin provincial forces. Within five months of the Mukden Incident, the invasion of Manchuria had overrun all the major towns and cities in the three north-eastern provinces of Liaoning (where Mukden was), Kirin, and Heilongjiang, bringing them under Japanese control. However, opposition to the Japanese was only beginning. Zhang Xueliang Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Hsüeh-liang; English occasionally: Peter Hsueh Liang Chang) (3 June 1901 (according to other accounts in 1898 or 1900) in Haicheng County, Fengtian province of China – 14 October 2001 in Hawaii, United States... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Changchun (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located at the northeast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... statue in Dandong Dandong (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Dāndōng) is a city in the Liaoning province, China. ... Ma Zhanshan (馬占山, 1885-1950) was born in Gongzhuling, in Jilin province, in a poor farm family. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... (1883-1939) General Ting Chao or Ding Chao (born 1883; died 1939) is known for his defense of Harbin during the Japanese Invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and 1932. ... Li Du or Li Tu (1880 – 1956), was one of the leaders of the Kirin Self-Defence Army, one of the volunteer armies resisting the Japanese and the puppet state of Manchukuo in Manchuria in 1932. ... Kirin may refer to: Kirin, the Japanese and Korean word for the Qilin, a mythical beast in Chinese culture and now the word for giraffe Kirin Brewery Company, Ltd. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai, Ting Chao Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Tamon, Senjuro Hayashi Strength 160,000 men 30,000 - 60,450 men Casualties  ?  ? The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 19, 1931, one day...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ...


Aftermath

Chinese public opinion strongly criticized Zhang Xueliang for his decision of nonresistance, even though the central government was indirectly responsible for this policy. Many had charged that Zhang's Northeastern Army of nearly a quarter million could have taken on the Kwantung Army of 11,000, and that giving up the three provinces without a fight was a great shame to the Chinese people. In addition, Zhang's arsenal in Manchuria was considered the most modern in China and that his troops had a few tanks, around sixty planes, four thousand machine guns, and a couple artillery battalions.


However, in reality, Zhang's seemingly superior force was undermined by several factors. One was that the Kwantung Army had a strong reserve force that could be transported by railway from Korea, which was a Japanese colony, directly to Manchuria. Secondly, more than half of Zhang's troops were stationed south of the Great Wall in the Hebei province, while the troops north of the wall scattered throughout Manchuria, therefore Zhang's troop could not have been deployed fast enough to fight the Japanese north of the wall. Also, Zhang's troops were undertrained and poorly led compared to their Japanese counterparts. And the most important of all, Japanese agents permeated Zhang's command because of his past (and his father Zhang Zuolin's) reliance on Japanese military advisors on equipping the originally warlord Northeastern Army. The Japanese knew the Northeastern Army inside-out and were able to conduct operations with much ease. For example, the Japanese detained Zhang's pilots on the night of the incident, rendering the airplanes useless without pilots. This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)¹) is a Chinese fortification built from the 5th century BC until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chang Tso-Lin (WG) (Chinese: 張作霖, pinyin: Zhāng Zuòlín) (1873 – June 4, 1928), nicknamed the Old Marshall or Mukden Tiger, was a Chinese warlord in Manchuria in the early 20th century. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ...


The Chinese government did not resist because it was preoccupied with internal problems, including the newly independent Guangzhou government of Hu Hanmin, Communist Party of China insurrections, and terrible flooding of the Yangtze that created tens of thousands of refugees that needed help. In addition, Zhang Xueliang was in a hospital in Beijing, to raise money for the flood victims. However, in the press, Zhang was ridiculed as General Nonresistance (Chinese: 不抵抗將軍). Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hu Hanmin (Chinese:胡漢民(trad. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: 长江; Traditional Chinese: 長江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng... Peking redirects here. ...


Because of these circumstances, the central government was unable to do much about the situation, and relied on the international community for a peaceful resolution. The Chinese foreign embassy issued a strong protest to the Japanese government and called for the immediate stop of Japanese operations in Manchuria, and appealed to the League of Nations, on September 19. On October 24, the League of Nations passed a resolution mandating the withdrawal of Japanese troops, to be completed by November 16. However, Japan rejected the League of Nations resolution and insisted on direct negotiations with the Chinese government. The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Negotiations went on intermittently without much result. On November 20, a conference in the Chinese government was convened, but the Guangzhou faction of the Kuomintang insisted that Chiang Kai-shek step down for the Manchurian debacle. On December 15, Chiang stepped down as the Chairman of the Nationalist Government and the Premier of the Republic of China (head of the Executive Yuan). Sun Fo, son of Sun Yat-sen, became the Premier and vowed to defend Jinzhou, another city of Liaoning, which was lost in early January 1932. As a result, Wang Jingwei then replaced Sun Fo as the Premier. is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of the Executive Yuan (行政院長), colloquially referred to as the Premier (閣揆), is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China, which currently administers Taiwan. ... The Executive Yuan (行政院; literally executive court) is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China. ... Sun Ke or Sun Fo (Chinese: 孫科)(October 21, 1891–September 13, 1973) was a high-ranking official in the government of the Republic of China. ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... Jinzhou (Simplified Chinese: 锦州; Traditional Chinese: 錦州; Pinyin: Jǐnzhōu), is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province in Northeast China. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ...


On January 7, the United States Secretary of State Henry Stimson proclaimed that the United States would not recognize any government that was established as the result of Japanese actions in Manchuria. On January 14, the League of Nations commission, headed by the Second Earl of Lytton of Britain, arrived in Shanghai to examine the situation. In March, the puppet state of Manchukuo was established, with the last emperor of China, Puyi, installed as its head of state. On October 2, the Lytton Report was published and rejected the Japanese claim that the Mukden Incident was an act of self-defense. The report also ascertained that Manchukuo was the product of Japanese military aggression in China, while recognizing that Japan had legitimate concerns in Manchuria because of its economic ties there. The League refused to acknowledge Manchukuo as an independent nation. This caused Japan to resign from the League of Nations in March 1933. is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 - October 20, 1950) was an American politician. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The title Earl of Lytton, in the County of Derby, was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1880 for Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Baron Lytton, the former Viceroy of India and son of the novelist Edward Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Puyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lytton Report was a report generated by a League of Nations commission to try to resolve the Manchurian Crisis. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ...


Thus, the Manchurian incident was poorly handled by the League of Nations and the subsequent Lytton Report. To quote A.J.P. Taylor: 'In the face of its first serious challenge', the League buckled and capitulated. This reluctance to act can be said to have been conditioned, although it is important to add that we refer more to partial conditioning rather than absolute conditioning, and thus allowing some degree of diplomatic flexibility, by earlier instances of diplomacy. One of the earliest acts of diplomacy was the Washington Naval Conference (1921) which guaranteed a certain degree of Japanese hegemony in the Far East. Any intervention therefore on the part of America would be a breach of the already mentioned agreement. Furthermore Britain was amid crisis having been recently forced off the 'gold standard'. Britain then, although a power in the Far East, was incapable of decisive action. In truth the only response appears to have been one of 'moral condemnation'. [6]


Controversy

Different opinions still exist as to who blew up the Japanese railroad at Mukden. It is almost certain that the Japanese military planned the incident and as a result carried out the subsequent occupation of Manchuria immediately with utmost efficiency.[7]


Strong evidence points to young officers of the Japanese Kwantung Army having conspired to cause the blast, with or without direct orders from Tokyo. While some members of the Japanese military have denied planting the bomb, Major Tadashi Hanaya, assistant to Itagaki Seishiro at the time of the incident, confessed that the bomb was planted and the incident staged by them. Post-war investigations also reviewed that the original bomb planted by the Japanese failed to explode and a replacement had to be planted. The resulting explosion enabled the Japanese Kwantung Army to accomplish their goal of invading Manchuria and the subsequent establishment of the puppet state of Manchukuo. The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Col. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of...


The "9.18 Incident Exhibition Museum" at Shenyang, opened by the People's Republic of China takes the position that the explosives were planted by Japan. However, the Yushukan Museum, neighboring Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo, places the blame on Chinese militias. This article is about a city. ... Torii Gate at Yasukuni Shrine The main building of Yasukuni Shrine Yasukuni Shrine 75th anniversary Stamp (1944) Yasukuni Shrine ) is a Shinto shrine located in Tokyo, Japan, dedicated to the spirits of soldiers and others who died fighting on behalf of the Emperor of Japan. ...


David Bergamini's book Japan's Imperial Conspiracy (1971) has a detailed chronology of events in both Manchuria and Tokyo surrounding the Mukden Incident. Bergamini concludes that the greatest deception was that the Mukden Incident and Japanese invasion were planned by junior or hot-headed officers, without formal approval by the Japanese government. Bergamini contends that Emperor Hirohito had approved the plan himself. David Bergamini (b. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...


According to a year-long research by the Yomiuri Shimbun to look into the question of war responsibility and root causes of the Japanese invasion, occupation and colonization of China, Korea, and Southeast Asia, the "Manchurian Incident" was instigated by ambitious Japanese militarists, and not Chinese terrorists. Yomiuri-TOKYO Office Yomiuri-Osaka Office Yomiuri YC The Yomiuri Shimbun (読売新聞 Yomiuri Shinbun) is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, and other major Japanese cities. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Japanese militarism (日本軍國主義) refers to militarism, the philosophical belief that military personnel (army or navy) should exercise full power in a nation. ...

The starting point of the Showa War [i.e. Sino-Japanese War of 1931-1945] was the Manchurian Incident that took place in September 1931. Who should be blamed for having caused the incident? The main instigators of the incident were Kanji Ishihara and Seishiro Itagaki, staff officers of the Kwantung Army, a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army.

According to the most popular view, the Japanese, Determined to conspire together to grab power and lead the country, they became the masterminds of the act of aggression into Manchuria (currently part of northeastern China) and literally dragged the nation into a series of wars.

At the core of Lt. Col. Ishihara's militarist thinking was the pursuit of the "Final World War Theory" to determine the No. 1 country of the world in a war between Japan and the United States, which he considered the greatest nations of the Eastern and Western civilizations, respectively.

In January 1928, at a meeting of the Mokuyo-kai (Thursday Society) group of elite officers who graduated from the Imperial Japanese Army's War College, Ishihara said, "The nation could stand being in a state of war for even 20 years or 30 years if we have footholds all over China and fully use them."

In June of that year, Daisaku Komoto, the predecessor of Itagaki, assassinated Zhang Zuolin, a Chinese warlord who had a strong influence in Manchuria, by blowing up the train in which he was traveling. This bears strong similarity to the Manchurian Incident.

The Kwantung Army began advancing into Jilin Province beyond its original garrison areas. Shigeru Honjo, then commander of the Kwantung Army, initially opposed sending troops to Jilin. But he eventually yielded to Itagaki's persistence and decided to give the go-ahead to the deployment.

Senjuro Hayashi, commander of the Japanese Army in Korea, also decided to dispatch his troops to Manchuria without an order. He followed advice from staff officers of the Japanese Army in Korea, who had ties with Ishihara and Itagaki.

Kingoro Hashimoto, chief of the Russia group of the Army General Staff's 2nd Bureau, had close contacts with them.

Hashimoto formed the Sakura-kai (Cherry Society) group that comprised young reformist officers, and used the group as a foothold to lead two failed coup attempts called the "March Incident" and the "October Incident." The March Incident was aimed at installing War Minister Kazushige Ugaki as prime minister. Others involved in the incident included Kuniaki Koiso, chief of the ministry's Military Affairs Bureau.

The October Incident was linked to the Manchurian Incident, although it was poorly planned. However, it would be the forerunner for a series of coups and terrorist acts, such as the May 15 Incident of 1932 and Feb. 26 Incident of 1936.

Before the Manchurian Incident, War Minister Jiro Minami strongly advocated to take hard line stance on Manchuria and Inner Mongolia. Without complaint, Prime Minister Reijiro Wakatsuki readily approved the dispatch of troops from the Japanese Army in Korea to Manchuria at its own discretion after being told about it by Minami.

The helplessness of politicians from being able to prevent military officers stationed outside the country from spinning out of control surfaced for the first time at this point.

Many victims and their descendants have pushed for the government of the People's Republic of China to designate September 18 as "National Humiliation Day". The PRC government also opened the "9.18 Incident Exhibition Museum" at Shenyang (present-day name of Mukden) on September 18, 1991. Then Japanese Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto was one of the notable visitors of the museum in 1997. is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a city. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Ryutaro Hashimoto (橋本龍太郎 Hashimoto Ryūtarō, July 29, 1937 - July 1, 2006) was a Japanese politician who served as the 82nd and 83rd Prime Minister of Japan from January 11, 1996 to July 30, 1998. ...


Popular culture

The Mukden Incident is depicted in the Tintin book The Blue Lotus, although the book places the bombing near Shanghai. The Adventures of Tintin (French: ) is a series of Belgian comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi (1907–1983). ... The Blue Lotus (Le Lotus bleu), first published in 1936, is one of The Adventures of Tintin, a series of classic comic-strip albums written and illustrated by Hergé featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


References

  1. ^ Fenby, Jonathan. Chiang Kai-shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf Publishers. 2003. pp. 202
  2. ^ Edward Behr, The Last Emperor, 1987, p. 180
  3. ^ Edward Behr, ibid, p. 180
  4. ^ CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR INTERNATIONAL EVENTS FROM 1931 THROUGH 1943, WITH OSTENSIBLE REASONS ADVANCED FOR THE OCCURRENCE THEREOF 78th Congress, 2d Session. "An explosion undoubtedly occurred on or near the railroad between 10 and 10:30 p.m. on September 18th, but the damage, if any, to the railroad did not in fact prevent the punctual arrival of the south-bound train from Changchun, and was not in itself sufficient to justify military action. The military operations of the Japanese troops during this night, . . . cannot be regarded as measures of legitimate self-defence . . ." [Opinion of Commission of Enquiry.] Ibid., p. 71. ,
  5. ^ Edward Behr, ibid, p. 182
  6. ^ A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, pp. 91-91. With the gift of hindsight it is easy, if not convenient, to say that the situation could have altered course, or better, not occurred in the first place; thus one of the myriad of problems during the 1930's could have been avoided. It is however important not to pass over the nuances of the diplomatic situation. Colonel Doihara used the Mukden Incident to continue his campaign of disinformation. Since the Chinese troops at Mukden had put up such a poor resistance, he told Manchukuo Emperor Pu Yi that this was proof that the Chinese remained loyal to him. Also, Japanese intelligence used the incident to continue the campaign to discredit the murdered Zhang Zuolin and his son Zhang Xueliang for "misgovernment" of Manchuria. In fact, drug trafficking and corruption had largely been suppressed under Zhang Zuolin.<ref>Edward Behr, ''ibid'', p. 182-3</li> <li id="_note-5">'''[[#_ref-5|^]]''' ''Misguided Intelligence: Japanese Military Intelligence Officers in the Manchurian Incident, September 1931'' The Journal of Military History, Vol. 58, No. 3. (Jul., 1994), pp. 445-460. </li></ol></ref>

    See also

    External links

    • Manchurian Incident

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mukden Incident at AllExperts (1674 words)
The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931, also called the Manchurian Incident, occurred in southern Manchuria when a section of railroad, owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway, near Mukden (today's Shenyang) was blown up.
In Chinese, this incident is referred to as the September 18 Incident or Liutiaogou Incident (Chinese:柳條溝事變).
On October 2, the Lytton Report was published and rejected the Japanese claim that the Mukden Incident was an act of self-defense.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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