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Mujahideen (Arabic: مجاهدين‎, muǧāhidīn, literally "strugglers") is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle.[1] The word is the plural form of مجاهد, muǧāhid, which comes from the same Arabic root as jihad ("struggle"). In Islamic scripture, the status of mujahid is unequal to qaid, one who does not join the jihad. Arabic redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...


Mujahideen is also transliterated from Arabic as mujahedeen, mujahedīn, mujahidīn, and mujaheddīn. Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ...

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Etymology

Arabic words usually have triliterals, which are triconsonantal (three-consonant) roots. The root of mujahidin is J-H-D (ج-ه-د), meaning "effort or sacrifice" ("Jihad" can mean to struggle and "Mujahideen" can mean struggler.) However, the particular verb stem of J-H-D from which both jihad and mujahid are derived means "to exert effort against" or "to struggle". Mujahid is originally, therefore, "someone who struggles". The term has, even in Arabic, taken on meanings that are specifically religious, or specifically military or paramilitary, or both. In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic and some other Afro-Asiatic languages, a triliteral (Arabic: جذر ثلاثي, ǧaḏr thalathi) is a root containing a sequence of three consonants (so also known as a triconsonantal root). ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ...


Like the concept and title Ghazi, it has been used in formal titles of Muslim leaders who prided themselves on (and legitimated their conquests by) Jihad bis saïf, holy war in the name of establishing Islamic rule, even at very high political level: no lesser ruler than Sultan Murad Khan II Khoja-Ghazi, sixth Sovereign of the House of Osman (1421–1451), had as full style 'Abu'l Hayrat, Sultan ul-Mujahidin, Khan of Khans, Grand Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia, and of the Cities of Adrianople and Philippolis, including the formal title "Sultan of mujahideen" Ghazi (March 21, 1912 - April 4, 1939) was king of Iraq from 1933 to 1939. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Djehad or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle. ... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Arabic: مراد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... House of Osman is the name to the administrative structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, which is part of state organization of the Ottoman Empire, however directly linked to dynasty. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , strugglers) is an Arabic term for those who engage in Islamic holy war–jihad (struggle). The word is a plural form of , , which literally translated from Arabic means struggler but is often translated in the West as holy warrior. ...


In English, the word is recorded since 1958, in a Pakistani context, adopted from Persian and Arabic, as the plural of mujahid "one who fights in a jihad", in modern use, for "Muslim guerilla insurgent." Farsi redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... “Insurrection” redirects here. ...


In the late 20th century and early 21st century, the term "mujahideen" became the name of various armed fighters who subscribe to militant Islamic ideologies and identify themselves as mujahideen, although there is not always an explicit "holy" or "warrior" meaning of the word. Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Afghanistan

The best-known mujahideen, various loosely-aligned Afghan opposition groups, initially fought against the incumbent pro-Soviet Afghan government during the late 1970s. At the Afghan government's request, the Soviet Union became involved in the war. The mujahideen insurgency then fought against the Soviet and Afghan government troops during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. After the Soviet Union pulled out of the conflict in the late 1980s the mujahideen fought each other in the subsequent Afghan Civil War. Ethnic groups of Afghanistan (1980 map)  42% Pashtun  27% Tajik  9% Hazara  9% Uzbek         3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        Languages of Afghanistan (1980 map)  50% Dari dialect of Persian  35% Pashto  8% Uzbek  3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        The Demographics of Afghanistan are ethnically and linguistically mixed. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The mujahideen were significantly financed and armed (and are alleged to have been trained) by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the Carter and Reagan administrations and the governments of Saudi Arabia, the People's Republic of China, several European countries, Iran, and Zia-ul-Haq's military regime in Pakistan. The Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) was the interagent used in the majority of these activities to disguise the sources of support for the resistance. CIA redirects here. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Gen. ... Augusto Pinochet (sitting) was an army general who led a military coup in Chile in 1973. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ...


Ronald Reagan praised them as "freedom fighters", and three mainstream films, 1987 The Living Daylights, 1988 Rambo III and 2007 Charlie Wilson's War, portrayed them as heroic. Reagan redirects here. ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established organization that is thought to be oppressive. ... For other uses, see The Living Daylights (disambiguation). ... Rambo III, is an American action film released on May 25, 1988. ... Charlie Wilsons War is a 2007 drama film about Democratic Texas Congressman Charlie Wilson, who conspired with a rogue CIA operative named Gust Avrakotos to launch an operation to help the Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. ...


Afghanistan's resistance movement was born in chaos and, at first, virtually all of its war was waged locally by regional warlords. As warfare became more sophisticated, outside support and regional coordination grew. Even so, the basic units of mujahideen organization and action continued to reflect the highly segmented nature of Afghan society.[2] Eventually, the seven main mujahideen parties allied themselves into the political bloc called Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen. A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ...


Many Muslims from other countries volunteered to assist various mujahideen groups in Afghanistan, and gained significant experience in guerrilla warfare. Some groups of these veterans have been significant factors in more recent conflicts in and around the Muslim world. A wealthy Saudi named Osama bin Laden was a prominent organizer and financier of an all Arab islamist group of foreign volunteers; his Maktab al-Khadamat funnelled money, arms, and Muslim fighters from around the muslim world into Afghanistan, with the assistance and support of the Saudi and Pakistani governments.[3] These foreign fighters became known as "Afghan Arabs" and their efforts were coordinated by Abdullah Yusuf Azzam. Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... The Maktab al-Khadamāt, also Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-Arab (Arabic: مكتب الخدمات or مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), also known as the Afghan Services Bureau, is reliably believed to have been founded in 1984 by Dr. Abdullah Azzam and Osama bin Laden to raise funds and recruit foreign mujahidin for... For the Arab migration or invasion of Afghanistan prior to the Soviet-Afghan War, see History of Arabs in Afghanistan. ... Sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (born 1941 As-baah Al-Hartiyeh, British Mandate of Palestine – died November 24, 1989, Peshawar, Pakistan) (Arabic عبدالله عزام) was a highly influential Palestinian Islamic scholar and theologian, and a central figure in preaching for defensive jihad by Musilms to help the Afghan mujahideen against the Soviet...


The mujahideen won when the Soviet Union pulled troops out of Afghanistan in 1989, followed by the fall of the Mohammad Najibullah regime in 1992. However, the mujahideen did not establish a united government, and many of the larger mujahideen groups began to fight each other over the power in Kabul. After several years of devastating infighting, a village mullah organized a new armed movement with the backing of Pakistan. This movement became known as the Taliban, meaning "students", and referring to the Saudi-backed religious schools known for producing extremism. Veteran mujahideen were confronted by this radical splinter group in 1996. Dr. Mohammad Najibullah (Pashto/Persian: ‎ ; born 1947, died September 27, 1996) was the fourth and last President of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, meaning both vicar and guardian. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... Islamic seminaries teach mostly Islamic subjects leading to graduation as a cleric (called maulvi, maulana or mulla in Pakistan. ...


By 2001, the Taliban, with backing from the Pakistani ISI (military intelligence) and possibly even the regular Pakistan Army, as well as al-Qaeda which found a refuge in Afghanistan, had largely defeated the militias and controlled most of the country. The opposition factions allied themselves together again and became known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (Northern Alliance). In 2001 with U.S. help and international military aid, they ousted the Taliban from power and formed the new government, and gradually militias were either incorporated into the new national army and police forces or demobilized. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Flag flown by the UIF (Northern Alliance). ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... Afghan National Army (ANA) is a service branch of the Military of Afghanistan, which is currently being trained by the coalition forces to ultimately take the lead in land-based military operations. ...


At present the term "mujahideen" is sometimes used to describe insurgents, including the Taliban/Al Qaeda, fighting NATO troops and the security forces of the US-backed government of Hamid Karzai and allied militias in Afghanistan, although most of the Mujahideen leaders who fought the Soviet Union later fought against the Taliban. Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ...


The Afghan mujahideen also participated in the Nagorno-Karabakh War and the Tajik Civil War. Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... The Tajikistan Civil War was a civil war fought from 1992 to 1997 in Tajikistan. ...


Thailand

Over past 4 years, the resistance against the government was escalated. Almost 3000 have been killed. Flag of Pattani Raya, a symbol of Pattani separatism The South Thailand insurgency is a separatist campaign centered in the Pattani region, three southern provinces of Thailand, with violence increasingly spilling over into neighbouring provinces and threatening to extend up to the national capital in Bangkok. ...


Chechnya

In the case of the Chechen-Russian conflict, the term mujahideen has often been used to refer to all separatist fighters. In this article however, it will be used to refer to the foreign, non-Caucasian fighters who joined the separatists’ cause for the sake of Jihad. In other literature dealing with this conflict they are often called Ansaar (helpers) to prevent confusion with the native fighters. There have been two Chechen Wars: First Chechen War (1994–1996) Second Chechen War (1999–) 1991-1994 In September, 1991, militants of Nationally Congress of Chechen People (NCChP) have taken control over Chechnya (they have seized republics parliament and killed chief of the PCUS of Grozny, Vitali Kutsenko). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Ansar is A Islamic term that literally means helper and denotes the Medinan citizens that helped Muhammad and the Muhajirun on the arival to the city after the Migration to Medina // Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy — chief [1] Sad ibn Ubadah, the chief of the Khazraj[2] Hassan ibn Thabit...


Foreign mujahideen have played a part in both Chechen wars. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent Chechen declaration of independence, foreign fighters started entering the region and associated themselves with local rebels (most notably Shamil Basayev). Many of them were veterans of the Soviet-Afghan war and prior to the Russian invasion, they used their expertise to train the Chechen separatists. During the First Chechen War they were notorious and feared for their guerilla tactics, inflicting severe casualties on the badly prepared Russian forces. The mujahideen also made a significant financial contribution to the separatists’ cause; with their access to the immense wealth of Salafist charities like al-Haramein, they soon became an invaluable source of funds for the Chechen resistance, which had little resources of its own. This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Official language Chechen Capital Grozny (Dzhokharabad, after 1996) President Doku Umarov Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Russia  â€“ November 1, 1991  â€“ Georgian Republic National anthem Death or Freedom The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria IPA: (Нохчийн Республика Нохчийчоь) is the unrecognized secessionist government of Chechnya. ... Shamil Basayev (Russian: ) (January 14, 1965 – July 10, 2006) was a militant Islamist and a leader of the Chechen separatist movement. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... This article is on an Islamic movement. ... Al-Haramain Islamic Foundation was a charity front, based in Saudi Arabia, for the international terrorist organization al-Qaeda. ...


After the withdrawal of Russian forces from Chechnya most of the mujahideen decided to remain in the country. In 1999, foreign fighters would play an important role in the ill-fated Chechen incursion into Dagestan, where they suffered a decisive defeat and where forced to retreat back into Chechnya. The incursion provided the new Russian government with a pretext for intervention and in December 1999 Russian ground forces invaded Chechnya again. In the Second Chechen War the separatists were less successful. Faced with a better prepared and more determined Russian forces, the Chechens were unable to hold their ground and as early as in 2002, Russian officials claimed the separatists had been defeated. The Russians also succeeded in eliminating the most prominent mujahideen commanders (most notably Ibn al-Khattab and Abu al-Walid). The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Combatants Russian Federation Daghestani militia Chechen rebels Shura of Dagestan Commanders Viktor Kazantsev Shamil Basayev Ibn al-Khattab Strength 17,000 unknown Casualties At least 279 dead and 987 wounded 2,500 dead The Dagestan War (in Russia called by the name Chechen invasion of Dagestan) began when Chechnya-based... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Belligerents Russian Federation Chechen loyalists Chechen separatists Caucasian Front Foreign Mujahideen Commanders Vladimir Putin Gennady Troshev Alexander Baranov Valentin Korabelnikov Akhmad Kadyrov â€  Ramzan Kadyrov Dzabrail Yamadayev â€  Sulim Yamadayev Said-Magomed Kakiyev Aslan Maskhadov â€  Sheikh Abdul Halim â€  Dokka Umarov Ruslan Gelayev â€  Shamil Basayev â€  Akhmed Yevloyev Khattab â€  Abu al-Walid â€  Abu Hafs... Ibn al-Khattab (ابن الخطاب), more commonly known as Amir Khattab (also transliterated as Emir Khattab and Ameer Khattab), and also known as Habib Abdul Rahman, was a warlord, terrorist organizer, and financier working with Chechen rebels in the First Chechen War and the Second Chechen War. ... Abu al-Walid (ابو الوليد) (born Saudi Arabia, date unknown, died April 16, 2004), also transliterated as Abu al-Waleed and also called Abu al-Walid al-Ghamdi or simply Abu Walid, was an Arab Mujahid of the Ghamid tribe who fought in both Chechen Wars. ...


Although the region has since been far from stable, separatist activity has decreased and although some foreign fighters are still active in Chechnya. In the last months of 2007, the influence of foreign fighters became apparent again when Dokka Umarov proclaimed the Caucasus Emirate, a pan-Caucasian Islamic state of which Chechnya was to be a province. This move caused a rift in the resistance movement between those supporting the Emirate and those who were in favour of preserving the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Official language Chechen Capital Grozny (Dzhokharabad, after 1996) President Doku Umarov Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Russia  â€“ November 1, 1991  â€“ Georgian Republic National anthem Death or Freedom The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria IPA: (Нохчийн Республика Нохчийчоь) is the unrecognized secessionist government of Chechnya. ...


Former Yugoslavia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Main article: Bosnian mujahideen

During the Yugoslav wars, the Bosnian government received aid from mujahideen from the Middle East and North Africa. The number of volunteers is estimated to have been about 4,000.[4] A number of local Bosniaks also joined to fight alongside the foreign Mujahideen.[5] Many of the Bosnian Mujahideen were supported financially from Saudi Arabia, including persons and organizations later connected with al-Qaeda.[6] The mujahideen arrived in central Bosnia in the second half of 1992 with the aim of helping their Bosnian Muslim (Bosniak) coreligionists against the Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat forces.[7] By August 1993 the mujahideen were formally organized as a special unit, El Mujahid, as part of the 7th Muslim Brigade, 3rd Corps, of the Bosnian Army (ABiH), based in and around Zenica in central Bosnia. The 7th Muslim Brigade and the El Mujahid unit was disbanded at the end of the war in 1995. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Bosniaks (natively: Bošnjaci) are South Slavs descended from those who converted to Islam during the Ottoman period (15th-19th century). ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... 7th Muslim Brigade was a brigade in Bosnian Army during Bosnian War. ... Crest of Army of The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Coat of arms [[Image:{{{image_coat_of_arms}}}|100px|Coat of arms]] Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina [[Image:{{{image_map}}}|150px|center|Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina highlighting the town or municipality location]] General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Land area 499,7 km² Population 170,000 (estimate) Population density 293/km...


It is widely alleged that the mujahideen units were involved in war crimes against Croats and Serbs.[8] Two commanders in the Bosnian government army (ABiH), Enver Hadzihasanovic and Amir Kubura, have been found guilty by the ICTY for war crimes committed by mujahideen units under their command.[9] Bosnian government army general Rasim Delic has been indicted by the ICTY for similar charges relating to the mujahideen units under his command.[10] The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ...


It is unknown how many citizenship were granted to mujaheddin in Bosnia. OHR is waging an extensive investigation to find out exact number. Though the 1995 Dayton Peace Agreement that ended the war stipulated that all foreign fighters had to leave the country, many mujahedin married Bosnian women and received Bosnian citizenship. Fours years ago, the local media reported that as many as 1,200 former combatants were believed to have taken this option. ref[2]. Following pressure from western governments, the Bosnian government has reportedly revoked their citizenships.[11] The Bosnian mujahideen, both local Bosniak and foreign, have played a role in the spread of radical Islam in Bosnia following the end of the war (e.g. Active Islamic Youth).[12][13][14]


Since the 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York, the Bosnian mujahideen have been linked to what are called the "White Al Qaeda". These are described as Islamic radicals looking to create cells of European, non-Arab, al Qaeda who can evade racial profiling used by police forces to watch for potential terrorists. According to a report in the Washington Post "They want to look European to carry out operations in Europe... It's yet another evolution in the tools used by terrorists."[15] One of the top Al Qaeda operatives and former Afghano-Bosnian mujaheddin ABU Obaidah al-Masri a suspected mastermind of al-Qaeda plots including the London transport bombings of 2005, has died of an infectious disease in Pakistan, Western anti-terrorism officials said on Wednesday.ref [3]


Kosovo and Macedonia

Around 500 or more Mujahideen fighters from Bosnia and around 2,000 from the Middle East and other parts of the world later joined the ranks of KLA in its fight against Serbian and Macedonian authorities in Kosovo war 19971999 and Macedonia conflict, some joined the KLA other formed their own units with Albanian leaders who spoke fluent Albanian and Arabic, the greatest involvement was in conflicts around the border of Kosovo and Albania and a vast about of foreign Mujahideens along side Albanians took part in the Battle of Koshar which was the greatest Albanian success against the Serb forces. After the Kosovo war a several hundred Mujahideens when to Macedonia to assist the Albanians again in their conflict there against the Macedonian forces. After the wars most Mujahideens went back to their home countries or other conflict zones very few remained in Kosovo and Macedonia where they became citizens.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Combatants Republic of Macedonia National Liberation Army Commanders Boris Trajkovski Ljube Boškoski Ali Ahmeti Casualties 63 (Macedonian sources) 64 (NLA sources) Civilian casualties: 70 dead (60 ethnic Albanians, 10 ethnic Macedonians) Other: 2 EU monitors[1] 1 UK soldier killed[2] The 2001 Macedonia conflict was an armed conflict... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


There is still no concrete number about the actual size and the structure of the Kosovo Liberation Army but the number is frequently put at around 20,000 troops. The clandestine group first emerged in 1996, when it claimed responsibility for a series of bomb attacks in Kosovo against Serbian police forces. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Members of the KLA were rarely seen in public until late last year, when three heavily-armed and masked men appeared at a funeral of a Kosovo Albanian teacher murdered by Serbian police in the school for teaching in Albanian. The KLA says it has captured a large amount of military equipment, including a helicopter also destroyed 3 helicopters and several dozen armored vehicles and tanks during clashes with Serbian police and army units. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


Until recently, the main support - both political and financial - for the KLA came from Kosovo Albanian emigrants in Western Europe and the US. However, as the long-standing tensions in Kosovo increasingly erupted into open clashes, the support for the KLA among Kosovo Albanians started to grow. Many of them have become impatient with the failure of the peaceful resistance advocated by their political leadership.>


Iran

While more than one group in Iran have called themselves mujahideen, the most famous is the People's Mujahedin of Iran. Currently an Iraq-based Islamic Socialist militant organization that advocates the overthrow of Iran's current government. The group also took part in the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iraq-Iran War, and the Iraqi internal conflicts. They advocate the ideology that socialism and religion can live side by side, however they claim that they also advocate a seperation of religion and state. MKO redirects here. ... Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to counter the demand at home for a more spiritual form of socialism. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Iranian troops in the northern front. ...


Another mujahideen was the Mujahedin-e Islam, an Islamic party led by Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani.[30] It was a component of the National Front (Iran) during the time of Mohammed Mosaddeq's oil nationalization, but broke away from Mosaddeq over his allegedly unIslamic policies.[31] Ayatollah Seyyed Abol-Ghasem Mostafavi Kashani (آیت‌الله سید ابوالقاسم مصطفوی کاشانی in Persian) (1884 - March 1961) was born in Tehran, Iran. ... The National Front of Iran (Jebhe Melli) is a Democratic political opposition group founded by Mohammad Mossadegh and other secular Iranian leaders of Nationalist, Liberal, and Social-Democratic political orientation who had been educated in France in the late 1940s. ... Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Dr. Mohammed Mosaddeq ( ) (Persian: Moḥammad Moá¹£addeq, also Mosaddegh or Mossadegh) (19 May 1882 – 5 March 1967) was the prime minister of Iran [1][2] from 1951 to 1953. ...


Iraq

The term mujahideen is sometimes applied by sympathizers and regional experts to the Iraqi insurgency against the U.S.-led allies whose invasion destroyed Saddam Hussein's Ba'athist republic, and against the subsequent Iraqi regimes in need of allied military support, while the insurgents comprise a wide, incoherent spectrum of forces, with or without crucial Islamist ideology. There is also a number of foreign fighters from the other Arab countries, in many cases acting as a suicide attackers. The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ...


Some insurgent groups actually use the word mujahideen in their names, like Mujahideen Shura Council (an umbrella group run by al-Qaeda in Iraq) and Mujahideen Army. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... An umbrella organization is an association of (often related, industry-specific) institutions, who work together formally to coordinate activities or pool resources. ... This article is about the group Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, more commonly referred to as Al-Qaeda of Mesopotamia or Al-Qaeda in Iraq. ...


Kashmir

In Pakistan and the former princely state of (Jammu and) Kashmir (disputed with India), Kashmiris opposing Indian rule are often known as mujahideen. A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The disputed areas of the region of Kashmir. ...


In 1947, the mostly Pashtun Muslim fighters tried to force the annexation of Kashmir by Pakistan. Pakistan claimed the fighters were independent mujahideen helping a local insurgency, while India claimed that the invaders were Pakistani irregulars supported by the Pakistani Army which was still being run by British officials. The British appointed non-Muslim Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh called upon help from British Indian army and the then Indian Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru airlifted Indian troops to the region and tried to drive off the insurgents. The Kashmiri and Pakistani mujahideen since then, with support from Pakistan's ISI, Army (see Operation Gibraltar), as well as other sympathetic nations have been waging an armed campaign in Jammu and Kashmir against India's troops. Language(s) Pashto (plus second languages from countries of residence) Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni) Pashtuns (Pashto/Urdu/Persian: or پختون , also rendered as Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns), also called Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान ) or ethnic Afghans (Pashto: افغان )[9][10] are an Eastern Iranian ethno-linguistic group with populations primarily in eastern and... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... Hari Singh was the last maharaja of the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Operation Gibraltar was the name given to the Military Plan by Pakistan to Liberate Jammu and Kashmir, Indian Occupied and bring the Dispute to a logical end. ...


Several different militant groups have since taken root in Indian Kashmir. Most noticeable of these groups are Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) and Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM).[32] A 1996 report by Human Rights Watch estimated the number of active militants at 3,200.[33] Lashkar-e-Taiba (LT), or in English Army of the Righteous, is a terrorist organization supported by Markaz-ud- Dawa-wal-Irshad (MDI), a pro-Sunni, anti-U.S. religous group founded in 1989. ... Jaish-e-Mohammed (Arabic:جيش محمد, literally The Army of Muhammad, transliterated as Jaish-e-Muhammed, Jaish-e-Mohammad or Jaish-e-Muhammad, often abbreviated as JEM) is a major Islamic militant organization in South Asia. ... The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF), founded by Dr. Amanullah Khan is an Kashmiri terrorist organization that seeks the liberation of the Indian and Pakistani segments of the former Dogra kingdom of Jammu & Kashmir as it existed upto August 1947. ... Harkat-ul-Mujahideen is a Pakistani-Kashmiri guerrilla group. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Philippines

Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) is the smallest and most radical of the Islamic separatist groups in the southern Philippines. It is best-known for a series of kidnappings of Western nationals and Filipinos, for which it has received several large ransom payments. Some ASG members have allegedly studied or worked in Saudi Arabia and developed ties to mujahideen while fighting and training in the war against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.[34] Abu Sayyaf always pro-claim themselves as mujahideen but are not provided support by many people in Moroland including Muslim clerics. Abu Sayyaf is thought to number fewer than 500 core fighters, but the group continues to present enough of a problem to lead the government to launch occasional major offensives in an effort to wipe the rebels. The Abu Sayyaf Group (Arabic: جماعة أبو سياف; , ASG),also known as al-Harakat al-Islamiyya is one of several militant Islamist separatist groups based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, in Bangsamoro (Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao) where for almost 30 years various groups have been engaged in an insurgency... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... Bangsamoro is the name of the area claimed by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in the Philippines. ...


Myanmar (Burma)

A sizable number of mujahideen are present and concentrated in the province of Arakan, Myanmar.[35] They were much more active before the 1962 coup d'etat by General Ne Win. Ne Win carried out some military operations targeting them over a period of two decades. The prominent one was "Operation King Dragon" which took place in 1978; as a result, many Muslims in the region fled to neighboring country Bengladesh as refugees. Nevertheless, the Myanmar mujahideen are still active within the remote areas of Arakan.[36] Their associations with Bangladeshi mujahideen were significant but they have extended their networks to the international level and countries such as Pakistan, Malaysia, et al, during the recent years. They collect donations, and get religious military training outside of Myanmar.[37] Arakan is a state in the North Western part of Myanmar, formerly Burma. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... King Dragon Operation was a large scale military operation against Rohingya Muslims of Arakan, Burma (Myanmar) in the year 1978. ... The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh is a country in South Asia that forms the eastern part of the ancient region of Bengal. ...


Somalia

The Somali Civil War (2006) changed radically due to Ethiopian involvement. Before their entry into the conflict in July, 2006, the struggle between the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) and the warlord-based Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism and the fledgling Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was an internal struggle between Somali Muslims, particularly those who preferred a secular state to one ruled by sharia law. Now faced with the presence of forces from the historically Christian Ethiopia, the ICU began to frame the war as one of jihad, and called its citizens to rise in arms to throw the Ethiopians out of the country.[38] Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Alleged: Eritrea Foreign Jihadists Various Warlords Transitional Federal Government Puntland Ethiopia Commanders Muhammad Ibraheem Bilal Hasan Hersi Turki Yusuf Siad Inda-Addeh Mukhtar Robow Barre Adan Shire Hirale (Jubaland), Abdi Qeybdid, Adde Musa (Puntland) Strength 10,000 - 30,000 soldiers 500 - 2000 technicals... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Hizbul Shabaab al-Itihaad al-Islamiya Alleged: Foreign Mujahideen al-Qaeda  Eritrea  Ethiopia TFG Galmudug Puntland After the invasion: AMISOM United States Commanders Hassan Aweys Sharif Ahmed Hasan Hersi Adan Ayrow Abdikadir Adan Shire Abdi Hasan Awale Mohamud Muse Hersi Meles Zenawi Patrick M. Walsh Strength... Motto: none Anthem: none Capital formerly Mogadishu and Kismayu Largest city n/a Official languages Somali and Arabic Government Sharia Krytocracy  - Executive Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed  - Shura Chairman Hassan Dahir Aweys Civil War Faction Has not declared autonomy or independence   - Established June 6th 2006 in Mogadishu  Area  - Total not finalized... The Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (ARPCT) is a Somali alliance made by powerfull warlords and businesspeople, while some of them were ministers in the transitional federal government of Somalia. ... The Transitional Federal Parliament is an interim parliament of Somalia formed in neighbouring Kenya in 2004. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...


In July 2006, a Web-posted message purportedly written by Osama bin Laden urged Somalis to build an Islamic state in the country and warned western states that his al-Qaeda network would fight against them if they intervened there.[39] Foreign fighters began to arrive, though there were official denials of the presence of mujahideen in the country. Even so, the threat of jihad was made openly and repeatedly in the months proceeding the Battle of Baidoa.[40] On December 23, 2006, Islamists, for the first time, called upon international fighters to join their cause.[41] The term mujahideen is now openly used by the post-ICU resistance against the Ethiopians and the TFG. Early elections in November are announced in the Netherlands. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Foreign fighters Alleged:  Eritrea Transitional Federal Government Ethiopia[1] Casualties 700 dead or wounded (TFG claim) SomaliNet 400 killed (ICU claim) [1] The Battle of Baidoa began on December 20, 2006 when the Somali Transitional Federal Governments forces (TFG) allied with Ethiopian... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations (PRM), also translated as the Somali Peoples Insurgent Movement (SPIM) or Somali People’s Resistance Movement (SPRM), is an Islamist extremist group of Somalia, which developed in the wake of the loss of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU...


History

Almohad Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, IN WRONG MAP The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... Sheikh Al Mansur (The Leader) was a Chechen leader who lead the resistance against Catherine the Greats imperialist expansion into the Caucasus during the late 18th century. ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ... Imam Shamil Imam Shamil (1797 – March 1871) was an Avar political and religious leader of the Muslim tribes of the Northern Caucasus. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ...

See also

Persons: Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Itmām al-hujjah (Arabic completion of proof, from completion, realization and pretext, proof) is an Islamic term, which is used when the unveiling of truth by a Messenger of God to his addressees occurs to the extent that the addressees have no excuse but stubbornness and enmity to deny...

Sayyid Qutb Sayyid Qutb (IPA pronunciation: []) (also Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, or Sayed; last name also Koteb or Kutb) (Arabic: ; born October 9, 1906[1] – executed August 29, 1966) was an Egyptian author, Islamist, and the leading intellectual of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 60s. ... Hassan al Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood. ... Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي), (born September 9, 1926) is an Egyptian Muslim scholar and preacher best known for his popular al Jazeera program, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat (Shariah and Life), and IslamOnline (a website that he helped to found in 1997), where he offers opinions and religious edicts (fatwa) based... Khurshīd Ahmad (Urdu: خورشید احمد, also known as Professor Khurshid) (March 23, 1932 in Delhi - ) is a scholar, economist, writer, and Islamic activist. ... It has been suggested that Introduction of Islam (book) be merged into this article or section. ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Oxford American Dictionary
  2. ^ The Path to Victory and Chaos: 1979-92 - Library of Congress country studies(Retrieved Thursday 31, 2007)
  3. ^ Maktab al-Khidamat; www.globalsecurity.org
  4. ^ LA Times
  5. ^ SENATE RESOLUTION 225--RELATIVE TO BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (Senate - February 07, 1996)
  6. ^ The Afghan-Bosnian Mujahideen Network in Europe, By, Evan F. Kohlmann (page 2), as published on the web site of the Swedish National Defence College
  7. ^ ICTY, Summary of the Judgmenet for Enver Hadzihasanovic and Amir Kubura, 15 March 2006
  8. ^ Islamic Fighters Hiding In Europe, Sky News, 8 December 2005
  9. ^ ICTY, Summary of the judgement for Enver Hadzihasanovic and Amir Kubura, 15 March 2006
  10. ^ Reuters, Tape suggests Bosnian general lied about mujahideen, 14 September 2007
  11. ^ Reuters, Tape suggests Bosnian general lied about mujahideen, 14 September 2007
  12. ^ Wahabism and Al-Qaeda in Bosnia-Herzegovina, by Stephen Schwartz, The Jamestown Foundation, Volume 2, Issue 20 (October 21, 2004)
  13. ^ Bosnia and Herzegovina—Islamic Revival, International Advocacy Networks and Islamic Terrorism, by CPT Velko Attanassoff, Bulgarian Armed Forces, for Strategic Insights, Volume IV, Issue 5 (May 2005)
  14. ^ Suspicious Islamic Missionaries: Active Islamic Youth, by Ena Latin, Southeast European Times in Sarajevo, 30 June 2003
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ Bin Laden’s Balkan Connections. The Centre for Peace in the Balkans (September 2001). Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  17. ^ Excerpt from the book Osama Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War on America (Rocklin CA: Prima Publishing Co., 1999, ISBN 0-7615-1968-8)
  18. ^ The New York Times, December 18, 2001, by PHILIP SHENON (NYT); Foreign Desk: A NATION CHALLENGED: THE MONEY TRAIL; U.S.-Based Muslim Charity Raided by NATO in Kosovo
  19. ^ Report: Bin Laden linked to Albania
  20. ^ Al Qaeda's Balkan Links, Wall Street Journal Europe | November 1, 2001 | Marcia Christoff Kurop
  21. ^ The Centre for Peace in the Balkans
  22. ^ The Centre for Peace in the Balkans
  23. ^ Yossef Bodansky: Some Call It Peace (Part I)
  24. ^ The Centre for Peace in the Balkans
  25. ^ The Centre for Peace in the Balkans
  26. ^ The Centre for Peace in the Balkans
  27. ^ The Centre for Peace in the Balkans
  28. ^ The Centre for Peace in the Balkans
  29. ^ The Centre for Peace in the Balkans
  30. ^ The Essential Middle East: A Comprehensive Guide by Dilip Hiro
  31. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand, Iran Between Two Revolutions by Ervand Abrahamian, Princeton University Press, 1982, p.276-7
  32. ^ Kashmir Militant Extremists. Council on Foreign Relations (2006-07-12). Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  33. ^ VII. Violations by Militant Organizations. Human Rights Watch/Asia: India: India's Secret Army in Kashmir, New Patterns of Abuse Emerge in the Conflict. Human Rights Watch (May 1996). Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  34. ^ Abu Sayyaf History. U.S. Pacific Command (September 21, 20006).
  35. ^ [http://www.atimes.com/ind-pak/CJ10Df01.html THE ROVING EYE Jihad; The ultimate thermonuclear bomb by Pepe Escobar] Oct 2001, Asia Times.
  36. ^ Global Muslim News (Issue 14) July-Sept 1996, Nida'ul Islam magazine.
  37. ^ [http://www.atimes.com/ind-pak/CJ10Df01.html THE ROVING EYE Jihad; The ultimate thermonuclear bomb by Pepe Escobar] Oct 2001, Asia Times.
  38. ^ Somali 'jihad' on foreign troops BBC
  39. ^ Bin Laden releases Web message on Iraq, Somalia USA Today
  40. ^ Somalis vow holy war on Ethiopia BBC
  41. ^ Somali Islamists urge Muslim fighters to join jihad Reuters
  42. ^ Sephardim
  43. ^ Kraemer, 2005, pp. 16-17.
  44. ^ The Forgotten Refugees
  45. ^ The Almohads
  46. ^ Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier
  47. ^ The Shade of Swords Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity M. J. Akbar
  48. ^ Durant, Will. "The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage" (page 459). 
  49. ^ Elst, Koenraad. "Was there an Islamic "Genocide" of Hindus?", Kashmir Herald, 2006-08-25. Retrieved on 2006-08-25. 
  50. ^ Rees Davies, British Slaves on the Barbary Coast, BBC, 1 July, 2003
  51. ^ Richard Leiby, Terrorists by Another Name: The Barbary Pirates, The Washington Post, October 15 2001
  52. ^ Usman dan Fodio (Fulani leader)
  53. ^ Kim Hodong, Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877. Stanford University Press (March 2004).
  54. ^ US Library of Congress, A Country Study: Sudan
  55. ^ Civil War in the Sudan: Resources or Religion?
  56. ^ Slave trade in the Sudan in the nineteenth century and its suppression in the years 1877-80.
  57. ^ Islam: History, Society and Civilization
  58. ^ Saladin 1138-1193 Sultan of the Muslim Forces During the Crusades
  59. ^ Sufism in the Caucasus
  60. ^ The Middle East during World War One
  61. ^ The Destruction of Holy Sites in Mecca and Medina
  62. ^ Saudi Arabia - THE SAUD FAMILY AND WAHHABI ISLAM
  63. ^ Nibras Kazimi, A Paladin Gears Up for War, The New York Sun, November 1, 2007
  64. ^ John R Bradley, Saudi's Shi'ites walk tightrope, Asia Times, March 17, 2005
  65. ^ Amir Taheri, Death is big business in Najaf, but Iraq's future depends on who controls it, The Times, August 28, 2004
  66. ^ Imam Shamil of Dagestan
  67. ^ Tough lessons in defiant Dagestan
  68. ^ Life Span of Suleiman The Magnificent, 1494-1566
  69. ^ Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World, by Justin Marozzi

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Mujahideen
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  Results from FactBites:
 
mujahideen: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (2041 words)
In the late 20th century and early 21st century, the term "mujahideen" became the name of various armed fighters who subscribe to militant Islamic ideologies, although there is not always an explicit "holy" or "warrior" meaning of the word.
The best-known and arguably most feared mujahideen were the various loosely-aligned opposition groups that fought against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan during the 1980s and then fought against each other in the subsequent Afghan Civil War.
The mujahideen were significantly financed, armed, and trained by the United States (during the Carter and Reagan administrations) and by Pakistan (during the Zia-ul-Haq military regime), the People's Republic of China, and Saudi Arabia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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