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Encyclopedia > Muhammad of Ghor
Coin of Mu'izzuddin Muhammad Bin Sam , circa 1173 AD - 1206 AD , Issued from Delhi following coin typology of Prithviraja.
Obv: Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right.Devnagari Legends : Sri /hamirah'. Rev: Simple rendition of recumbent bull with long snout facing left, Devnagari Legends : ' Sri Mahamada Same ' in arc .

Muhammad Shahab ud-Din Ghori (Persian,Urdu: محمد شہاب الدین غوری), also spelled Mohammad Ghauri, originally named Mu'izzuddin Muhammad Bin Sam but famously known as Muhammad of Ghor, b.1162 - d.1206, was a governor and general under the Ghorid dynasty. He was the governor of Ghazni (province in modern Afghanistan) from 1173 to 1206. His ethnic background was most likely of Persian-speaking Eastern-Iranian Tajik stock.[1][2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Ghowr province (sometimes spelled Ghor) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Events June 3 - Thomas Becket consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... Canonization of Saint Thomas à Becket, buried at Canterbury Castle at Abergavenny was seized by the Welsh. ... Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tajikmay refer to: Tajiks, an ethnic group living in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and China The Tajik language, the official language of Tajikistan The Arabic-schooled, ethnically Persian administrative caste of the Turco-Persian society. ...


Muhammad of Ghor was the brother of the Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din Muhammad of Ghor (province in modern Afghanistan). Ghor lay on the western boundary of the Ghaznavid Empire. Before 1160, the Ghaznavid Empire covered an area running from central Afghanistan to the Punjab, with capitals at Ghazni and Lahore. Ghowr province (sometimes spelled Ghor) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...


In 1160, the Ghorids conquered Ghazni from the Ghaznavids, and in 1173 Muhammad Shahab ud-Din Ghori became governor of the province. In 1186-7 he conquered Lahore, ending the Ghaznavid Empire and bringing the last of Ghaznavid territory under his control. Muhammad Shahab ud-Din Ghori was a loyal brother. He refrained from declaring his independence in South Asia, knowing that it would result in civil war between the two brothers. Till the death of Ghiyas-ud-din Muhammad in 1202, Ghori never considered himself anything but a general in his brother's army. After every victory he would send the best of the looted items to his elder brother in Firuz Koh. Ghiyas-ud-din reciprocated by never interfering in the affairs of his younger brother. Thus they were each able to concentrate on their own responsibilities. As a result, Ghori managed to push permanent Muslim rule much further east than Mahmud Ghaznavi did. Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... // Events August 1 - Arthur of Brittany captured in Mirebeau, north of Poitiers Beginning of the Fourth Crusade. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ...


Muhammad attacked the north-western regions of the Indian subcontinent many times. The first time he was defeated in the First Battle of Tarain in present-day Haryana, India by Prithviraj Chauhan while he was returning from another invasion when he was caught mostly unawares. Though Ghori's main aim was the expansion of his empire, he also took an interest in the patronization of education and learning. Illustrious Muslim philosopher Fakh-ud-din Razi and the well know poet Nizami Aruzi were few of the big names of his era. The First Battle of Tarain, also known as the First Battle of Taraori, was fought in 1191 at the town of Tarain (Taraori), near Thanesar in present-day Haryana, approximately 150 kilometres north of Delhi. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... Prithviraj III (1165?-1192) was a king of the Rajput Chauhan (Chahamana) dynasty. ... Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Alī, known as Nizamī-i Arūzī-i Samarqandī (Persian: ) was a Persian poet of the 12th century. ...


After defeating Prithviraj Chauhan in the the Second battle of Tarain in 1192 CE, Rajput kingdoms like Saraswati, Samana, Kohram and Hansi were captured without any difficulty. Then Ghori proceeded to Ajmer. Nobody challenged him. After reaching Ajmer, he spared the son of PrithviRaj , Kola, who in turn took the oath of loyalty and servitude to Ghori. Prithviraj III (1165?-1192) was a king of the Rajput Chauhan (Chahamana) dynasty. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... For the Vedic river, see Saraswati River. ... The term Samana can mean one of several things: Cape Samana or Samana Peninsula is a land feature of the Dominican Republic Samaná is a province of the Dominican Republic Samana Bay is a body of water in the Atlantic next to Cape Samana, the Dominican Republic Samana is a... Hansi is an ancient town in the Hisar District in the state of Haryana in India. ... , Ajmer   (Hindi: अजमेर ) is a city in Ajmer District in Indias Rajasthan state. ...


In 1206, Ghori had to travel to Lahore to crush a revolt. On his way back to Ghazni, his caravan halted at Dhamiak near Jehlum. He was killed while offering his evening prayers. Many think that the murderer was an Ismaili. However, some historians believe that the murderer belonged to the warrior Gakhars tribe that resided in the area. He was buried where he fell and his tomb has recently been renovated. Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... Jehlum (Urdu: جہلم ) river flows from its source in Himalayan mountains in Kashmir to Indus river in Punjab, Pakistan. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... The location of Hazara relative to surrounding areas Gakhar (also Gakkhar or Ghakhar or Ghakkar) (Urdu: ) are an ancient aristocratic and warlike clan now located in Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Jhelum, Kashmir, Gilgit, Baltistan (Tibet), Chitral, and Khanpur (NWFP) regions in modern day Pakistan. ...


In some popular bardic compositions in North India like the Prithviraj Raso, woven around the bravery of Prithviraj Chauhan, it is stated that Ghori did not kill Prithviraj but rather blinded him. Subsequently, Prithviraj discharged a Shabdbhedi (an arrow shot at the source of a sound) arrow, on being challenged by Ghori to do so. The arrow hit Ghori and subsequently he was killed. Yet there is no historical evidence to substantiate it. Nonetheless in Ghori province, there also exists a grave site of Ghori as well as his arch rival Prithiviraj in the same vicinity.The fact that Ghori died about fourteen years after the war is proof sufficient to counter the folklore.Ghori was actually engaged in suppression of revolt of the tribes aforementioned and who have been narrated to be the cause of his death. The Prithviraj Raso or Prithvirajaraso is a balladic epic about the life of Prithviraj III Chauhan, a Rajput king who ruled Ajmer and Delhi between 1165 and 1192. ...


Muhammad Ghori had no heirs and thus he treated his slaves as his sons. It is said that he trained thousands of Turkish slaves in the art of warfare and administration. Most of his slaves were given excellent education. During his reign many hardworking and intelligent slaves rose to positions of excellence. Once a courtier lamented; that Sultan has no male heirs. Ghori immediately replied;

Other monarchs may have one son, or two sons; I have thousands of sons, my Turkish slaves who will be the heirs of my dominions, and who, after me, will take care to preserve my name in the Khutbah throughout these territories.

Ghori's prediction proved true when he was succeeded by a dynasty of Turkish Slaves. Upon his death, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, Muhammad Ghori's most capable general, who had started of by sacking Ayodhya in 1193 A.D., took control of Muhammad's Indian conquests and declared himself the first Sultan of Delhi thus establishing Sultanate of Delhi in 1206 CE. Muhammad Ghori is remembered as an empire builder and is justly called the founder of the Muslim Empire in Indo-Pakistan. Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... // Saladin dies, and the lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... The Delhi Sultanate, or Sulthanath-e-Hind/Sulthanath-e-Dilli refers to the various dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ...

Contents

Influence in Modern Politics

In response to India's development of its nuclear warhead Prithvi in 1998, Pakistan launched its own nuclear warhead on April 6, 1998 called Ghauri - I. It was symbolically named after Muhammad of Ghori, who is highly revered in Pakistan and defeated his arch-rival: the Hindu ruler Prithvi Raj Chauhan, who is highly revered in India. Pakistan has since developed the Ghauri - II and Ghauri - III as well. Prithvi (pṛthivī) is the Hindu earth-god. ... Ghauri is an IRBM acquired by Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) of Pakistan in response to the missile program developed by India. ... Prithviraj III (1165?-1192) was a king of the Rajput Chauhan (Chahamana) dynasty. ... // The Ghauri-II is a medium-range ballistic missile MRBM. It is a longer ranged variant of the Ghauri-I missile. ... The Ghauri-III is an intermediate-range ballistic missile under development by Pakistan. ...


See also

  • Ghurids
  • History of Pakistan
  • History of Afghanistan

After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... This article is about the history of the area that eventually became known as Afghanistan[1], a territory whose current boundaries were mostly determined in the 19th Century. ...

References and footnotes

  • John Keay (May 2001). India: A history. Grove Press; 1 Grove Pr edition. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0. 
  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Ghurids", C.E. Bosworth, (LINK): "... The Ghurids came from the Šansabānī family. The name of the eponym Šansabānasb probably derives from the Middle Persian name Wišnasp (Justi, Namenbuch, p. 282). [...] Nor do we know anything about the ethnic stock of the Ghori's in general and the Sansabanis in particular; We can only assume that they were eastern Iranian Tajiks ... The sultans were generous patrons of the Persian literary traditions of Khorasan, and latterly fulfilled a valuable role as transmitters of this heritage to the newly conquered lands of northern India, laying the foundations for the essentially Persian culture which was to prevail in Muslim India until the 19th century. ..."
  2. ^ Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Ghurids", C.E. Bosworth, Online Edition, 2006: "... The Shansabānīs were, like the rest of the Ghūrīs, of eastern Iranian Tājik stock. ..."

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Clifford Edmund Bosworth (born December 29, 1928, Sheffield, United Kingdom) is a British historian and orientalist, specializing in Arabic studies. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Languages Persian Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni (Hanafi), with Shia (Twelver and Ismaili) minorities) Tājik (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east and northeast of present-day Iran. ...

Further reading

  • Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. (Online Copy: The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877 - This online Copy has been posted by: The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List)
The History of India as Told by its Own Historians is a book with eight volumes written by H. M. Elliot and John Dowson. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Muhammad of Ghor Information (0 words)
Muhammad was the brother of the Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din Muhammad of Ghor, a region of what is now a province in Afghanistan.
Ghor lay on the western boundary of the Ghaznevid empire.
Muhammad's former territory in Afghanistan was conquered by the Mongols.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Muhammad of Ghor (577 words)
Muhammad was the brother of the Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din Muhammad of Ghor (province in modern Afghanistan).
In 1160, the Ghorids conquered Ghazni from the Ghaznavids, and in 1173 Muhammad became governor of the province.
Muhammad's former territory in Afghanistan was conquered by the Mongols.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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