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Encyclopedia > Muhammad Bin Qasim
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Imád-uddín Muhammad bin Qasim bin Ukail Sakifi
695 - 715

Muhammad Bin Qasim leading his troops in battle
Place of birth Sod, Bilad al-Sham (Levant)
Allegiance Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, Governor to the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I
Rank Emir
Battles/wars Muhammad bin Qasim is famous for his conquest of Sindh for the Umayyads.

Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. 695715), born Muhammad bin Qasim bin Ukail Sakifi, was a Syrian Arab general who conquered the Sindh and Punjab regions along the Indus river (now a part of Pakistan). The conquest of Sindh and Punjab began the Islamic era in South Asia. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Events People of Byzantium revolt against Justinian II. Leontius II made emperor, Justinian II is banished. ... Events August 11 - Germanus is translated from the bishopric of Cyzicus to the Patriarch of Constantinople Umayyad caliph al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik succeeded by Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik End of the reign of Empress Gemmei of Japan, she is succeeded by Empress Gensho. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The traditional Arabic term Sham (Arabic: بلاد الشام , also transliterated bilad-ush-sham etc. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef (661 - June, 714) was an important Arab administrator during the Umayyad caliphate. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: ) or Al-Walid I (668 - 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 - 715. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Events People of Byzantium revolt against Justinian II. Leontius II made emperor, Justinian II is banished. ... Events August 11 - Germanus is translated from the bishopric of Cyzicus to the Patriarch of Constantinople Umayyad caliph al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik succeeded by Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik End of the reign of Empress Gemmei of Japan, she is succeeded by Empress Gensho. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: , arabi) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindh; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδους Indus) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...

Contents

Life and Career

Qasim's father died when he was young, leaving his mother in charge of his education. Umayyad governor Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, one of Qasim's close relatives, was instrumental in teaching Qasim about warfare and governing. Under Hajjaj's patronage, Qasim was made governor of Persia, where he succeeded in putting down a rebellion. At the age of seventeen, he was sent by Caliph Al-Walid I to lead an army towards India into what are today the Sindh and Punjab regions of Pakistan. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef (661 - June, 714) was an important Arab administrator during the Umayyad caliphate. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: ) or Al-Walid I (668 - 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 - 715. ...


Umayyad Interest in Sindh

According to Berzin, Umayyad interest in the region stemmed from their desire to control the trade route branch that ran down the Indus River valley to the seaports of Sindh and had thus had tried to capture the region several times.[1] Also they had been unsuccessful in gaining control of the Khyber pass from the Turki-Shahis of Gandhara to achieve this goal and sought an alternative by skirting Gandhara and taking Sindh to its south; thus opening a second front against Gandhara.[1] The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindh; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδους Indus) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... Mountain passes of Afghanistan The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...


According to Wink, Umayyad interest in the region was galvanized by the operation of the Mids and others who had preyed upon Sassanid and now Arab shipping from the mouth of the Tigris to the Sri Lankan coast, in their bawarij from Kutch, Debal and Kathiawar.[2] The Umayyad decided that these cities had to be subjugated in order to safeguard these increasingly important Indian trade routes from piracy. At the time, Sindh was the wild frontier region of al-Hind inhabited largely by semi-nomadic tribes whose activities disturbed much of the Western Indian Ocean.[2] Muslim sources insist that it was this persistent insolence by the Debal pirates and others which forced the Arabs to subjugate the area, in order to control the seaports and maritime routes of which Sindh was the hinge as well the overland passage.[3] During Hajjaj's governorship, the Mids of Debal kidnapped Muslim women travelling from Sri Lanka to Arabia, providing a casus belli for the rising power of the Umayyad Caliphate. They were given a chance to gain a foothold in the Makran, Balochistan and Sindh regions and put and end to all pirate activity.[2][4]Through conquest, the caliphate intended to protect its maritime interest, while also cutting off fleeing rebel chieftains and Sindhi military support to the Sassanids rump akin to those received at several prior major battles such as those at Salasal and Qādisiyyah. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: , arabi) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Kutch (Kuchchh) District, State of Gujarat Kutch (also spelled Cutch, Kachh, Kachch and even Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India. ... Debal was a port located at modern Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Kathiawar in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... Combatants Muslims Persian Empire Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid Hormuz,Qubaz and Anushjan Strength 18,000 25,000-30,000 Casualties about 200 10,000-12,000 The Battle of Chains took place Some time in the first week of April 633 (third week of Muharram, 12 Hijri). ... The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (in Arabic: معارك القادسيّة, alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between the Arab Muslim army and the Sāsānian Persian army during the first period of Islamic expansion which resulted in the Islamic conquest of Iran. ...


Political setting

The campaign for the conquest of Sindh was launched under the leadership of Qasim, in the same period as the Umayyad conquest of Hispania and the launch of an offensive against the king of Kabul; it was a period of great expansion of the Umayyads under the governorship of Hajjaj, the first governor of both the Arabi and Ajami halves of the ex-Sassanid domains.[5] The period also experienced an intensification of the rivalry between Arab conquerors and the mawali, new non-Arab converts, who were usually allied with Hajjaj's political opponents and thus frequently forced to participate in Jihads on the frontier such as Kabul, Sind and Transoxania. Conflict was endemic among the frontier Muslims, with a considerable number seeking refuge with the king of Sindh.[5] The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of North and West Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711 CE. Under the authority of the Umayyad caliph at Damascus, and led... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Mawali is a term in ancient Arabic used to address non-Arab Muslims. In the second half of the sixth century, the Malawi were considered the third class in society with the Sayyids at the top followed by the free tribesmen. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ...


The Campaign

Extent and expansion of Umayyad rule under Muhammad bin Qasim (modern state boundaries shown in red).

Qasim's expedition was actually the second attempt, the first having failed due to stiffer-than-expected opposition as well as heat, exhaustion and scurvy.[citation needed] Image File history File links QASIM.PNG‎ Map of Maximum Extents of Muhammad bin Qasim expansion of Abassid rule c. ... Image File history File links QASIM.PNG‎ Map of Maximum Extents of Muhammad bin Qasim expansion of Abassid rule c. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ...


Hajjaj had put more care and planning into this campaign than the first campaign [5] under Badil bin Tuhfa.[citation needed] Hajjaj superintended this campaign from Kufa by maintaining close contact with Qasim in the form of regular reports and then regularly issuing orders.[5] The army which departed from Shiraz in 710 CE under Qasim was 6,000 Syrian Cavalry and detachments of mawali from Iraq.[5] At the borders of Sindh he was joined by an advance guard and six thousand camel riders, and later reinforcements from the governor of Makran that were transferred directly to Debal by sea along with five catapults.[5] The army that eventually captured Sindh would later be swelled by the Jats and Mids and other irregulars hearing of the successes in Sindh.[5] When Qasim passed through Makran, while raising forces, he had to re-subdue the restive Umayyad towns of Fannazbur and Arman Belah (Lasbela)[6] The first town assaulted was Debal and upon the orders of Al-Hajjaj, he exacted a bloody retribution on Debal by giving no quarter to it's residents or priests and destroying its great temple in the process of freeing the kidnapped women.[5] He then settled a garrison of four thousand colonists in one quarter Debal and built a mosque over the remains of the great temple.[5][7] Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... Mawali is a term in ancient Arabic used to address non-Arab Muslims. In the second half of the sixth century, the Malawi were considered the third class in society with the Sayyids at the top followed by the free tribesmen. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... Debal was a port located at modern Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... Lasbela is one of oldest districts of Balochistan province of Pakistan. ...


From Debal, the Arab army marched north, taking towns such as Nerun and Sadusan (Sehwan) peacefully.[5] A mosque was built to replace the main idolhouses, and one-fifth of the booty and slaves was dispatched to Hajjaj and the Caliph.[5] The conquest of these towns was accomplished easily; however, Dahir's armies being prepared on the other side of the Indus[8] had not yet been faced.[5] To meet them Qasim moved back to Nerun to resupply and receive reinforcements sent by Hajjaj.[5] Camped on the east bank of the Indus, Qasim sent emissaries and bargained with the river Jats and boatmen.[5] Upon securing the aid of Mokah Basayah, "the King of the island of Bet", Qasim crossed over the river where he was joined by the forces of the Thakore of Bhatta and the western Jats who paid homage to him.[5] Sehwan is located in Sindh province of Pakistan. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Thakore, or Thakur, is an Indian feudal and colonial title in Hindi. ...


At Ar-rur (Nawabshah) he was met by Dahir forces and the eastern Jats in battle.[5] Qasim was triumphant and Dahir died in the battle leaving Qasim in control of Sind.[5] In the wake of the battle the enemy soldiers were put to death but not artisans, merchants or farmers while Dahir's head along side those of his chiefs, the "daughters of princes" and the usual fifth of the booty and slaves was sent on to Hajjaj.[5] Soon the capitals of the other provinces, Brahmanabad, Alor (Aror) and Multan, were captured alongside other in-between towns with light Muslim casualties.[5] Usually after a siege of a few weeks or months the Arabs gained a city through the intervention of heads of mercantile houses with whom treaties and agreements would be settled.[5] After battles all "fighting men (ahl-i harb)" were executed and their wives and children were enslaved in considerable numbers and the usual fifth of slaves and booty was sent to Hajjaj.[5] The general populace were granted safety (aman) and encouraged to carry on with their trades and taxes and tributes settled.[5] Nawabshah Mudjamrao Road Nawabshah (Urdu: نوابشاہ) city (established in 1912) is located in the centre of Sindh,Along With Left Bank Of River Indus Near Sakrand Tehsel, Pakistan, and is therefore often known as the Heart of Sindh. ... Mansura (Arabic: منصورہ) was the capital of the Arab empire in Pakistan. ... The medieval city of Aror is the original homeplace of the Arora community in the Punjab region of South Asia. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ...


With Sindh secured Qasim sent expeditions to Surashtra, where his generals made peaceful treaty settlements with the Rashtrakuta.[1] Sea trade from Central India passed to Byzantium via the ports here, and the Arabs wished to tax these as well, especially if commerce might be diverted here from the Sindhi ports.[1] Qasim wrote out letters to "kings of Hind" to surrender and accept Islam, and 10,000 cavalry were sent to Kannauj, asking them to submit and pay tribute before his recall ended the campaign.[5] Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Kannauj (Hindi कन्नौज), sometimes improperly spelt Kanauj, is an ancient city lying in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


Military and Political Strategy

The military strategy was outlined by Hajjaj to Qasim in a letter:[9]

My ruling is given:Kill anyone belonging to the combatants (ahl-i-harb); arrest their sons and daughters for hostages and imprison them. Whoever does not fight against us..grant them aman (safety) and settle their tribute(amwal) as dhimmah..

The Arabs' first concern was to facilitate the conquest of Sindh with the fewest casualties while also trying to preserve the economic infrastructure.[9] Towns were given two options: submit to Arab authority peacefully or be attacked by force (anwattan), with the choice governing their treatment upon capture.[9] The capture of towns was usually accomplished by means of a treaty with a party from among the enemy, who were then extended special privileges and material rewards.[10] There were two types of such treaties, "Sulh" or "ahd-e-wasiq (capitulation)" and "aman (surrender/ peace)".[10] Upon the capture of towns and fortresses, Qasim performed executions as part of his military strategy, but they were limited to the ahl-i-harb (fighting men), whose surviving dependents were also enslaved.[10] This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ...


Where resistance was strong, prolonged and intensive, often resulting in considerable Arab casualties, Qasim's response was dramatic, inflicting 6,000 deaths at Rawar, between 6,000 and 26,000 at Brahmanabad, 4,000 at Iskalandah and 6,000 at Multan.[11] Conversely, in areas taken by sulh, such as Armabil, Nirun, and Aror, resistance was light and few casualties occurred.[11] Sulh appeared to be Qasim's preferred mode of conquest, the method used for more than 60% of the towns and tribes recorded by Baladhuri or the Chachnama.[11] At one point, he was actually berated by Hajjaj for being too lenient.[11] Meanwhile, the common folk were often pardoned and encouraged to coutinue working;[10] Hajajj ordered that this option not be granted to any inhabitant of Daybul, yet Qasim still bestowed it upon certain groups and individuals.[11]


After each major phase of his conquest, Qasim attempted to establish law and order in the newly-conquered territory by showing religious tolerance and incorporating the ruling class – the Brahmins and Shramanas – into his administration.[10] This page deals with the Hindu varnas. ... A (Sanskrit) or (Pāli) is a wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India, including: Jainism Buddhism Ä€jÄ«vika religion (now extinct) Mahavira, the 24th Jina, and Gautama Buddha were leaders of their shramana orders. ...


Reasons for Success

Qasim succeeded partly because Raja Dahir was an unpopular Hindu king ruling over a Buddhist majority.[4] His campaign's success is ascribed to the support given by Buddhists and the Jat, Meds and Bhutto tribes.[12] Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the Rai Dynasty),[4] and rebel soldiers served as valuable infantry in the cavalry-heavy force that first arrived at Arman Belah. His army at Multan was reported in the Tarikh Masumi as numbering 50,000, of which only 6,000 had originally come with Qasim. A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Meds was Scythian tribe settled in Sindh, Pakistan. ... Bhutto (Urdu: بھٹو) is a Sindhi tribe settled in Sindh, Pakistan. ... Chach (632-671)[1] is the name of the Brahmin Chamberlain and Secretary to Rai Sahasi the Second, of the Rai Dynasty who succeeded him to the throne of Sindh. ... The Rai Dynasty rulers of Sindh were Buddhists of the Mauryan clan Balhara Jats. ...


Along with this were:

  1. Superior military equipment; such as siege enginesand the Mongol bow.[4]
  2. Troop discipline and leadership [4]
  3. The concept of Jihad as morale booster [4]
  4. Religion; the dissatisfaction of the Buddhist populace, the widespread belief in the prophecy of Muslim success, as well as Dahir's marriage to his sister which alienated him from others.[13][4]

A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. ... The Mongol bow is a special recurve bow. ...

Administration by Qasim

After the conquest, Qasim's task was to set up an administrative structure for a stable Muslim state that incorporated a newly conquered alien land, inhabited by non-Muslims.[14] He adopted a conciliatory policy, asking for acceptance of Muslim rule by the natives in return for non-interference in their religious practice,[14] so long as the natives paid their taxes and tribute.[4] He established Islamic Sharia law over the people of the region; however, Hindus were allowed to rule their villages and settle their disputes according to their own laws[4], and traditional hierarchical institutions, including the Village Headmen (Rais) and Chieftains (dihqans) were maintained.[14] A Muslim officer called an amil was stationed with a troop of cavalry to manage each town on a hereditary basis [14] Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ...


Everywhere taxes (mal) and tribute (kharaj) were settled and hostages taken - occasionally this also meant the custodians of temples.[10] Natives were excused from military service and payment of the tax paid by Muslim subjects - Zakat.[14] The tax enforced on the natives was the jizya - it was a progressive tax, being heavier on the upper classes and light for the poor.[14] In addition, three percent of government revenue was allocated to the Brahmins.[4] This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... A progressive tax is a tax imposed so that the tax rate increases as the amount to which the rate is applied increases. ...


Incorporation of ruling elite into administration

During his administration, Hindus and Buddhists were inducted into the administration as trusted advisors and governors.[4] A Hindu, Kaksa, was at one point the second most important member of his administration.[15] Dahir's prime minister and various chieftains were also incorporated into the administration.[16]


Treatment of Jats

The narrative in the Chach Namah conveys that Chach humiliated the Jats and Lohanas .
Ibbetson records that "Muhammad bin Qasim maintained these regulations , declaring that the jats resembled the savages of Persia "[17]


Religion

No mass conversions were attempted and the destruction of temples such as the Sun Temple at Multan was forbidden.[18] However, Qasim was not entirely deferential to the native religions. Many town temples containing idols were converted into mosques. At Multan, 6000 custodians of the Sun-temple were made captive and their wealth confiscated. The temple housing the great idol (sanam) was a source of great wealth for the town, receiving pilgrims from across the region. Qasim left the idol where it was, but he hung a piece of cow flesh on its neck by way of mockery; he then built a mosque in the same bazaar at the center of the town.[19] A small minority who converted to Islam were granted exemption from slavery and taxes.[14] The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ...


Hindus and Buddhists were included in the Ahl al Kitab and the status of Dhimmi (protected people) was conferred upon them.[4] In Islam, People of the Book or ahl al Kit b, Arabic: اهل الكتاب, are peoples who have, according to the Quran, received and possess the divine scriptures. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ...


An eccelastical office, "sadru-I-Islam al affal", was created to oversee the secular governors.[14] While some proselytism did occur, the social dynamics of Sindh were not too different from other Muslim regions such as Egypt, where conversion to Islam was slow and took centuries, and generally came from among the ranks of Buddhists.[14] Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ...


Death

Qasim had begun preparations for further expansions when Hajjaj died, as did Caliph Al-Walid I, who was succeeded by Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik. After Hajjaj's death, the new governor took revenge against all who were close to Hajjaj. Sulayman owed political support to opponents of Hajjaj and so recalled both of Hajjaj's successful generals Qutaibah bin Muslim and Qasim. He also appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab, once tortured by Hajjaj and a son of Al Muhallab ibn Abi Suffrah, as the governor of Fars, Kirman, Makran and Sindh; he immediately placed Qasim in chains.[20] Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: ) or Al-Walid I (668 - 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 - 715. ... Suleiman bin Abd al-Malik (c. ... Qutaibah bin Muslim (d. ... Yazid ibn al-Muhallab (672 - 720) was a provincial governor in the time of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Al Muhallab ibn Abi Suffrah ( - c. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Kerman Kerman is full of history. ...


There are two accounts regarding the details of Qasim's fate:

  1. The account from the Chachnama narrates a tale according to which the during Qasim s governorship, the daughters of Dahir were taken captive and were sent on as presents to the Khalifa for his harem. The account relates that they then tricked the Khalifa into believing that Qasim had violated them before sending them on and as a result of this subterfuge, Qasim was wrapped in oxen hides and returned to Syria, resulting in his death en route from suffocation. This narrative attributes the motive for this subterfuge to securing vengeance for their father's death. Upon discovering this subterfuge, the Khalifa is recorded to have been filled with remorse and ordered the sisters buried alive in a wall.[21][22]
  2. The Persian historian Baladhuri's account states that the Khalifa was a political enemy of Hajjaj and recalled Qasim after Hajjaj's death and imprisoned him; Qasim is reported to have died under torture.[4][22]

Coming from the Arab tradition, the harîm حريم (compare haram) is the part of the household forbidden to male strangers. ... Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri was an Arabian historian, a Persian by birth, though his sympathies seem to have been strongly with the Arabs, for Masudi refers to one of his works in. ...

Controversy

There is controversy regarding the conquest and subsequent conversion of Sindh. This is usually voiced in two antagonistic perspectives viewing Qasim's actions:[11]

  1. Coercive conversion has been attributed to early historians such as Elliot, Cousens, Majumdar and Vaidya.[11] They hold the view that the conversion of Sindh was necessitated as a direct consequence of the violent nature of Islam. Qasim's numerical inferiority is said to explain any instances of apparent religious toleration, with the destruction of temples seen as a reflection of the more basic, religiously motivated intolerance.[11]
  2. Voluntary conversion has been attributed to Thomas W. Arnold and modern Muslim historians such as Habib and Qureishi. They believe that the conquest was largely peaceful, and the conversion entirely so, and that the Arab forces enacted liberal, generous and tolerant policies.[11] These historians mention the "praiseworthy conduct of Arab Muslims" and attribute their actions to a "superior civilizational complex".[23]

Various polemical perceptions of Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism are also reflected in this debate.[23] Elliot perceived Islam as a religion of "terror, devastation, murder and rapine" where the conquering Arabs were characterized as "ruthless bigots" and "furious zealots" motivated by "plunder and proselytism".[11] The period of Qasim's rule has been called by U.T. Thakkur "the darkest period in Sind history", with the records speaking of massive forced conversions, temple destruction, slaughters and genocides; the people of Sindh, described as inherently pacifist due to their Hindu/Buddhist religious inclinations, had to adjust to the conditions of "barbarian inroad".[24] On one extreme, the Arab Muslims are seen as being compelled by religious stricture to conquer and forcibly convert Sindh, but on the other hand, they can be seen as being respectful and tolerant of non-Muslims as part of their religious duty, with conversion being facilitated by the vitality, equality and morals of the Islamic religion.[23] Citations of towns taken either violently or bloodlessly, reading back into Arab Sindh information belonging to a later date and dubious accounts such as those of the forcible circumcision of Brahmins at Deybul or Qasims consideration of Hindu sentiment in forbidding the slaughter of cows are used as examples for one particular view or the other.[23] Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Some historians strike a middle ground, saying that Qasim was torn between the political expediency of making peace with the Hindus and Buddhists; having to call upon non-Muslims to serve under him as part of his mandate to administer newly conquered land; and orthodoxy by refraining from seeking the co-operation of "infidels". It is contended that Qasim may have struck a middle ground, conferring the status of Dhimmi upon the native Sindhis and permitting them to participate in his administration, but treating them as "noncitizens" (i.e. in the Khilafat, but not of it).[14]. This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a movement amongst the Muslims of British India (the largest single Muslim community in one geo-political entity at the time) to ensure that the British, victors of World War I, kept a promise made at the Versailles. ...


Legacy

  • Qasim's presence and rule was very brief. His conquest for the Umayyads brought Sindh into the gambit of the Muslim world [25]
  • The next Arab governor died on arrival. Dahir’s son Jaisimha recaptured Brahmanabad and c. 720, he was granted pardon and included in the administration in return for converting to Islam. Soon, however, he recanted and split off when the Umayyads were embroiled in a succession crisis. Later, Junaid Ibn Abdur Rahman al-Marri killed Jaisimha and recaptured the territory before his successors once again struggled to hold and keep it. During the Abassid period, c. 870, the local emirs shook off all allegiance to the caliphs and by the 10th century the region was split into two weak states, Mansurah on the lower Indus and Multan on the upper Indus, which were soon captured by Ismailis who set up an independent Fatimid state.[4][26] These successor states did not achieve much and shrank in size. The Arab conquest remained checked in what is now the south of Pakistan for three centuries by powerful Hindu monarchs to the north and east until the arrival of Mahmud of Ghazni.[27]
  • Coastal trade and a Muslim colony in Sindh allowed for cultural exchanges and the arrival of Sufi missionaries to expand Muslim influence.[28] From Debal, which remained an important port until the 12th century, commercial links with the Persian Gulf and the Middle East intensified as Sindh became the "hinge of the Indian Ocean Trade and overland passway."[25]
  • Port Qasim, Pakistan's second major port is named in honor of Muhammad bin Qasim.[29]
  • Muhammad bin Qasim is sometimes called the "the first Pakistani citizen".[30]
  • Youm-e-Babul Islam is observed in Pakistan, in honor of Muhammad bin Qasim.[31]

Events Umayyad caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz succeeded by Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik The Nihonshoki (日本書紀), one of the oldest history books in Japan, is completed Births Bertrada, wife of Pippin III (d. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Mansura (Arabic: منصورہ) was the capital of the Arab empire in Pakistan. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... The Ismaili ( اسماعيلي, Persian Esmaaili) branch of Islam is the second-largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Port Muhammad Bin Qasim is a port in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan located at , (24. ...

See also

The Battle of Rajasthan is the name chosen to describe the 8th Century battle (or series of battles) where the Hindu Rajput clans defeated the Muslim Arab invaders in the first half of the 8th Century CE. It should be noted that while all sources (Hindu and Muslim) agree on... Qutaibah bin Muslim (d. ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ...

External links

  • Online Version of the Chach Nama, Last accessed 3 September 2007
  • Online Version of the History of the Rise of Mahommedan Power in India by Ferishta, "MAHOMED KASIM.", Last accessed 12 September 2007

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d Alexander Berzin, "Part I: The Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750 CE), The First Muslim Incursion into the Indian Subcontinent", The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire Last accessed Sep 11, 2007
  2. ^ a b c Wink (2002), pg.164
  3. ^ Wink (2002), 51-52
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES, Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May, 2006[1]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Wink (2004) pg 201-205
  6. ^ Wink (2004) pg 131
  7. ^ Keay pg. 184
  8. ^ The Indus River during this time used to flow to the east of Nerun. An earthquake at in the 10th century caused it to change course to what it is currently.
  9. ^ a b c Derryl pg. 37-39
  10. ^ a b c d e f Wink (2002) pg. 204-206
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Derryl pg.22-29
  12. ^ "The fall of Multan laid the Indus valley at the feet of the conqueror. The tribes came in, 'ringing bells and beating drums and dancing,' in token of welcome. The Hindu rulers had oppressed them heavily, and the Jats and Meds and other tribes were on the side of the invaders. The work of conquest, as often happened in India, was thus aided by the disunion of the inhabitants, and jealousies of race and creed conspired to help the Muslims. To such suppliants Mohammad Kasim gave the liberal terms that the Arabs usually offered to all but inveterate foes. He imposed the customary poll-tax, took hostages for good conduct, and spared the people's lands and lives. He even left their shrines undesecrated: 'The temples,' he proclaimed, 'shall be inviolate, like the churches of the Christians, the synagogues of the Jews, and the altars of the Magians.'" Stanley Lane-Poole, Medieval India under Mohammedan Rule, 712-1764, G.P. Putnam's Sons. New York, 1970. p. 9-10
  13. ^ The Chach-Nama. English translation by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Delhi Reprint, 1979 Online Version last accessed 30 September 2006
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Appleby. pg. 291-292
  15. ^ H. M. Elliot and John Dowson, The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians, (London, 1867-1877), vol. 1, p. 203. "Kaksa took precedence in the army before all the nobles and commanders. He collected the revenue of the country and the treasury was placed under his seal. He assisted Muhammad ibn Qasim in all of his undertakings..."
  16. ^ The Chach-Nama. English translation by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Delhi Reprint, 1979. Online Version last accessed 3 October 2006
  17. ^ page 358 Volume 11 A Glossary of the Tribes and castes of the Punjab and North -West Frontier Province compiled by AH ROSE and based on the Census Report for the Punjab 1883, by Sir Denzil Ibbetson and the census report for the Punjab 1892 by Sir Edward Maclagan . Published By the Asian Educational Services
  18. ^ Schimmel pg.4
  19. ^ Wink (2002) pg 187-188
  20. ^ Wink (2002) pg. 53
  21. ^ The Chach-Nama. English translation by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Delhi Reprint, 1979.Online Version Last accessed 15 May 2007
  22. ^ a b Keay, pg. 185
  23. ^ a b c d Derryl pg.31-33
  24. ^ Sindhi Culture by U.T. Thakkur, University of Bombay 1959
  25. ^ a b Markovits, Claude The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750-1947: Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama, Cambridge University Press, Jun 22, 2000, ISBN 0-521-62285-9, pg. 34.
  26. ^ Keay, pg 186-187
  27. ^ Akbar, M.J, "The Shade of Swords", Routledge (UK), Dec 1, 2003, ISBN 0-415-32814-4 pg.102.
  28. ^ Federal Research Division. "Pakistan a Country Study", Kessinger Publishing, Jun 1, 2004, ISBN 1-4191-3994-0 pg.45.
  29. ^ Cheesman, David Landlord Power and Rural Indebtedness in Colonial Sind, Routledge (UK), Feb 1, 1997, ISBN 0-7007-0470-1
  30. ^ History books contain major distortions. Daily Times.
  31. ^ KARACHI: Babul Islam day observed. Dawn.

The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindh; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδους Indus) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its...

References

  • Alexander Berzin, "Part I: The Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750 CE), The First Muslim Incursion into the Indian Subcontinent", The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire
  • The Chach-Nama. English translation by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Delhi Reprint, 1979.
  • Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES, Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May, 2006[2]
  • Stanley Lane-Poole, Medieval India under Mohammedan Rule, 712-1764, G.P. Putnam's Sons. New York, 1970
  • Schimmel, Annemarie Schimmel, Religionen - Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1980, ISBN 90-04-06117-7
  • Appleby, R Scott & Martin E Marty, Fundamentalisms Comprehended, University of Chicago Press, May 1, 2004, ISBN 0-226-50888-9
  • Wink, Andre, "Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World", Brill Academic Publishers, Aug 1, 2002, ISBN 0-391-04173-8
  • Wink, Andre, "Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World", Brill Academic Publishers, 2004, ISBN 9-004-09249-8
  • Keay, John, "India: A History", Grove Press, May 1, 2001, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0
  • Maclean, Derryl N. "Religion and Society in Arab Sind", Brill Academic Publishers, 1989 ISBN 9-004-08551-3

  Results from FactBites:
 
Muhammad bin Qasim - Definition, explanation (420 words)
Muhammad bin Qasim was born around 695, his father died when he was young, so his education was handled by his mother.
Bin Qasim was successful, rapidly taking all of Sindh and moving into southern Punjab up to Multan.
Bin Qasim's rapid gains at such a young age have led many scholars to speculate on how much he could have achieved had he been given the chance.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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