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Encyclopedia > Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Born 1769
Kavala (in present day Greece)
Died 1849
Cairo, Egypt
This article is about the leader of Egypt. For other people named Muhammad Ali or Mehmet Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation) and Mehemet Ali (disambiguation).

Muhammad 'Alī Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (Arabic: محمد علي باشا) (Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha) or Mehmet Ali Paşa in Turkish, (c. 1769 - August 2, 1849), was Wāli of Egypt and Sudan, and is regarded as the "founder of modern Egypt". The dynasty he established would rule Egypt and Sudan until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Kavala (also seen as Kavála, Kavalla, (Greek) (2001 pop. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... The name Muhammad Ali (or Mohammed Ali or other variants) is shared by: Muhammad Ali (1942–), boxer, born Cassius Clay Muhammad Ali (1769–1849), viceroy of Egypt Dusé Mohamed Ali (1866–1945), African nationalist Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948), founder and first governor-general of Pakistan 1947–1948 Chaudhry Muhammad... Mehemet Ali may refer to: Mehemet Ali (soldier), an Ottoman soldier killed in 1878 Mehemed Emin Aali Pasha, Turkish statesman, (1815-71) Mehmet Ali AÄŸca (born, 1958) Shot at the Pope in 1981 See also Ali Pasa (disambiguation) Muhammad Ali of Egypt, viceroy of Egypt This is a disambiguation... Arabic redirects here. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wāli is an administrative title that was used during the Muslim Empire to designate governers of administrative divisions. ... The Muhammad Ali Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th Century. ... The 1952 Revolution (Arabic:ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), in Egypt also known as the July 23 Revolution, began with a military coup détat that took place on July 23, 1952 by a group of young army officers who named themselves The Free Officers Movement. The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing...

Contents

Early life

Muhammad Ali was born in the town of Kavala (in present day Greece) to Albanian-Macedonian parents[1][2][3][4].[5]The son of a tobacco and shipping merchant named Ibrahim Agha, Muhammad Ali worked for a time in his youth as a tobacco merchant, and eventually took a commission in the Ottoman army. In 1799 he led an Albanian contingent sent against Bonaparte in Egypt in 1799, landing at Aboukir(14th July 1799). Depending at first on his Albanian force and other heterogeneous troops, his army invaded the Sudan[6]. Kavala (also seen as Kavála, Kavalla, (Greek) (2001 pop. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Abū Qīr (Arabic أبو قير) (also Abukir or Aboukir) was a village on the Egypt, twenty-three kilometers (fourteen and one-half miles) northeast of Alexandria by rail, containing a castle used as a state prison by Muhammad Ali of Egypt. ...


Rise to power

In 1798, Napoleon invaded the Ottoman province of Egypt and destroyed the army of the Mamluk rulers at the Battle of the Pyramids. The immediate military objective of the expedition was to strike at Britain's communication routes with India. The British destruction of the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile near Alexandria dealt a blow to Napoleon's ambitions. However, the rest of the expeditionary force occupied Egypt, with great difficulty, for three years. The occupation was officially brought to an end in 1801 by a joint British-Ottoman expedition. The ethnic and political divisions within Ottoman ranks prevented them from operating effectively for very long. When the troops had their salaries delayed, some of them mutinied, and many turned to banditry. With the Mamluks out of power and the French occupation over, Egypt was thrown into a power vacuum. Muhammad Ali, a young officer who had been second in command only to his rival Kadeem Muhad Rasheek, was sent by the Sublime Porte to evacuate the French. Muhammad Ali stepped in to fill the power vacuum by establishing a local power base of village leaders, clerics, and wealthy merchants in Cairo. With no one else able to hold the office in safety, he was recognized by the Porte and appointed Ottoman viceroy (wali; Arabic: والي) of Egypt in 1805 . Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Ottoman Empire existed from 1299 to 1922 and, at the height of its power in the 16th century, it included nearly 5. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), Turkish: Kölemen, owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who was converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... Combatants French Republic Mamluks Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte Murad Bey Strength 20,000[1] 60,000[1] Casualties 300 5,000-6,000 Battle of the Pyramids, Francois-Louis-Joseph Watteau, 1798-1799. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders Horatio Nelson François-Paul Brueys DAigalliers† Strength 14 ships of the line: * 13 x 74-gun, * 1 x 50-gun, 1 sloop 13 ships of the line: * 1 x 120-gun, * 3 x 80-gun, * 9 x 74gun, 4 frigates, some smaller Casualties 218... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... A power vacuum is an expression for a political situation that can occur when a government has no identifiable central authority. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire often confusing the Sublime Porte and the High Porte. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ...


Ali spent the first years of his rule fighting off attempts to unseat him and extended his personal authority over all of Egypt. In one of the most infamous episodes of his reign, Ali definitively broke the power of the Mamluks by massacring their leaders. Having worn down the Mamluks for years with raids and skirmishes, he invited their amirs in 1811 to a feast to celebrate his son Tusun Pasha's appointment to lead the army being sent against the Wahhabi rebellion in Arabia. The Mamluk amirs were ambushed by the Pasha's gunmen in the Citadel, where the feast was to be held, and killed. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Tusun Pasha (1794-1816) was the elder son of Muhammad Ali Pasha, wali of Egypt between 1805-1849. ... The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 (1157 H.) when the Wahhabi leader Sheikh Mohammed ibn Abd al Wahhab settled in Diriyah and Prince Mohammed Ibn Saud agreed to support and espouse his cause, with a view to cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions. ... The Saladin Citadel of Cairo (Arabic: قلعة صلاح الدين) is one of the most popular tourist attractions of Cairo. ...


Industrialization and modernization

To keep up with the constant need for money that military reform created, Ali established extra long staple cotton as a cash crop and reoriented the Egyptian agricultural economy towards cotton production. Since British textile manufacturers were willing to pay good money for such cotton, Ali ordered the majority of Egyptian peasants to cultivate cotton. At harvest time, Ali bought the entire crop himself, which he then sold at a mark-up to textile manufacturers. In this way, he turned the whole of Egypt's cotton production into his personal monopoly. He also experimented with textile factories that might process cotton into cloth within Egypt, but these did not prove very successful. Binomial name Gossypium barbadense American Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense), also known as Extra Long Staple, South American, Creole, Sea Island cotton, Egyptian, Algodon pais, and West Indische katoen, is a species of cotton plant which is widely cultivated. ... In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ... This article is about the economics of markets dominated by a single seller. ...


The needs of the military likewise fueled other modernization projects, such as state educational institutions, a teaching hospital, roads and canals, factories to turn out uniforms and munitions, and a shipbuilding foundry at Alexandria, although all the wood for ships had to be imported from abroad. In the same way that he conscripted peasants to serve in the army, he frequently drafted peasants into labor corvées for his factories and industrial projects. The peasantry objected to these conscriptions and many ran away from their villages to avoid being taken, sometimes fleeing as far away as Syria. A number of them maimed themselves so as to be unsuitable for combat: common ways of self-maiming were blinding an eye with rat poison and cutting off a finger of the right hand, which usually worked the firing mechanism of a rifle. A Teaching hospital is a hospital which provides medical training. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ...


Rebellion against the Sultan

Muhammad Ali Pasha
Muhammad Ali Pasha

Ali viewed the territory comprising Sudan as an extension of water, land, and resources, namely gold and slaves. He ordered a campaign to conquer and occupy Sudan in 1820 . Ali's troops made headway into Sudan in 1821 and were met with fierce resistance. The supremacy of Egyptian troops and firearms ensured the conquest of Sudan. Ali now had an outpost from which he could expand to the source of the Nile in Ethiopia and Uganda. His administration captured slaves from the Nuba Mountains and west and south Sudan, all incorporated into a foot regiment known as the Jihadiya. Ali's reign in Sudan and that of his descendants is known in that country for its brutality and heavy-handedness. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Description: Muhammad Ali Pascha Source: originally uploaded to EN by User:ThaGrind as . ... Image File history File links Description: Muhammad Ali Pascha Source: originally uploaded to EN by User:ThaGrind as . ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Nuba Mountains The Nuba Mountains are a mountain range in Kordofan, a province in central Sudan, Africa. ...


On 20 October 1827, while under the command of Muharram Bey, the Ottoman representative, the entire Egyptian navy was sunk by the European Allied fleet, under the command of Admiral Edward Codrington (1770-1851). If the Porte was not in the least prepared for this confrontation, Muhammad Ali was even less prepared for the loss of his highly competent, expensively assembled and maintained navy. In compensation for this loss Muhammad Ali asked the Porte for the territory of Syria. The Ottomans were indifferent to the request; the Sultan himself asked blandly what would happen if Syria was given over and Muhammad Ali later deposed? Could he not then use Syria and then attack the suddenly unprotected Egypt? [7] But Muhammad Ali was not longer willing to tolerate Ottoman indifference. To compensate for his, and Egypt's, losses the wheels for the conquest of Syria were set in motion. is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Admiral Edward Codrington Sir Edward Codrington (1770-1851) was a British admiral, hero of the Battle of Trafalgar and the Battle of Navarino. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Like other rulers of Egypt before him, Ali desired to control Greater Syria, both for its strategic value and for its rich natural resources; nor was this a sudden, vendictive decision on the part of the wali since he had this goal since his early years as Egypt's unofficial ruler. For not only had Syria abundant natural resources, it also had a thriving international trading community with well developed markets throughout the Levant; in addition, it would be a captive market for the goods now being produced in Egypt. Yet perhaps most of all Syria was desirable because it was a buffer state between Egypt and the Ottoman Caliph. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


A new fleet was built, a new army was raised and on 31 October 1831, under İbrahim Paşa, Muhammad Ali's eldest son, the Egyptian invasion of Syria began. For the sake of appearance on the world stage, a pretext for the invasion was vital. Ultimately, excuse for the expedition was a quarrel with Abdullah Paşa of Acre. The wali alleged that 6,000 fallahin had fled to Acre to escape the draft, corvée, and taxes, and he wanted them back.[8] is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The Egyptians overran Syria easily with little resistance. Acre was captured after a six-month siege, which lasted from 3 November 1831 to 27 May 1832. The Egyptian army marched north into Anatolia. At the Battle of Konya (21 December 1832), İbrahim Paşa soundly defeated the Ottoman army led by the sadr azam Grand Vizier Reşid Paşa. There was now no military obstacles between İbrahim's forces and Constantinople itself. Muhamad Ali's goal was now the removal of the current Ottoman emperor Mahmud II and replacing him with his son, the infant Abdülmecid. “Akko” redirects here. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The Battle of Konya was fought in December 21, 1832, between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-MecÄ«d-i evvel) (April 23, 1823 – June 25, 1861) was the 31st sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. ...


This possibility so alarmed Mahmud II that he accepted Russia's offer of military aid, much to the dismay of the British and French governments. From this position, Russia brokered a negotiated solution in 1833 known as the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi. The terms of the peace were that Ali would withdraw his forces from Anatolia and receive the territories of Crete (then known as Candia) and the Hijaz as compensation, and Ibrahim Pasha would be appointed wali of Syria. The Treaty of Hünkâr Ä°skelesi (less correctly spelled as Unkiar Skelessi) was a treaty signed between Russia and the Ottoman Empire in 1833, following the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ...

Interview with Mehmet Ali in his Palace at Alexandria (1839) by David Roberts
Interview with Mehmet Ali in his Palace at Alexandria (1839) by David Roberts

In 1839, Muhammad Ali, dissatisfied with partial sovereignty over Syria, went to war again against the Caliph's forces. When Mahmud II ordered his forces to advance on the Syrian frontier, Ibrahim attacked and destroyed them at the Battle of Nezib (24 June 1839) near Urfa. Echoing the Battle of Konya, Istanbul was again left vulnerable to Ali's forces. Mahmud II died almost immediately after the battle took place and was succeeded by sixteen-year-old Abdülmecid. At this point, Ali and Ibrahim began to argue about which course to follow; Ibrahim favored conquering Istanbul and demanding the imperial seat while Ali was inclined simply to demand numerous concessions of territory and political autonomy for himself and his family. On 15 July 1840, Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia signed the London Convention, which granted Ali hereditary rule over Egypt and the administration for life over the governatorate of Acre in exchange for the withdrawal of his troops from the Syrian hinterland and the coastal regions of Mount Lebanon. Ali refused these terms and, despite the opposition of France, a multilateral European military intervention took place a few weeks later. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... David Roberts (October 24, 1796 - November 25, 1864), Scottish painter, was born at Stockbridge, Edinburgh. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Combatants Egypt Ottoman Empire, Prussia Commanders Ibrahim Pasha Hafiz Pasha, Helmuth Graf von Moltke Strength Casualties The Battle of Nezib was fought on June 24, 1839 between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Sanli Urfa (in Turkish Şanlıurfa) is a city in eastern Turkey, and the provincial capital of Sanliurfa Province. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-MecÄ«d-i evvel) (April 23, 1823 – June 25, 1861) was the 31st sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...


After the British and Austrian navies blockaded the Nile delta coastline, shelled Beirut (11 September 1840), and after Acre had capitulated (3 November 1840), Ali agreed to the terms of the Convention on 27 November 1840, renouncing his claims over Crete and the Hijaz and downsizing his navy and his standing army to 18,000 men, provided that he and his descendants would enjoy hereditary rule over Egypt — an unheard-of status for an Ottoman viceroy. The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... Look up rule in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ...


Final years

Whether it was genuine senility or the effects of the silver nitrate he had been given years before to treat an attack of dysentery [9] after 1843, fast on the heels of the Syrian débâcle and the treaty of Balta Liman which forced Egypt to tear down its import barriers and the government to give up its monopolies, Muhammad Ali's mind became increasingly clouded and tended towards paranoia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 313 KB)I took this picture during my visit to Cairo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 313 KB)I took this picture during my visit to Cairo. ... The Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha or Alabaster Mosque is a mosque situated in the Citadel of Cairo in Egypt and built by Muhammad Ali Pasha between 1830 and 1848. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The Treaty of Balta Liman was written when international power was shifting to the west and away from the Ottoman Empire. ...


In 1844 the tax receipts were in. And Şerif Paşa, the head of the diwan al-maliyya (financial ministry), was too fearful for his life to tell the wali the news that Egyptian debt now stood at 80 million francs (£2,400,000). Tax arrears came to 14,081,500 pts. (pts. = piastre) [10] out of a total estimated tax of 75,227,500 pts.[11] Timidly he approached İbrahim Paşa with these facts, and together came up with a report and a plan. Suspecting his father's initial reaction, İbrahim arranged for Muhammad Ali's favorite daughter to break the news. It did little, if any, good. The resulting rage was far beyond what any had expected, and took six full days for a thin peace to take hold.


A year later while İbrahim, progressively crippled by rheumatic pains and tuberculosis (he was beginning to cough up blood), was sent to Italy to take the waters Muhammad Ali, in the year 1846, traveled to Constantinople. There he approached the sultan, expressed his fears, and made his peace, explaining: "[My son] İbrahim is old and sick, [my grandson] Abbas is indolent (happa), and then children will rule Egypt. How will they keep Egypt?"[12] After he secured hereditary rule for his family, the wali ruled until 1848, when senility made further governance by him impossible. Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Tomb of Muhammad Ali in Alabaster Mosque in Cairo.
Tomb of Muhammad Ali in Alabaster Mosque in Cairo.

It soon came to the point where his son and heir, the mortally ailing İbrahim, had no choice but to travel to Constantinople and request the sultan create him ruler of Egypt even though his father was still alive. However, on the ship returning home İbrahim gripped by fever and guilt succumbed to seizures and hallucinations. He survived the journey but within six months was dead. He was succeeded by his nephew (Tosun's son) Abbas. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 673 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Tomb of Muhammad Ali Pasha inside Alabaster Mosque in Cairo. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 673 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Tomb of Muhammad Ali Pasha inside Alabaster Mosque in Cairo. ... Abbas I (Arabic: عباس الأول ) (1913-1854), Pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun Pasha and grandson of Mehmet Ali, founder of the reigning dynasty of Egypt at the time. ...


By this time Muhammad Ali had become so ill and senile that he was not informed of his son's death. Lingering a few months more, Muhammad Ali died on the 2nd of August 1849, and, ultimately, was buried in the imposing mosque he had commissioned in the Citadel of Cairo. The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


But the immediate reaction to his death was noticeably low key, thanks in no small part to the contempt the new wali Abbas Paşa had always felt towards his grandfather.


Eye-witness British council John Murray wrote:

... the ceremonial of the funeral was a most meagre, miserable affair; the [diplomatic] Consular was not invited to attend, and neither the shops nor the Public offices were closed -- in short, a general impression prevails that Abbas Pasha has shown a culpable lack of respect for the memory of his illustrious grandfather, in allowing his obsequis to be conducted in so paltry a manner, and in neglecting at attend them in Person.


...[the] attachment and veneration of all classes in Egypt for the name of Muhammad Ali are prouder obsequies than any of which it was in power of his successor to confer. The old in habitants remember and talk of the chaos and anarchy from which he rescued this country; the younger compare his energetic rule with the capricious, vacillating government of his successor; all classes whether Turk, or Arab, not only feel, but do not hesitate to say openly that the prosperity of Egypt has died with Muhammad Ali...In truth my Lord, it cannot be denied, that Muhammad Ali, notwithstanding all his faults was a great man. [13]

See also

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:
Aali, Mehemet

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The process of Muhammad Alis seizure of power in Egypt was a long three way civil war between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamelukes, and Albanian mercenaries. ... The reign of Muhammad Ali and his successors over Egypt was a period of rapid reform and modernization that led to Egypt becoming one of the most developed states outside of Europe. ... Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. ... The Muhammad Ali Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th Century. ... // The position of the following kings is uncertain: See Roman Egypt Main Article: President of Egypt List of pharaohs; a list of ancient rulers of Ancient Egypt. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Warren Isham; George Duffield; Warren Parsons Isham; D Bethune Duffield; Gilbert Hathaway (1858). Travels in the two hemispheres, or, Gleanings of a European tour. Doughty, Straw, University of Michigan, p.70 - 80. 
  2. ^ Samuel Shelburne Robison (1942). History of Naval Tactics from 1530 to 1930:The Evolution of Tactical Maxims. The U.S. Naval Institute, p.546. 
  3. ^ William Wing Loring (1884). (full text) A Confederate Soldier in Egypt p.28. Dodd, Mead & company.
  4. ^ George Duffield, Divie Bethune Duffield, Gilbert Hathaway (1857). Magazine of Travel: A Work Devoted to Original Travels, in Various Countries, Both of the Old and the new. H. Barns, Tribune Office, p.79. 
  5. ^ William Stadiem (1991). Too Rich: The High Life and Tragic Death of King Farouk. Carroll & Graf Pub (New York). 
  6. ^ Hassan Hassan (2000). In The House of Muhammad Ali. American University in Cairo Press. 
  7. ^ 12 Bahr Barra, Jamad I 1243/1828
  8. ^ Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot, Egypt in the reign of Muhammad AliUniversity of Cambridge, 1983
  9. ^ "...the silver nitrate his doctors gave him earlier to cure his dysentery was taking its toll...",Afaf Lutfi as-Sayyid Marsot, Egypt in the reign of Muhammad Ali,Chapter 11, page 255; Cambridge Press, 1983
  10. ^ A piastre is 40 paras. A para is the smallest Egyptian silver coin. A piastre in this instance can be viewed as approx. 40% of a British pound sterling)
  11. ^ Ibid., page 252
  12. ^ Nubar Paşa,Memoirs, p.63.
  13. ^ F.O. 78/804. Murray to Palmerston, September 1849

The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... Admiral Samuel Shelburne Robison CB, USN (10 May 1867 - 20 November 1952) was a U.S. Navy officer whose service extended from the 1890s through the early 1930s. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Fahmy, Khaled. 1997. All The Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, his army and the making of modern Egypt. New York: American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 977-424-696-9
  • Fahmy, Khaled. 1998. "The era of Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, 1805-1848" in The Cambridge History of Egypt: Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the end of the twentieth century. M.W. Daly, ed. Pp. 139-179, Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47211-3
  • Hourani, Albert. 2002. A History of the Arab Peoples. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-446-39392-4
  • al-Jabarti, Abd al-Rahman. 1994. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti's History of Egypt. 4 vols. T. Philipp and M. Perlmann, translators. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 3-515-05756-0
  • Vatikiotis, P.J. 1991. The History of Modern Egypt: From Muhammad Ali to Mubarak. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4215-8

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Albert Habib Hourani (31st March 1915 – 17th January 1993) was the preeminent scholar of Middle Eastern history through much of the 20th century. ... Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti (Arabic: عبد الرحمن الجبرتي) [full name Abd al-Rahman bin Hasan Burhan al-Din al-Jabarti; Arabic عبد الرحمن بن حسن برهان الدين الجبرتي] ‎ (1756-1825) was a Muslim scholar and chronicler who spent his life in Cairo. ...

External links

  • Muhammad Ali Al-Pasha Mosque Islamic Architecture review (IAORG)
  • Al Ahram special on Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Born: 1769 Died: 2 August 1849
Preceded by
uncertain due to war
Governor of Egypt
1805–1848
Succeeded by
Ibrahim
Preceded by
Ibrahim
Governor of Egypt
1848–1849
Succeeded by
Abbas I

The Muhammad Ali Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th Century. ... This page lists the rulers and heads of state of Egypt since 1805. ... Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: إبراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – November 10, 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ... Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: إبراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – November 10, 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ... This page lists the rulers and heads of state of Egypt since 1805. ... Abbas I (Arabic: عباس الأول ) (1913-1854), Pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun Pasha and grandson of Mehmet Ali, founder of the reigning dynasty of Egypt at the time. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Muhammad Ali of Egypt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2064 words)
Muhammad Ali was born in the town of Kavala, in the Ottoman Empire (within the present borders of Greece).
The Mosque of Muhammad Ali in Cairo, Egypt.
Muhammad Ali died in August 1849, and was buried in the imposing mosque he had commissioned, the Muhammad Ali Mosque, in the Citadel of Cairo.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali and his successors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4481 words)
The reign of Muhammad Ali and his successors over Egypt was a period of rapid reform and modernization that led to Egypt becoming one of the most developed states outside of Europe.
Ali's intentions for Sudan was to extend his rule southward, to capture the valuable caravan trade bound for the Red Sea, and to secure the rich gold mines which he believed to exist in Sennar.
Muhammad Ali, who had been granted the honorary rank of grand vizier in 1842, paid a visit to Istanbul in 1846, where he became reconciled to his old enemy Khosrev Pasha, whom he had not seen since he spared his life at Cairo in 1803.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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