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Encyclopedia > Muhammad
"Muhammad" in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman.
"Muhammad" in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman.[1]
A 16th-century Ottoman illustration depicting Muhammad at the Kaaba. Muhammad's face is veiled, a practice followed in Islamic art since the 16th century.
A 16th-century Ottoman illustration depicting Muhammad at the Kaaba. Muhammad's face is veiled, a practice followed in Islamic art since the 16th century.[1]

Part of a series on the
Islamic prophet Muhammad
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1294x1256, 291 KB) „Muhammad“ von Hattat Aziz Efendi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1294x1256, 291 KB) „Muhammad“ von Hattat Aziz Efendi. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ...


Life


Roles // In parentheses is the year they died. ... The period of Muhammad before Medina started with his birth and ended in 622 with the Migration to Medina in 622. ... The period when Muhammad in Medina started with the Migration to Medina in 622 and ended with the Conquest of Mecca in 630. ... The period when Muhammad in Medina started with the Conquest of Mecca in 630 and ended with the his death in 632. ... The Farewell Sermon, also known as the Prophets final sermon, is a famous sermon by Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, delivered before his death, on the ninth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 A.H. (632 CE), at the end of his first & final pilgrimage. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community, or ummah, after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ...


Perspectives Imprint of seal stamped on letters sent by Muhammad. ... Muhammad, viewed by Muslims as the last prophet of Islam, was, amongst other things, a military leader during the last ten years of his life. ... Muhammad (A.D. 570-632) is regarded by Muslims as the last prophet of God. ... Muhammad is regarded by Muslims as the last prophet of God. ... There are many written accounts of Muhammad having had contact with many Jews from tribes living in and arround Medina. ... This article discusses Muhammads attitude towards Christianity as well as his interactions with Christians during the 7th century. ...

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Muhammad (Arabic: محمد Muḥammad; also Mohammed, Muhammed, Mahomet, and other variants)[2][3][4] (c. 570 - June 8, 632 CE), was the founder of Islam and is regarded by Muslims as the last messenger and prophet of God (Arabic: الله Allah).[5] Muslims believe that he was not the creator of a new religion, but the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and others. They see him as the last and the greatest in a series of prophets.[6] Milad, Milad an-Nabi or Mawlid un-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad, which muslims believe is the final prophet sent by ALLAH to the Earth; also known as The Seal of the Prophets. Shia and many Sunni Muslims celebrate the Mawlid. ... A Naat (Persian: نعت ) is poetry that specifically praises the prophet Muhammad. ... this is a sub-article to Non-Islamic views of Muhammad This article is concerned with the historical changes and development of the Christian view of Muhammad. ... The historicity of Muhammad concerns the historical authenticity of Muhammad. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Depictions of Muhammad, drawings of Muhammad are often contentious. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ...


Sources on Muhammad’s life concur that he was born ca. 570 CE in the city of Mecca in Arabia.[7] He was orphaned at a young age and was brought up by his uncle, later worked mostly as a merchant, and was married by age 26. At some point, discontented with life in Mecca, he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. According to Islamic tradition, it was here at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām)[8] is man's religion (dīn),[9] and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus, and other prophets.[10][11][12] This limestone statue of a Boddhisattva was probably created in the Henan province of China around 570, in the Northern Qi Dynasty. ... CE is an abbreviation which can have the following meanings: Capillary electrophoresis the CE mark is a stylized CE placed on products to signify conformance with European Union regulations. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... The fourth pillar of Islam, which is fasting, is practiced during the month of Ramadan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Deen (دين) is an Arabic word usually explained as way of life or complete code of life. It is not exclusive to Islam, as it also used by Arab Christians. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ...


Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was largely met with hostility from the tribes of Mecca; he was treated harshly and so were his followers. To escape persecution, Muhammad and his followers migrated to Yathrib (Medina)[13] in the year 622. This historic event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad managed to unite the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to ten thousand, conquered Mecca. In 632 AD, on returning to Medina from his 'Farewell pilgrimage', Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of Arabia had converted to Islam. This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hijra may refer to: Hijra (Hegira/Hijrah/Hejira) is an Arabic term referring to the migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: گاه‌شماری هجري قمری ‎ Gāhshomāri-ye hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to... This is a sub-article to Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca and the Succession to Muhammad. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...


The revelations (or Ayats, lit. Signs of God), which Muhammad had continued receiving till his death, form the verses of the Qur'an,[14] regarded by Muslims as the “word of God”, around which the religion is based. Besides the Qur'an, Muhammad’s life (sira) and traditions (hadith) are also upheld by Muslims. Ayah is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... For the river and also village in Norway named Sira, see Sira, Norway. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Etymology

15th century illustration in a copy of a manuscript by Al-Bīrūnī, depicting Muhammad preaching the Qur'ān in Mecca.
15th century illustration in a copy of a manuscript by Al-Bīrūnī, depicting Muhammad preaching the Qur'ān in Mecca.[15]

The name Muhammad literally means "Praiseworthy".[16] [17] Within Islam, Muhammad is known as Nabi (Prophet) and Rasul (Messenger). Although the Qur'an sometimes declines to make a distinction among prophets, in Surah 33:40 it singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets".[18] The Qur'an also refers to Muhammad as "Ahmad" (Surah 61:6 (Arabic :أحمد), Arabic for "more praiseworthy". Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... Muhammad is a common anglicized spelling of the Arabic given name, writen in Arabic script as محمد (M-Ḥ-M-D, read from left to right). ... Nabi can refer to the Arabic and Hebrew word for Prophet the Korean word for butterfly one of the Nabis, a group of artists in Paris in the 1890s the 2005 Typhoon Nabi North American Bus Industries, a major transit bus manufacturing company Nabi Biopharmaceuticals, a Biopharmaceutical company based in... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Seal of the Prophets (ar. ...


Overview

Born to ‘Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib, Muhammad initially adopted the occupation of a shepherd, and later became a merchant. In his youth, he was given the nickname "Al-Amin" (Arabic: الامين), meaning "faithful, trustworthy"[19] and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator.[11][7][20] During the month of Ramadan, Muhammad would retreat to a cave located at the summit of Mount Hira, just outside Mecca in the Arabian Hijaz, where he fasted and prayed. According to Islamic belief, when he was about forty years old (610 CE) he was visited by Angel Gabriel and commanded to recite verses sent by God. These revelations continued until his death twenty-three years later. The collection of these verses is known as the Qur'an. ‘Abdu’llāh ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muá¹­á¹­alib (Arabic: ‎ )‎ (545-570) was the father of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam. ... The fourth pillar of Islam, which is fasting, is practiced during the month of Ramadan. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


He expanded his mission as a prophet, publicly preaching strict monotheism, condemning the social evils of his day, and warning of a Day of Judgment when all humans shall be held responsible for their deeds.[7] The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Yawm al-Qīyāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ...


After initially ignoring Muhammad's preaching, the elites in Mecca felt threatened by his message, and began to harass Muhammad and persecute his followers.[citation needed] This continued and intensified over more than a decade.[citation needed] The hardships reached a new level for Muhammad after the deaths of his wife Khadija and his uncle Abu Talib, who, although not becoming a Muslim, had protected Muhammad throughout. Eventually, in 622, Muhammad left Mecca in a journey known to Muslims as the Hijra (the Migration).[7] He settled in the area of Yathrib (now known as Medina) with his followers, where he was the leader of the first Muslim community. Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Six years of continuous war between Muslim and Meccan forces followed, culminating later in the bloodless Muslim victory and conquest of Mecca. The Muslims subsequently removed everything they considered idolatrous from the Kaaba. Most of the townspeople accepted Islam. In March 632, Muhammad led the pilgrimage known as the Hajj.[11] On returning to Medina he fell ill and died after a few days, on June 8.[21] Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ...


Under the caliphs who assumed authority after his death, the Islamic empire expanded into Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, North Africa, southern Spain, and Anatolia. Later conquests, commercial contact between Muslims and non-Muslims, and missionary activity spread Islam over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, including China and Southeast Asia.[citation needed] Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The eastern hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Sources for Muhammad's life

11th century Persian Qur'an folio page in kufic script
11th century Persian Qur'an folio page in kufic script

From a scholarly point of view, the most credible source providing information on events in Muhammad's life is the Qur'an.[22][23] The Qur'an has some, though very few, casual allusions to Muhammad's life.[23] The Qur'an, however, responds "constantly and often candidly to Muhammad's changing historical circumstances and contains a wealth of hidden data that are relevant to the task of the quest for the historical Muhammad."[24] All or most of the Qur'an was apparently written down by Muhammad's followers after being revealed by the Angel Gabriel while he was alive, but it was, then as now, primarily an orally related document, and the written compilation of the whole Qur'an in its definite form was completed early after the death of Muhammad.[25] The Qur'an in its actual form is generally considered by academic scholars to record the words spoken by Muhammad because the search for variants in Western academia has not yielded any differences of great significance.[26] The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... The historicity of Muhammad concerns the historical authenticity of Muhammad. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x676, 181 KB) Summary Description: from Smithsonian Folio from a Koran 11th century Ink, color, and gold on paper H: 22. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x676, 181 KB) Summary Description: from Smithsonian Folio from a Koran 11th century Ink, color, and gold on paper H: 22. ... Surah Al-Baqarah written in Kufic form. ...


Next in importance are the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him (the sira and hadith literature), which provide further information on Muhammad's life.[22] The earliest surviving written sira (biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn Ishaq's Sirah Rasul Allah (Life of God's Messenger). Although the original work is lost, portions of it survive in the recensions of Ibn Hisham (Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Life of the prophet) and Al-Tabari.[27] According to Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq wrote his biography some 120 to 130 years after Muhammad's death. Many, but not all, scholars accept the accuracy of these biographies, though their accuracy is unascertainable.[23] The hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical traditions of Muhammad, date from several generations after the death of Muhammad. Western academics view the hadith collections with caution as accurate historical sources.[28] For the river and also village in Norway named Sira, see Sira, Norway. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the river and also village in Norway named Sira, see Sira, Norway. ... Ibn Ishaq (or ibn Ishaq), (d. ... Sira redirects here. ... Ibn Hisham, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Malik (d. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... This is a sub-article of hadith. ...


There are a few non-Muslim sources which, according to S. A. Nigosian, confirm the existence of Muhammad. The earliest of these sources date to shortly after 634 CE and the most interesting of them date to some decades later. These sources are valuable for corroboration of the Qur'anic and Muslim tradition statements.[23]


Life based on Islamic traditions

Part of a series on
Islam
Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah, sometimes spelt as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah. ...

Allah · Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Allah. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage Aqidah, sometimes spelt as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah. ... The shahadah (Arabic:  ) is the Islamic creed. ... Salat redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ...

History & Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shi'a Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in both Sunni and Shia Islam to refer to the rightly guided Caliphs prophesised in the famous tradition, Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs (Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood). ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia
Kalam · Tasawwuf (Sufism) This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that is practised by some muslims and some non-muslims and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shi'a

Culture & Society
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Art · Science · Philosophy
Architecture · Mosques · Calendar
Festivals · Demographics · Politics
Women · Children · Animals Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... This is a subarticle to Islamic studies and science. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: گاه‌شماری هجري قمری ‎ Gāhshomāri-ye hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... Distribution of Islam per country. ... - - - Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muhammad said that If a house fly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease. ...

Islam & other religions
Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many attitudes towards other religions, ranging from intolerant to tolerant attitudes. ...

Christianity · Jainism · Judaism · Sikhism

See also
The historical interaction between Christianity and Islam, in the field of comparative religion, connects fundamental ideas in Christianity with similar ones in Islam. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Ku Klux Klan Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam Portal

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Before Medina

The period of Muhammad before Medina started with his birth and ended in 622 with the Migration to Medina in 622. ...

Genealogy

Muhammad traced his genealogy as follows (ibn means "son of" in Arabic; alternate names of people with two names are given in parentheses): // In parentheses is the year they died. ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ...


Muhammad was born into the Quraysh tribe. He is the son of Abd Allah, son of Abd al-Muttalib (Shaiba) son of Hashim (Amr) ibn Abd Manaf (al-Mughira) son of Qusai (Zaid) ibn Kilab ibn Murra son of Ka'b ibn Lu'ay son of Ghalib ibn Fahr (Quraish) son of Malik ibn an-Nadr (Qais) the son of Kinana son of Khuzaimah son of Mudrikah (Amir) son of Ilyas son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma'ad ibn Adnan, whom the northern Arabs believe to be their common ancestor. Adnan in turn is said to have been a descendant of Ishmael, son of Abraham.[29] Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... Abd-Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib (545-570) (Arabic: عبدالله بن عبد المطلب) was the son of Shaiba ibn Hashim. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hashim ibn Abd al-Manaf (died ca. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ... Calotropis are a genus of plants that produce milky sap. ... Adnan (Arabic: عدنان ) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnani (Arabized Arabs) of northern Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtani of Southern Arabia who descend from Qahtan. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and...


Childhood

See also: Year of the Elephant and Mawlid

Muhammad was born into the family of Banu Hashim, one of the better class families of Mecca but the family seems to have not been prosperous during Muhammad's early lifetime.[11][30] Tradition places Muhammad's birth in the Year of the Elephant, commonly identified with 570.[31] Western historians hitherto had accepted the Year of the Elephant to be 570 however according to Watt some new discoveries suggest that the Year of the Elephant might have been 569 or 568.[31] Welch on the other hand holds that the Year of the Elephant should have taken place considerably earlier than 570 and further argues that Muhammad may have been born even later than 570.[11] The Year of the Elephant (عام الفيل `Âm al-Fîl) is estimated at 570 CE. According to early Islamic historians such as Ibn Ishaq, the Ethiopian governor of Yemen, Abraha, had built a great church in Sanaa intended to lure the Arabs away from the Kaaba. ... Milad, Milad an-Nabi or Mawlid un-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad, which muslims believe is the final prophet sent by ALLAH to the Earth; also known as The Seal of the Prophets. Shia and many Sunni Muslims celebrate the Mawlid. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Year of the Elephant (عام الفيل `Âm al-Fîl) is estimated at 570 CE. According to early Islamic historians such as Ibn Ishaq, the Ethiopian governor of Yemen, Abraha, had built a great church in Sanaa intended to lure the Arabs away from the Kaaba. ... This limestone statue of a Boddhisattva was probably created in the Henan province of China around 570, in the Northern Qi Dynasty. ... The Year of the Elephant (عام الفيل `Âm al-Fîl) is estimated at 570 CE. According to early Islamic historians such as Ibn Ishaq, the Ethiopian governor of Yemen, Abraha, had built a great church in Sanaa intended to lure the Arabs away from the Kaaba. ... This limestone statue of a Boddhisattva was probably created in the Henan province of China around 570, in the Northern Qi Dynasty. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... The Year of the Elephant (عام الفيل `Âm al-Fîl) is estimated at 570 CE. According to early Islamic historians such as Ibn Ishaq, the Ethiopian governor of Yemen, Abraha, had built a great church in Sanaa intended to lure the Arabs away from the Kaaba. ... Events The Nubian kingdom of Alodia is converted to Christianity, according to John of Ephesus. ... Events April 1 - King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy; refugees fleeing from them go on to found Venice. ... Alford T. Welch is a Professor of Religious Studies at Michigan State University. ... The Year of the Elephant (عام الفيل `Âm al-Fîl) is estimated at 570 CE. According to early Islamic historians such as Ibn Ishaq, the Ethiopian governor of Yemen, Abraha, had built a great church in Sanaa intended to lure the Arabs away from the Kaaba. ... This limestone statue of a Boddhisattva was probably created in the Henan province of China around 570, in the Northern Qi Dynasty. ... This limestone statue of a Boddhisattva was probably created in the Henan province of China around 570, in the Northern Qi Dynasty. ...


Muhammad's birthday is considered by Sunni Muslims to have been the 12th day of the month of Rabi'-ul-Awwal, the third month of the Muslim calendar.[32] Shi'a Muslims believe it to have been the dawn of 17th of the month of Rabi'-ul-Awwal.[33] Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Rabi al-awwal ( ربيع الأول ) is the third month in the Islamic calendar. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Rabi al-awwal ( ربيع الأول ) is the third month in the Islamic calendar. ...


Muhammad's father, Abdullah, died almost six months before he was born.[34] In accordance with tribal custom, Muhammad was sent to live with a Bedouin family in the desert for four or five years where he was wetnursed by Thuwaybah and Halimah bint Abdullah.[citation needed] Shortly after he returned to his mother at the age of six, Muhammad lost his mother Amina to illness and he became fully orphaned.[citation needed] He was subsequently brought up for two years under the guardianship of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe. When he was eight years of age, his grandfather also died. Muhammad now came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of the Hashim clan of Hashim tribe.[31] According to Watt, because of the general disregard of the guardians in taking care of the weak members of the tribes in Mecca in sixth century, "Muhammad's guardians saw that he did not starve to death, but it was hard for them to do more for him, especially as the fortunes of the clan of Hashim seems to have been declining at that time."[35] Abd-Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib (545-570) (Arabic: عبدالله بن عبد المطلب) was the son of Shaiba ibn Hashim. ... Name means Deserving of Gods reward. ... Halimah or Halimah as-Sadiyyah, daughter of Abdullah ibn al-Harith ibn Shijnah as-Sadiyyah of the (tribe of) Bana Sad ibn Hawazin nursed Muhammad until he reached the age of weaning. ... Aminah bint Wahab (Arabic: آمنة بنت وهب) was Muhammads mother and was married to Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ... A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... http://www. ... Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib (d. ... Hashim ibn Abd al-Manaf (died ca. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Mecca was a thriving commercial center. There was an important shrine in Mecca (now called the Kaaba) that housed statues of many Arabian gods.[36] Merchants from various tribes would visit Mecca during the pilgrimage season,[36] when all inter-tribal warfare was forbidden and they could trade in safety.[citation needed] While still in his teens, Muhammad began accompanying his uncle on trading journeys to Syria gaining some experience in commercial career; the only career open to Muhammad as an orphan.[35] The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. ...


Middle years

There is not much known of Muhammad during his youth and from the fragmentary information that we have, it is hard to separate history from legend.[37] It is known that he became a merchant and "was involved in trade between the Indian ocean and the Mediterranean Sea."[38] He gained a reputation for reliability and honesty that attracted a proposal from Khadijah, a forty-year-old widow in 595.[38] Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one. Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadijah al-Kubra (565 AD – 623 AD) was the first wife of Muhammad. ... Events The first mention of the state of Karantania on monuments. ...

The earliest surviving image of Muhammad from Rashid al-Din's Jami' al-Tawarikh, approximately 1315, depicting the episode of the Black Stone.
The earliest surviving image of Muhammad from Rashid al-Din's Jami' al-Tawarikh, approximately 1315, depicting the episode of the Black Stone.[39]

Ibn Ishaq records that Khadijah bore Muhammad six children: three sons named Al Qasem, Abdullah (who is also called Al Tayeb and Al Taher) and Ibrahim, and four daughters. He was also called Abul Qasim (father of Qasim) after his eldest son Qasim, according to Arab customs. All of Khadija's children were born before Muhammad reported receiving his first revelation. His son Qasim died at the age of two. The four daughters are said to be Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatima.[citation needed] Image File history File links Mohammed_kaaba_1315. ... Image File history File links Mohammed_kaaba_1315. ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ... Events August 13 - Louis X of France marries Clemence dAnjou. ... The Black Stone, surrounded by its silver frame and the black cloth kiswa on the Kaaba in Mecca This article is about the Islamic holy relic. ... Ibn Ishaq (or ibn Ishaq), (d. ... Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown. ... Qasim ibn Muhammad was the son of Muhammad. ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad She is the daghter of Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, however, it is disputed if she is the daghter of Muhammad or Khadijahs assumed previous husband. ... Ruqayyah is viewed as the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid by some Sunnis and some Shia but some Shia and non-Muslim argue she is the daughter of Khadijahs assumed previous husband (see Genealogy of Khadijas daughters). ... Daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ...


According to the Muslim tradition, the young Muhammad played a role in the restoration of the Kabba, after parts of it had been destroyed by one of Mecca's frequent flash floods.[40] When the reconstruction was almost done, disagreements arose as to who would have the honor of lifting the Black Stone into place and different clans were about to take up arm against each other. One of the elders suggested they take the advice of the first one who entered the gate. This happened to be Muhammad. He spread out his cloak, put the stone in the middle and had members of the four major clans raise it to its destined position. The cloak became an important symbol for later poets and writers.[41] The Black Stone, surrounded by its silver frame and the black cloth kiswa on the Kaaba in Mecca This article is about the Islamic holy relic. ...


The Beginnings of the Qur'an

See also: Wahy
The mountain of Hira where, according to Muslim tradition, Muhammad received his first revelation.
The mountain of Hira where, according to Muslim tradition, Muhammad received his first revelation.

Muhammad often retreated to Mount Hira near Mecca. Islamic tradition holds that the angel Gabriel began communicating with him here in the year 610 and commanded Muhammad to recite the following verses:[42] Wahy is the Arabic word for revelation. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1721x1976, 360 KB) Summary Photograph taken personally by user:Nazli Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1721x1976, 360 KB) Summary Photograph taken personally by user:Nazli Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Hira or the Cave of Hira is the location where Muhammad, according to Islam, received his first revelations from Allah (God) through the angel Gabriel(جبريل ). The cave is located at the peak of Jabal al-Nour in the Hejaz region of present day Saudi Arabia. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ...

Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created- Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,- He Who taught (the use of) the pen,- Taught man that which he knew not.(Surah 96:1-5

Upon receiving the first revelation, he was scared. When he returned home he related the event to his wife Khadijah. He was consoled and reassured by Khadijah and her Christian cousin, Waraqah ibn Nawfal. Waraqah was immediately enthusiastic, but Khadijah proceeded more cautiously, and was only satisfied that the revelations had indeed come from a good source after the conclusion of a test she had devised to determine that very thing. This was followed by a pause of three years during which Muhammad had gave himself up further to prayers and spiritual practices. When the revelations resumed he was reassured and commanded to begin preaching (Surah 93:1-11).[43] Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadijah al-Kubra (565 AD – 623 AD) was the first wife of Muhammad. ... Waraqah ibn Nawfal, Waraqah ibn Nawfal ibn Assad ibn al-Azi ibn Kassi Al-Korshy (Arabic ورقه بن نوفل بن أسد بن عبد العزي بن قصي الق&#1585... A spiritual practice, spiritual discipline or spiritual exercise (sadhana) includes any activity that one associates with cultivating spirituality. ...


According to Welch, these revelations were accompanied by mysterious seizures as the reports are unlikely to have been forged by later Muslims.[11] Muhammad was confident that he could distinguish his own thoughts from these messages.[44] Alford T. Welch is a Professor of Religious Studies at Michigan State University. ...


Opposition in Mecca

According to Muslim tradition, Khadijah, Muhammad's wife, was the first to believe that he was a prophet.[45] He was soon followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, close friend Abu Bakr and adopted son Zaid (later known as Zaid bin Haarith.) The Identity of first male Muslim is very controversial.[45] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There is some disagreement among Muslims, and among historians of Islam, as to the identity of the first male convert to Islam (Muhammad excluded). ...


Around 613, Muhammad began to preach amongst Meccans most of whom ignored it and a few mocked him, while some others became his followers. There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants; people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it; and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners.[46] Events Clotaire II reunites the Frankish kingdoms by ordering the murder of Sigebert II. Saint Columbanus founds the monastery of Bobbio in northern Italy. ...


As the ranks of Muhammad's followers swelled, he became a threat to the local tribes and the rulers of the city, whose wealth rested upon the Kaaba, the focal point of Meccan religious life, which Muhammad threatened to overthrow. Muhammad’s denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba. The great merchants tried (but failed) to come to some arrangements with Muhammad in exchange for abandoning his preaching. They offered him admission into the inner circle of merchants and establishing his position in the circle by an advantageous marriage.[47] Tradition records at great length the persecution and ill-treatment of Muhammad and his followers.[11] Sumayya bint Khubbat, a slave of Abū Jahl and a prominent Meccan leader, is famous as the first martyr of Islam, having been killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith. Bilal, another Muslim slave, suffered torture at the hands of Umayya ibn khalaf by placing a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion.[48][49] Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ... In Muslim tradition, Bilal ibn Rabah (died c. ...


Hijra to Ethiopia

In 615 AD/CE, some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum and founded a small colony there under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian king.[11] While the traditions view the persecutions of Meccans to have played the major role in the emigration, William Montgomery Watt, a professor of Islamic studies, states "there is reason to believe that some sort of division within the embryonic Muslim community played a role and that some of the emigrants may have gone to Abyssinia to engage in trade, possibly in competition with prominent merchant families in Mecca."[11] In 615 CE a number of Sahaba, the Muslims who originally converted in Mecca, migrated to Ethiopia, seeking refuge from persecution. ... Events The Edict of Paris grants extensive rights to the Frankish nobility. ... “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum, Geez አክሱም), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca. ... Al-Negashi- (commonly known as Negus)was the king of Abyssinia and a contemporary of Muhammad. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ...


Last years in Mecca

In 619, the "year of sorrow", both Muhammad's wife Khadijah and his uncle Abu Talib died. The relationship between Muhammad's group of followers and Muhammad's own Quraysh clan, which were already bad, worsened still further.[50] The controversial Satanic verses incident, if it happened, happened at this time.[51] Muhammad had become more and more hopeless at this time, and the Qur'an consoles him that "if it had been thy Lord's will, they would all have believed,- all who are on earth! wilt thou then compel mankind, against their will, to believe! " (Surah 24:99) [52] and that "(Allah has knowledge) of the (Prophet's) cry, "O my Lord! Truly these are people who will not believe! But turn away from them, and say "Peace!" But soon shall they know! " [Qur'an 43:89] Muhammad then attempted to establish himself in another important city in Arabia, Ta'if, but his effort failed and further brought him into physical danger. Muhammad returned back to Mecca. A Meccan man named Mut'im b. Adi provided safety for him so that he could re-enter his native city.[11] Muhammad used the opportunity provided by a large number of tribes visiting Mecca for bussiness or pilgrimage rituals at the Kabaa to look for a new home for himself and his followers. After several unsuccessful negotiations, he found hopes with some men from Yat̲h̲rib (later called Medina).[11] The Arab population of Yathrib were somewhat familiar with the monotheistic ideas because of existence of a Jewish community in that city.[11] For the novel by Salman Rushdie, see The Satanic Verses. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Kaaba or Kaaba, in the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah), is the holiest place in Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Isra and Miraj

Main article: Isra and Mi'raj

Muhammad's face is veiled, a practice in Islamic art of this genre.]] A 16th century Persian miniature painting celebrating Muhammads ascent into the Heavens, a journey known as the Miraj. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... Look up genre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The Al-Aqsa Mosque congregation building. The site from which Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have ascended to heaven.
The Al-Aqsa Mosque congregation building. The site from which Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have ascended to heaven.

Some time in 620, Muhammad told his followers that he had experienced the Isra and Miraj, a miraculous journey said to have been accomplished in one night along with Angel Gabriel. In the first part of the journey, the Isra, he is said to have travelled from Mecca to "the farthest mosque" (in Arabic: masjid al-aqsa), which Muslims usually identify with the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. In the second part, the Miraj, Muhammad is said to have toured heaven and hell, and spoken with earlier prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Ibn Ishaq, author of first biography of Muhammad, presents this event as a spiritual experience while later historians like Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir present it as a physical journey.[53] Those Muslims subscribing to the latter view consider the Foundation Stone under the Dome of the Rock to be the site from which Muhammad ascended to heaven on Buraq.[citation needed] Download high resolution version (1600x1050, 195 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1050, 195 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... Events Medina is converted to Islam. ... Isra is an Arabic word referring to what Muslims regard as Muhammads miraculous night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem - specifically, to the site of Masjid al-Aqsa - alluded to in Surat Al-Isra 1: سبحان الذي أسرى ب&#1593... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hell (disambiguation). ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Ibn Ishaq (or ibn Ishaq), (d. ... Sira redirects here. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... the Stone - south is towards the top of the image The Foundation Stone (Hebrew: אבן השתייה, translit. ... Buraq, mistakenly described as Mohammeds horse, was a creature described as being part griffin, eagle and horse. ...


Muhammad in Medina

Timeline of Muhammad
Important dates and locations in the life of Muhammad
c569 Death of his father, `Abd Allah
c570 Possible date of birth, April 20: Mecca
576 Death of Mother
578 Death of Grandfather
c583 Takes trading journeys to Syria
c595 Meets and marries Khadijah
610 First reports of Qur'anic revelation
c610 Appears as Prophet of Islam
c613 Begins spreading message of Islam publicly
c614 Begins to gather following in Mecca
c615 Emigration of Muslims to Ethiopia
616 Banu Hashim clan boycott begins
c618 Medinan Civil War
619 Banu Hashim clan boycott ends
619 The year of sorrows: Khadijah and Abu Talib die
c620 Isra and Miraj
622 Emigrates to Medina (Hijra)
624 Battle of Badr: Muslims defeat Meccans
624 Expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa
625 Battle of Uhud: Meccans defeat Muslims
625 Expulsion of Banu Nadir
626 Attack on Dumat al-Jandal (Syria)
627 Battle of the Trench
627 Destruction of Banu Qurayza
627 Subjugation of Dumat al-Jandal
628 Treaty of Hudaybiyya
c628 Gains access to Meccan shrine Kaaba
628 Conquest of the Khaybar oasis
629 First hajj pilgrimage
629 Attack on Byzantine empire fails: Battle of Mu'tah
630 Attacks and bloodlessly captures Mecca
c630 Battle of Hunayn
c630 Siege of Taif
630 Conquest of Mecca
c631 Rules most of the Arabian peninsula
c632 Attacks the Ghassanids: Tabuk
632 Farewell hajj pilgrimage
632 Death (June 8): Medina

Events The Nubian kingdom of Alodia is converted to Christianity, according to John of Ephesus. ... This limestone statue of a Boddhisattva was probably created in the Henan province of China around 570, in the Northern Qi Dynasty. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 576 ... Events Tiberius II Constantine succeeds Justin II as Byzantine Emperor Births Deaths July 30 - Jacob Baradaeus, bishop of Edessa October 5 - Justin II, Roman emperor Northern Zhou Wu Di, Chinese ruler John Malalas, Byzantine chronicler Categories: 578 ... Categories: 583 ... Events The first mention of the state of Karantania on monuments. ... Khadija (Arabic: &#1582;&#1583;&#1610;&#1580;&#1607; ) was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad and the first female convert to Islam, the new religion he had begun to preach. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... Surat al-Alaq, Iqra, or al-Qalam ( , The Clot / , Recite / , The Pen) is the 96th sura of the Quran. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Events Clotaire II reunites the Frankish kingdoms by ordering the murder of Sigebert II. Saint Columbanus founds the monastery of Bobbio in northern Italy. ... Events The Persian Empire under general Shahrbaraz captures and sacks Jerusalem; the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is damaged by fire and the True Cross is captured. ... Events The Edict of Paris grants extensive rights to the Frankish nobility. ... Events Eadbald succeeds Ethelbert as king of Kent. ... BanÅ« Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Avars attack Constantinople. ... The Avars attack Constantinople. ... Khadija (Arabic: &#1582;&#1583;&#1610;&#1580;&#1607; ) was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad and the first female convert to Islam, the new religion he had begun to preach. ... Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib (d. ... Events Medina is converted to Islam. ... Isra is an Arabic word referring to what Muslims regard as Muhammads miraculous night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem - specifically, to the site of Masjid al-Aqsa - alluded to in Surat Al-Isra 1: &#1587;&#1576;&#1581;&#1575;&#1606; &#1575;&#1604;&#1584;&#1610; &#1571;&#1587;&#1585;&#1609; &#1576;&#1593... Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... Events Justus becomes Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib Ali Amr ibn Hishām (aka AbÅ« Jahl) Abu Sufyan Strength 305-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ‎), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan... Events Justus becomes Archbishop of Canterbury. ... The Banu Qaynuqa (also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, Arabic: ) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Events October 27 - Pope Boniface V succeeded by Pope Honorius I. Births Adamnan, abbot of Iona Empress Wu Zetian of China Deaths Pope Boniface V Category: 625 ... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the... Events October 27 - Pope Boniface V succeeded by Pope Honorius I. Births Adamnan, abbot of Iona Empress Wu Zetian of China Deaths Pope Boniface V Category: 625 ... Banu Nadir (Arabic: ‎) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... ancient ruins. ... Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... The massacre of the Banu Qurayza. ... Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards Categories: 628 ... Treaty of Hudaybiyya (628) In the name of Allah. ... Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards Categories: 628 ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. ... Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards Categories: 628 ... Combatants Muslim army Jews of Khaybar oasis Commanders Muhammad  ? Strength 1,600  ? Casualties 16  ? The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (95 miles) from Medina in the north-western part... Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ... It has been suggested that Eastern Roman Empire be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Muslim Arabs Eastern Roman Empire Christian Arabs Commanders Zayd ibn Harithah † Jafar ibn Abu Talib † Abdullah ibn Rawahah † Khalid ibn al-Walid Heraclius Theodorus Shurahbil ibn Amr al-Ghassani Strength 3,000 (Ibn Qayyim)[4][5] 3,000 (Ibn Hajar)[6][5] 100,000 according to Muslim sources... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... The Battle of Hunayn is the name of a battle where the prophet Muhammad participiated in the year 630 CE. Categories: Military stubs | Islam-related stubs ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... The Siege of Taif is the name of a battle where the prophet Muhammad participiated in the year 630 CE. See also Islam Muhammad Categories: | | | ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims on the 10th day of Ramadan in the year 630 January AD ( 8 AH) [1] . In 628 the Meccan tribe of Quraish and the Muslim community in Medina... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... language|Arabic]]:الغساسنة) were [[Arab Christian|Arab it is assumed that the Ghassanids adopted the religion of Christianity from the native Aramaeans and Romans. ... Tabuk (also spelled Tabouk) is the capital city of the Tabuk province in north western Saudi Arabia. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Hijra to Medina

A delegation from Medina, consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina, invited Muhammad as a neutral outsider to Medina to serve as the chief arbitrator for the entire community.[54][55] There was fighting in Yathrib mainly involving its Arab and Jewish inhabitants for around a hundred years before 620.[54] The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims, especially after the battle of Bu'ath in which all the clans were involved, made it obvious to them that the tribal conceptions of blood-feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless "there was one man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases."[54] This article is about the event of hijra. ... The period when Muhammad in Medina started with the Migration to Medina in 622 and ended with the Conquest of Mecca in 630. ... The Battle of Buath was a large battle bettween the Jewish and Arab tribes of Medina. ... “Talion” redirects here. ...


By 622, Muhammad then emigrated to Medina, then known as Yathrib, a large agricultural oasis. This Hijra or emigration (traditionally translated into English as "flight") marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. The Muslim calendar counts dates from the Hijra, which is why Muslim dates have the suffix AH (After Hijra).[citation needed] Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oasis in the Libyan part of the Sahara For other uses, see Oasis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: گاه‌شماری هجري قمری ‎ Gāhshomāri-ye hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to...


Muhammad came to Medina as a mediator, invited to resolve the feud between the Arab factions of Aws and Khazraj.[citation needed] Medina was also home to a number of Jewish tribes, divided into three major clans: Banu Qaynuqa, Banu Qurayza and Banu Nadir, and some minor groups.[54] Among the things Muhammad did in order to settle down the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was drafting a document known as the Constitution of Medina (date debated), "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca, which specified the rights and duties of all citizens and the relationship of the different communities in Medina (including that of the Muslim community to other communities specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book").[54][55] AWS can mean: Abyss Web Server Ada Web Server Advanced Wireless Services Apple Workgroup Server Automatic Warning System for railway use. ... The Banu Khazraj (Arabic:?) was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammads era. ... The Banu Qaynuqa (also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, Arabic: ) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... The massacre of the Banu Qurayza. ... Banu Nadir (Arabic: ‎) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... The Constitution of Medina is the earliest known written constitution. ... The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ...


Beginnings of conflict

According to Bernard Lewis,[56]the Muslim group, who were economically uprooted, did not wish to be wholly dependent on the established Medina population. Medina and Mecca were at war, and raids on merchant caravans were seen as a natural and legitimate act of war. The raids put pressure on Mecca by blocking trade routes, with the ultimate goal of its submission to the new faith, and allowed the Muslim group to begin to acquire power, prestige and wealth.[56] In the raids the Muslims were taking the offensive; Muhammad was deliberately challenging and provoking the Meccans.[57]


In March of 624, Muhammad led some three hundred warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan. Near a place called Badr, the Meccans and the Muslims clashed. Though outnumbered more than three times (one thousand to three hundred - majority of Muslim historians put the exact total at 313) in the battle, the Muslims met with success, killing at least forty-five Meccans and taking seventy prisoners for ransom; only fourteen Muslims died.[58] The raiders won much booty, and the battle helped to stabilize the Medinan community.[59] From this period on, the Medinan verses of the Qur'an are very different from those of Mecca, dealing with practical problems of government, the distribution of booty, and other temporal matters.[60] The victory also made possible a reaction against the Jews and Christians, who were accused of falsifying their scriptures in order to conceal prophecies about Muhammad. Islam began to change; the new religion became more strictly Arab, and the conquest of Mecca became a religious duty.[61] A raid is a brief attack, normally performed by a small military force of commandos, or by irregulars. ... Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib Ali Amr ibn Hishām (aka Abū Jahl) Abu Sufyan Strength 305-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ‎), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan... A Muslim historian is a person that professes Islam and is engaged in the historical aspect of Islamization of knowledge. ...


After Khadija's death, Muhammad married the six-years old Aisha, the daughter of his friend Abu Bakr (who would later emerge as the first leader of the Muslims after Muhammad's death). In Medina, he married Hafsah, daughter of Umar (who would eventually become Abu Bakr's successor).[citation needed] Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic &#1575;&#1576;&#1608; &#1576;&#1603;&#1585; &#1575;&#1604;&#1589;&#1583;&#1610;&#1602;, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Hafsa bint Umar was the daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and wife of Muhammad. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ...


Muhammad's daughter Fatima married Ali, Muhammad's cousin. According to the Sunni, another daughter, Umm Kulthum, married Uthman. Each of these men, in later years, would emerge as successors to Muhammad and political leaders of the Muslims. Thus, all four caliphs were linked to Muhammad by marriage. Sunni Muslims regard these caliphs as the Rashidun, or Rightly Guided. (See Succession to Muhammad for more information on the controversy on the succession to the caliphate).[citation needed] This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Umm Kulthum (Arabic: أم كلثوم other English spellings include: Om Kalthoum, Oum Kalsoum, Oum Kalthum, Omm Kolsoum, Umm Kolthoum, Um Kalthoom) (c. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word &#1582;&#1604;&#1610;&#1601;&#1577; or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in both Sunni and Shia Islam to refer to the rightly guided Caliphs prophesised in the famous tradition, Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs (Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood). ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community, or ummah, after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ...


The conflict with Mecca

In 625 the Meccan leader Abu Sufyan marched on Medina with three thousand men. Urged on by younger Muslims fired up by the victory at Badr and against the advice of Abdallah ibn Ubayy to last out the attack inside the town, Muhammad led his force outside and fought the Battle of Uhud on March 23, that ended in a Muslim defeat (According to Watt however it was not a Muslim defeat from a military standpoint. The Meccans, thinking themselves of having Arabia under their control, had aimed to destroy Muslims completely. But they completely failed to achieve this aim. They killed 75 Muslims for the loss of 77 of their own in Badr.[62]) However, the Meccan did not occupy the town and withdrew to Mecca because they could not attack on Muhammad's position again for military loss, low morale and possibility of Muslim resistance in the town. There was also hope that Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy leading a group of Muslims in Medina could be won over by diplomacy.[63] In April 627, Abu Sufyan led another strong force against Medina, but couldn't overcome the defenders in the Battle of the Trench. Events October 27 - Pope Boniface V succeeded by Pope Honorius I. Births Adamnan, abbot of Iona Empress Wu Zetian of China Deaths Pope Boniface V Category: 625 ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was the leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, and was the chieftain of the entire Quraish tribe, making him one of, if not the most powerful men in Mecca during the lifetime of Muhammad. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy was a chief of some groups part of the Arab tribe Banu al-Khazraj at Medina (then known as Jathrib) and an opponent of Muhammad, who had undermined Abd-Allahs influence in that city. ... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Following the Muslims' victory at the Battle of the Trench, the Muslims were able, through conversion and conquest, to extend their rule to many of the neighboring cities and tribes.[citation needed]


Muhammad and the Jewish tribes of Medina

Main article: Muhammad and the Jews

After his migration to Medina, Muhammad's attitude towards Christians and Jews changed. Norman Stillman states: There are many written accounts of Muhammad having had contact with many Jews from tribes living in and arround Medina. ... N. Stillman Norman Arthur Stillman is the Schusterman-Josey Professor and Chair of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma. ...

During this fateful time, fraught with tension after the Hidjra [migration to Medina], when Muhammad encountered contradiction, ridicule and rejection from the Jewish scholars in Medina, he came to adopt a radically more negative view of the people of the Book who had received earlier scriptures. This attitude was already evolving in the third Meccan period as the Prophet became more aware of the antipathy between Jews and Christians and the disagreements and strife amongst members of the same religion. The Qur'an at this time claims that it will "relate [correctly] to the Children of Israel most of that about which they differ" ( XXVII, 76). The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ...

Jewish opposition "may well have been for political as well as religious reasons".[64]On religious grounds, the Jews were skeptical of the possibility of a non-Jewish prophet,[65] and also had concerns about possible incompatibilities between the Qur'an and their own scriptures.[65][66] The Qur'an's response regarding the possibility of a non-Jew being a prophet was that Abraham was not a Jew. The Qur'an also claimed that it was "restoring the pure monotheism of Abraham which had been corrupted in various, clearly specified, ways by Jews and Christians".[65] According to Peters, "The Jews also began secretly to connive with Muhammad's enemies in Mecca to overthrow him."[67] The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ...


After each major battle with the Medinans, Muhammad accused one of the Jewish tribes of treachery (see Surah 2:100) and attacked it. After Badr and Uhud, the Banu Qaynuqa and Banu Nadir, respectively, were expelled "with their families and possessions" from Medina. After the Battle of the Trench in 627, the Muslims accused the Jews of Banu Qurayza of conspiring with the Meccans, then exterminated the male members of the Banu Qurayza. The females and children were sold as slaves. [68] The Banu Qaynuqa (also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, Arabic: ) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Banu Nadir (Arabic: ‎) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The massacre of the Banu Qurayza. ...


Two types of explanations are given for Muhammad's treatment of the Jews of Medina: Theological and Political. The theological explanation given by some Arab historians and biographers is that:"the punishment of the Medina Jews, who were invited to convert and refused, perfectly exemplify the Quran's tales of what happened to those who rejected the prophets of old." Others offered a political explanation.[69] F.E. Peters, a western scholar of Islam, states that Muhammad's treatment of Jews of Medina was essentially political being prompted by what Muhammad read as treasonous and not some transgression of the law of God.[67] Peters adds that Muhammad was possibly emboldened by his military successes and also wanted to push his advantage. Economical motivations according to Peters also existed since the poorness of the Meccan migrants was a source of concern for Muhammad.[70] Peters argues that Muhammad's treatment of the Jews of Medina was "quite extraordinary", "matched by nothing in the Qur'an", and is "quite at odds with Muhammad's treatment of the Jews he encountered outside Medina."[67] Francis Edward Peters is Professor of Middle Eastern Studies, History, and Religion at New York University. ...


The truce of Hudaybiyya

Main article: Treaty of Hudaybiyya

Although Muhammad had already delivered verses [Qur'an 2:196-210] about the performing of Hajj, Muhammad and Muslims did not perform it due to the enmity of the Quraish. It was the month of Shawwal 6 A.H. when Muhammad saw in a vision that he was shaving his head after the Hajj.[71][72] Muhammad therefore decided to perform the Hajj in the following month. Hence around the 13th of March, 628 with 1400 Companions he went towards Mecca without the least intention of giving battle.[73] But the Quraish were determined to offer resistance to Muslims and they posted themselves outside Mecca, closing all access to the city.[73] In order to settle the dispute peacefully, Muhammad halted at a place called Hudaybiyya. Hence after series of talks a treaty was signed. The main points of treaty were the following: Treaty of Hudaybiyya (628) In the name of Allah. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... Shawwal is the tenth month on the Islamic calendar. ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ... Treaty of Hudaybiyya (628) In the name of Allah. ...

  1. The two parties and their allies should desist from hostilities against each other[74][75]
  2. Muhammad, should not perform Hajj this year[74][76]
  3. They may come next year to perform Hajj (unarmed) but shall not stay in Mecca for more than three days[74][76]
  4. Any Muslim living in Mecca cannot settle in Medina, but Medinan Muslims may come and join Meccans (and will not be returned).[77]

Many Muslims were not satisfied with the terms of the treaty. However, the Qur'anic sura "Al-Fath" (The Victory) (48:1-29) assured the Muslims that the expedition from which they were now returning must be considered a victorious one.[78][79] The Muslims did benefit following the treaty; the men of Mecca and Medina could now meet in peace and discuss Islam. Hence, during the following two years the community of Islam more than doubled.[80][81][82]


Muhammad's letters to the Heads of State

According to Muslim tradition, after the signing of the truce, Muhammad sent letters to many rulers of the world, asking them to convert to Islam.[83][84][85] Hence he sent messengers (with letters) to Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire (the eastern Roman Empire), Chosroes of Persia, the chief of Yemen and to some others.[83][84] Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... It has been suggested that Eastern Roman Empire be merged into this article or section. ... Khosrau, Khusrau, Khosru and also Khusraw (Kasrâ in Arabic; Chosroes or Chosroës in Greek) was the name of a mythical Persian leader, in the Avesta known as Kavi Haosravah, with the meaning with good reputation. A number of rulers of Persia and the Middle East were known by this... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Conquest of Mecca

The Kaaba in Mecca held a major economic and religious role for the area, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for Salat
The Kaaba in Mecca held a major economic and religious role for the area, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for Salat

The truce of Hudaybiyya had been enforced for two years.[86][87] The tribe of Khuz'aah had a friendly relationship with Muhammad, while on the other hand their enemies, the Banu Bakr, had an alliance with the Meccans.[86][88] A clan of the Bakr made a night raid against the Khuz'aah, killing a few of them.[86][88] The Meccans helped their allies (i.e., the Banu Bakr) with weapons and, according to some sources, a few Meccans also took part in the fighting.[86] After this event, Muhammad sent a message to Mecca with three conditions, asking them to accept one of them. These were the following[89] Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims on the 10th day of Ramadan in the year 630 January AD ( 8 AH) [1] . In 628 the Meccan tribe of Quraish and the Muslim community in Medina... The period when Muhammad in Medina started with the Conquest of Mecca in 630 and ended with the his death in 632. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Facing the Qibla at a prayer in Damascus The geometrical calculation of Qibla Qibla () is an Arabic word for the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Treaty of Hudaybiyya (628) In the name of Allah. ... The Banu Bakr ibn Abd Manat (Arabic:بنو بكر) were an Arabian tribe of the Hejaz region, in western Arabia. ...

  1. The Meccans were to pay blood-money for those slain among the Khuza'ah tribe, or
  2. They should have nothing to do with the Banu Bakr, or
  3. They should declare the truce of Hudaybiyya null.

The Meccans replied that they would accept only the third condition.[89] However, soon they realized their mistake and sent Abu Safyan to renew the Hudaybiyya treaty, but now his request was declined by Muhammad. Muhammad began to prepare for a campaign.[90] Blood money may refer to: Blood money, money paid to a next of kin of a murder victim as a fine weregild, in English history, reparational payment usually demanded of a person guilty of homicide or other wrongful death blood-money, the money earned for contract killing Blood Money, an...


In 630, Muhammad marched on Mecca with an enormous force, said to number more than ten thousand men. Most Meccans converted to Islam, and Muhammad subsequently destroyed all of the statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba, without any exception. Henceforth the pilgrimage would be a Muslim pilgrimage and the shrine was converted to a Muslim shrine.[citation needed] The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. ...


Conquest of Arabia

The capitulation of Mecca and the defeat of an alliance of enemy tribes at Hunayn effectively brought the greater part of the Arabian peninsula under Muhammad's authority. However, this authority was not enforced by a regular government, as Muhammad chose instead to rule through personal relationships and tribal treaties. The Muslims were clearly the dominant force in Arabia, and most of the remaining tribes and states hastened to convert to Islam.[citation needed] Combatants Muslims Hawaazin-Saqif coalition Commanders Muhammad Malik bin Awf Nasri Strength 12,000 20,000 The Battle of Hunayn is the name of a battle where the prophet Muhammad participiated in the year 8 AH. The formidable Bedouin tribes, the Hawaazin, the Saqif and various others pastured their flocks... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ...


Death

The Al-Masjid al-Nabawi is Islam's second most sacred site; the Green dome in the background stands above Muhammad's tomb
The Al-Masjid al-Nabawi is Islam's second most sacred site; the Green dome in the background stands above Muhammad's tomb

In 632 Muhammad fell ill and suffered for several days with head pain and weakness. He succumbed on Monday, June 8, 632, in the city of Medina. He is buried in his tomb (which previously was in his wife Aisha's house) which is housed within Mosque of the Prophet in Medina.[91] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 232 KB) Description : Masjid Nabawi. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 232 KB) Description : Masjid Nabawi. ... Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) The Mosque of the Prophet [IPA /mæsʤıd ænːæbæwı], in Medina, is the second holiest mosque in Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Al-Masjid al-Nabawi. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Al-Masjid al-Nabawi. ... Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (Arabic: المسجد النبوي ) or the Mosque of the Prophet, in Medina, is the second holiest mosque in Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Muhammad as a military leader

Main article: Muhammad as a general

For most of his life, Muhammad was a merchant, then a religious leader. He took up the sword late in his life. He was an active military leader for ten years. Muhammad, viewed by Muslims as the last prophet of Islam, was, amongst other things, a military leader during the last ten years of his life. ...


Family life

Main article: Muhammad's marriages

Muhammad's life is traditionally defined into two epochs: pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca, a city in northern Arabia, from the year 570 to 622 , and post-hijra in Medina, from 622 until his death in 632. All but two of his marriages were contracted after the migration to Medina. Muhammad (A.D. 570-632) is regarded by Muslims as the last prophet of God. ... The period of Muhammad before Medina started with his birth and ended in 622 with the Migration to Medina in 622. ... This limestone statue of a Boddhisattva was probably created in the Henan province of China around 570, in the Northern Qi Dynasty. ... Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... The period when Muhammad in Medina started with the Migration to Medina in 622 and ended with the Conquest of Mecca in 630. ... Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... This article is about the event of hijra. ...


He married 11 or 13 women depending upon the differing accounts of who his wives were. At the age of 25, Muhammad married Khadijah which lasted for 25 years.[92] This marriage is described as "long" and "happy," and he relied upon Khadija in many ways.[93][94] Muhammed did not enter into marriage with another woman during his marriage with Khadija. After her death, friends of Muhammad advised him to marry again, but he was reluctant to do so.[94][95] It was suggested to Muhammad by Khawla bint Hakim, that he should marry Sawda bint Zama, a Muslim widow, or Aisha. Muhammad is said to have asked her to arrange for him to marry both. Later, Muhammad married additional wives, most of them widows, to make for a total of eleven, of whom nine or ten survived him. Scholars such as Watt and Esposito hold that most of the marriages aimed at strengthening political ties (according to the Arabian custom) or providing a livelihood to widows (it was hard for widows to remarry in a culture that emphasized virgin marriages).[96][97] Khadija (Arabic: &#1582;&#1583;&#1610;&#1580;&#1607; ) was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad and the first female convert to Islam, the new religion he had begun to preach. ... Sawda bint Zama ibn Qayyis ibn Abd Shams (Arabic: سودة بنت زمعة, died 674) was a wife of Muhammad and one of the early converts to Islam. ... Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Professor John Esposito John Louis Esposito (born 19 May 1940, Brooklyn, New York City) is a professor of International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University. ...


The status of several of Muhammad's wives is disputed by scholars. Maria al-Qibtiyya may have been a slave, a freed slave, or a wife.[citation needed] While there is some debate about the age of Aisha (Ayesha), most references, including the Bukhari Hadith, put the marriage age at 5 or 6 and consummation of the marriage at the age of 9.[98][99][100] Maria al-Qibtiyya (Arabic: مارية القبطية) (alternatively, especially in non-Arabic traditions, Maria Qupthiya), or Maria the Copt, was a Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628 CE. According to most Islamic accounts, she was Muhammads wife. ...


Only two of Muhammad's wives bore him children. Khadijah is said to have borne him four daughters and two sons, though only one daughter, Fatima and her children survived her father. Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son, but the child died when he was ten months old. Some say that his daughter Zainab, mother to a daughter called Amma or Umama, survived him as well.[citation needed] Shi'a Muslims dispute the number of Muhammad's children, stating that he had only one daughter, and that the other "daughters" were step-daughters. This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad She is the daghter of Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, however, it is disputed if she is the daghter of Muhammad or Khadijahs assumed previous husband. ...


Descendants of Muhammad are known as sharifs شريف (plural: ِأشراف Ashraaf) or sayyid. Many rulers and notables in Muslim countries, past and present have professed such descent, with various degrees of credibility, such as the Fatimid dynasty of North Africa, the Idrisids, the current royal families of Jordan. In various Muslim countries, there are societies of varying credibility that authenticate claims of descent.[citation needed] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sayyid. ... Sayyid () (plural Saadah) is an honorific title often given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hassan and Husayn, who were the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and his cousin and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... Members of the British Royal Family This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ...


There is some dispute between Shia scholars regarding the genealogy of the four daughters of Khadija on whether they were born to Khadijah from her marriage to Muhammad, an earlier marriage, or if they were in fact the daughters of a widowed and dead sister of Khadija. Sunnis believe he had four daughters with Khadîjah. Shi'a accept Fatimah to be Muhammad's only surviving child,[citation needed] while some Sunni question that.[citation needed] Shi&#699;a Islam (Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%&#8211;35% of all Muslim. ... Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, had six children. ...


There is also a difference of opinion regarding whether he had two or four sons. The conflict arises from some reports on the sons of Khadijah mentioning two sons called Tahir and Tayyab,[citation needed] and another mentioning one called Abdullah who was also called Tahir and possibly also called Tayyab.[citation needed] Ibrâhîm was the only child borne to him by Maria during his residence in Medina and the last to be born. Abdullâh was born after he declared himself a prophet but died during his residence in Mecca. All his other sons died before his claims of prophecy. An only child is a child with no siblings, either biological or adopted. ...


In the Islamic prayer, Muslims end with the second tashahhud asking God to bless Muhammad and his descendants just as Abraham and his descendants were blessed. The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and...


Children of Khadijah:


Sons:

Daughters: Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad was the second son of Muhammad and Khadija. ... Qasim ibn Muhammad was the son of Muhammad. ...

Children of Maria: Ruqayyah is viewed as the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid by some Sunnis and some Shia but some Shia and non-Muslim argue she is the daughter of Khadijahs assumed previous husband (see Genealogy of Khadijas daughters). ... Daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad She is the daghter of Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, however, it is disputed if she is the daghter of Muhammad or Khadijahs assumed previous husband. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ...

Ibrahim ibn Muhammad (Arabic script إبرهيم بن محمد) was the male child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Maria al-Qibtiyya. ...

Companions

Main articles: Sahaba and Salaf

The term Sahaba (companion) refers to anyone who meets three criteria: to be a contemporary of Muhammad, to have heard Muhammad speak on at least one occasion, and to be a convert to Islam. Companions are considered the ultimate sources for the oral traditions, or hadith, on which much of Muslim law and practice are based. The following are a few examples in alphabetic order: In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article is on the group of early Muslims. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ...

Abdullah ibn Abbas (Arabic: عبد الله ابن عباس ) was a cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic &#1575;&#1576;&#1608; &#1576;&#1603;&#1585; &#1575;&#1604;&#1589;&#1583;&#1610;&#1602;, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Jundub ibn Junadah ibn Sakan (Arabic جُندب بن جَنادة), better known as Abu Dharr, Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, or Abu Tharr Al-Ghefari (Arabic أبو ذر الغفاري) was an early convert to Islam. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Bilal (Name): Means wetting, moistening in Arabic. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Miqdad is among the The Four Companions. ... With sword hanging from his neck, he set out straight away on his sinister errand. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Salman the Persian (Arabic سلمان الفارسي Salman Farisi, Persian Salman e Farsi) was one of the Prophet Muhammads companions. ... The murder of Uthman ibn Affan had become Talhahs tryst with destiny. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ... Abu Abdullah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam was a Sahabi, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ...

Muhammad the reformer

According to William Montgomery Watt, for Muhammad, religion was not a private and individual matter but rather “the total response of his personality to the total situation in which he found himself. He was responding [not only]... to the religious and intellectual aspects of the situation but also to the economic, social, and political pressures to which contemporary Mecca was subject."[101] Many Reforms took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammads mission and the rule of his four immediate successors. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ...


Bernard Lewis says that there are two important political traditions in Islam - one that views Muhammad as a statesman in Medina, and another that views him as a rebel in Mecca. He sees Islam itself as a type of revolution that greatly changed the societies into which the new religion was brought.[102] Prof. ...


Historians generally agree that Islamic social reforms in areas such as social security, family structure, slavery and the rights of women and children improved on what was present in existing Arab society.[102][103][104][105][106] For example, according to Lewis, Islam "from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents"[102] Social security primarily refers to a field of social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment, families with children and others. ...


Muhammad's message transformed the society and moral order of life in the Arabian Peninsula through reorientation of society as regards to identity, world view, and the hierarchy of values.[107] Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (pronounced ) meaning a look onto the world. ...


Economic reforms addressed the plight of the poor, which was becoming an issue in pre-Islamic Mecca.[108] The Qur'an requires payment of an alms tax (zakat) for the benefit of the poor,[109] and as Muhammad's position grew in power he demanded that those tribes who wanted to ally with him implement the zakat in particular.[110] Jahiliyyah is an Islamic concept referring to the spiritual condition of pre-Islamic Arabian society. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ...


Miracles in the Muslim biographies

While, according to historian Denis Gril, the Qur'an does not overtly describe Muhammad performing miracles,[111] and Muhammad did not claim to have done so,[11] Muslim tradition credits Muhammad with several supernatural events.[112] For example, many Muslim commentators and some western scholars have interpreted the Surah 54:1-2 to refer to Muhammad splitting the Moon in view of the Quraysh when they had begun to persecute his followers.[111][113] This tradition has inspired many Muslim poets, especially in India.[11] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


Modern Muslim biographies of Muhammad more often portray him as a progressive social and political reformer, successful military leader and model of human virtue.[114] According to Carl Ernst, Muslims began to deemphasize superhuman views of Muhammad following the growth of scientific rationalism in Muslim countries.[115] Daniel Brown adds that Muslims of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, faced with social and political turmoil and the challenge of reforming Islamic law, began looking to Muhammad's life for examples which might more practically address these problems.[114] Carl W. Ernst is a scholar of Islamic studies. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ...


Traditional views of Muhammad

Seal of the prophets

Wazir Khan Mosque (16th century) Fresco painting with floral designs surrounding the words "Allah" and "Muhammad" in blue. Inscribed inside the names are Qur'anic verses; the one inside the word "Allah" is the Ayat-ul-Kursi and the one inscribed inside the word "Muhammad" asserts that Muhammad is the last prophet.
Topkapi Palace gate with Shahadah and his seal. The Muslim Profession of faith, the Shahada, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad - "There is no god (ʾilāh) but God(Allāh), and Muhammad is His Messenger."
Topkapi Palace gate with Shahadah and his seal. The Muslim Profession of faith, the Shahada, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad - "There is no god (ʾilāh)[116] but God(Allāh), and Muhammad is His Messenger."

Muslims believe Muhammad to be the last in a line of prophets of God (Arabic Allah) and regard his mission as one of restoring the original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and other prophets of Islam that had become altered by man over time.[10][11][12] The Qur'an specifically refers to Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets", which is taken by most Muslims to believe him to be the last of the prophets.[117][18] Welch however holds that this Muslim belief is most likely a later interpretation of the Seal of the Prophets.[11] Carl Ernst considers this phrase to mean that Muhammad's "imprint on history is as final as a wax seal on a letter".[18] Wilferd Madelung states that the meaning of this term is not certain.[118] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Wazir Khan Mosque Beautiful fresco painting with floral designs surrounding the words Allah and Muhammad in blue. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Wazir Khan Mosque Beautiful fresco painting with floral designs surrounding the words Allah and Muhammad in blue. ... The Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan, is famous for its extensive faience tile work. ... The Throne Verse (Arabic: آية الكرسى ), is ayah 255 of the second sura, Al-Baqara, and is widely memorized and displayed in the Islamic world. ... Seal of the Prophets (ar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), located in Istanbul (Constantinople), was the administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1465 to 1853. ... Profession, in Christian monasticism, is the act of embracing the religious state by the three vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience according to the rule of a canonically approved religious order; it involves then a triple vow made to God, and binding oneself to the rule of a certain order. ... There is also a town called Sh&#257;h&#257;da, which is now in Nandurb&#257;r district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... Tahrif (Arabic: ‎ corruption, forgery; the stem-II verbal noun of the consonantal root , to make oblique) is an Arabic term used by Muslims with regard to words, and more specifically with regard to what Jews and Christians are supposed to have done to their respective Scriptures. ... Seal of the Prophets (ar. ... Alford T. Welch is a Professor of Religious Studies at Michigan State University. ... Seal of the Prophets (ar. ... Carl W. Ernst is a scholar of Islamic studies. ... Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ...


Depictions of Muhammad

Muslims differ as to whether or not visual depictions of Muhammad are permissible. The position of the four main Sunni Muslim Maddhabs is that, to prevent idolatry and shirk, visual depictions of Muhammad are forbidden; some non-maddhab groups, such as the Salafi movement, take a similar line.[119] Depictions of Muhammad, drawings of Muhammad are often contentious. ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ...


The Shia and others have historically taken a much less restrictive view, allowing depictions praising Muhammad, while a school of Sufi'ism uses calligraphy of the name of Muhammad, Ali, Hussein and other important people in Muslim History to create their images.[120] Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ...


Muslim veneration of Muhammad

See also: Muslim veneration for Muhammad, Naat, Depiction of Muhammad, Islamic music, and Qawwali
Muhammad's name, engraved in gold, adorns the walls of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Originally a Christian church, it was converted into a mosque after the Fall of Constantinople.

It is traditional for Muslims to illustrate and express love and veneration for Muhammad. This is observed in a number of different ways. When Muslims say or write Muhammad's name, they usually follow it with Peace be upon him or its Arabic equivalent, sallalahu alayhi wasallam, and for Shias this is extended to Peace be upon him and his descendants. In English this is often abbreviated to "(pbuh)", "(saw)" and "pbuh&hd" for Shias, or even just simply as "p". The Quran gave him the title Apostle of God (Arabic: Rasul-Allah or Rasulallah), which has also been used by Muslims, as well as the title "Prophet". Concerts of Muslim, and especially Sufi, devotional music include songs praising Muhammad. There are religious songs Nasheeds which regularly praise Muhammad. Muslims have many ways to express veneration for the prophet Muhammad. ... A Naat (Persian: نعت ) is poetry that specifically praises the prophet Muhammad. ... Depictions of Muhammad, the Islamic prophet, can be a contentious matter. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Qawwali (Urdu: قوٌالی, Hindi: क़वाली) is the devotional music of the Sufis of the Indian sub-continent. ... Image File history File links MuhammadNameInHagiaSophia. ... Image File history File links MuhammadNameInHagiaSophia. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Loukas Notaras Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] - The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine capital by... Peace be upon him (Arabic: صلى الله عليه وسلم ;ï·º; salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam, also transliterated as sallalahu aleyhi wasallam) is a phrase that Muslims are required to say after mentioning the name of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Jesus Christ, Abraham and all the other prophets cited in the Quran. ... Primarily used with reference to Prophet Mohamed - Peace be upon him In some cases it is also used in conjunction with female deities to mean Peace Be Upon Her. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic &#1578;&#1589;&#1608;&#1601; tas&#803;awwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... A devotional song is a hymn which accompanies religious observences and rituals. ... Nasheeds (Arabic: أناشيد) are Islamic-oriented songs. ...


Conversely, criticism of Muhammad is often equated with blasphemy, which is punishable by death in Pakistan.[121] This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Christian and Western views of Muhammad

While Muslim tradition tended to glorify Muhammad, Western tradition has at times denigrated and vilified him.[122][123] this is a sub-article to Non-Islamic views of Muhammad This article is concerned with the historical changes and development of the Christian view of Muhammad. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, for many a symbol of the changes of the Western culture during the Renaissance Western culture or Western civilization is a term used to refer to the cultures of the people of European origin and their descendants. ...


Popular image of Muhammad in medieval times

In the 12th century, Chansons de geste that mentioned Muhammad presented him as an idol to whom Muslims prayed for aid in battle.[11][124] Some medieval Christians said he had died in 666, alluding to the number of the beast, instead of 632.[125]; others changed his name from Muhammad to Mahound, the "devil incarnate".[126] Bernard Lewis writes "The development of the concept of Mahound started with considering Muhammad as a kind of demon or false god worshipped with Apollyon and Termangant in an unholy trinity."[127] To discredit Islam, Muhammad was represented as an idol or one of the heathen gods during the first and second Crusade.[11] (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... This article is about the year AD 666. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Prof. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Apollyon appears in the New Testament (Book of Revelation 9:7 – 11) leading the locust-like swarm of demons that will be released in the End Times: 7. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ...


Later medieval representations

From the middle of the 13th century, mentions of Muhammad in vernacular chivalric romance literature begin to appear. A poem represents Muhammad as "someone in bondage. Through his cleverly contrived marriage to the widow of his former master, he not only attains his freedom and wealth but also knows how to cover up his epileptic attacks as phenomena accompanying visitations of angels and to pose as a new messenger of God's will through deceitful machinations."[11] From this period is Scala Mahomete, a translation of an Arabic text, largely without Christian evaluations.[11] In a polemical tone, Livre dou Tresor represents Muhammad as a former monk and cardinal.[11] Dante's The Divine Comedy (Canto XXVIII), puts Muhammad, together with Ali, in Hell "among the sowers of discord and the schismatics, being lacerated by devils again and again."[11] As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... The Divine Comedy (Italian: Commedia, later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio), written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321, is widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature, and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature ever. ... 28 (twenty-eight) is the natural number following 27 and preceding 29. ... For other uses, see Hell (disambiguation). ...


Early modern times

After the reformation, Muhammad was no longer viewed as a god or idol, but as a cunning, ambitious, and self-seeking impostor.[128][11] The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


Guillaume Postel was among the first to present a more positive view of Muhammad.[11] Boulainvilliers described Muhammad as a gifted political leader and a just lawmaker.[11] Leibniz praised Muhammad because "he did not deviate from the natural religion".[11] Guillaume Postel Guillaume Postel (1510 - 1581), was a French linguist, astronomer, Cabbalist, diplomat, professor, and religious universalist. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ...


Modern times

Friedrich Bodenstedt (1851) describes Muhammad as "an ominous destroyer and a prophet of murder"[11]


According to Watt and Richard Bell, recent writers have generally dismissed the idea that Muhammad deliberately deceived his followers, arguing that Muhammad “was absolutely sincere and acted in complete good faith”.[129] Watt says that sincerity does not directly imply correctness: In contemporary terms, Muhammad might have mistaken for divine revelation his own unconscious.[130]Although Muhammad's image in the west is much less unfavorable than in the past, prejudicial folk beliefs remain.[131] William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ...


Watt and Lewis argue that viewing Muhammad as a self-seeking imposter makes it impossible to understand the development of Islam.[132][133] Welch holds that Muhammad able to be so influential and successful because of his firm belief in his vocation.[134] Muhammad’s readiness to endure hardship for his cause when there seemed to be no rational basis for hope shows his sincerity.[135] William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Prof. ... Alford T. Welch is a Professor of Religious Studies at Michigan State University. ...


Other religious traditions in regard to Muhammad

  • The Druze, who accept most but not all Qur'anic revelations, also consider him a prophet.
  • Bahá'ís venerate Muhammad as one of a number of prophets or "Manifestations of God", but consider his teachings to have been superseded by those of Bahá'u'lláh.

Religions Druzism Scriptures Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; Hebrew: , Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís, in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is the religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... The Baháí Faith refers to what are commonly called prophets as Manifestations of God, or simply Manifestations (mazhar) who are directly linked with the concept of Progressive revelation. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ...

See also

There were several Tribes of Arabia during Muhammads era. ... Depictions of Muhammad, drawings of Muhammad are often contentious. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... (Arabic , plural حنفاء) is an Arabic term that refers to pre-Islamic non-Jewish nor Christian Arabian monotheists. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Muslims have many ways to express veneration for Muhammad, as an acknowledgement of him being the final prophet of Islam. ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... Several informative movies and documentaries have been made about Muhammad, who is considered the final prophet of Islam by Muslims. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The following figures are believed to have founded or inspired major beliefs or to have been the first codifiers or best known proponents of older known religion or traditions. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ... Muezza was the Prophet Muhammads favorite cat. ... Muhammad (A.D. 570-632) is regarded by Muslims as the last prophet of God. ... Muhammad is regarded by Muslims as the last prophet of God. ... For the river and also village in Norway named Sira, see Sira, Norway. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th Century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art". In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 1–24. Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23-28, 1999, p. 7
  2. ^ click here  for the Arabic pronunciation.
  3. ^ Variants of Muhammad's name in French: "Mahon, Mahomés, Mahun, Mahum, Mahumet"; in German: "Machmet"; and in Old Icelandic: "Maúmet" cf Muhammad, Encyclopedia of Islam
  4. ^ Welch, noting the frequency of Muhammad being called as "Al-Amin"(Arabic: الأمين ), a common Arab name, suggests the possibility of "Al-Amin" being Muhammad's given name as it is a masculine form from the same root as his mother's name, A'mina. cf. "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam Online; The sources frequently say that he, in his youth, was called by the nickname "Al-Amin" meaning "Honest, Truthful" cf. Ernst (2004), p.85.
  5. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977) writes that "It is appropriate to use the word 'God' rather than the transliteration 'Allah'. For one thing it cannot be denied that Islam is an offshoot of the Judaeo-Christians tradition, and for another the Christian Arabs of today have no other word for 'God' than 'Allah'." cf p.32.
  6. ^ See:
    • Esposito (1998), p.12
    • Esposito (2002b), pp.4–5
    • F. E. Peters (2003), p.9
  7. ^ a b c d Encyclopedia of World History (1998), p.452
  8. ^ The word "islām" derives from the triconsonantal Arabic root sīn-lām-mīm, which carries the basic meaning of safety and peace. The verbal noun "islām" is formed from the verb aslama, a derivation of this root which means to accept, surrender, or submit; thus, 'Islam' effectively means submission to and acceptance of God. See: Islam#Etymology and meaning
  9. ^ 'Islam' is always referred to in the Qur'an as a 'dīn', a word that means 'way' or 'path' in Arabic, but is usually translated in English as 'religion' for the sake of convenience
  10. ^ a b Esposito (1998), p.12; (1999) p.25; (2002) pp.4-5
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam Online
  12. ^ a b Peters (2003), p.9
  13. ^ After Muhhammad's migration to Yathrib, the city came to be known as Madina al-Nabi, lit. 'City of the Prophet'; hence, the name Medina
  14. ^ The term Qur'an was first used in the Qur'an itself. There are two different theories about this term and its formation that are discussed in Quran#Etymology cf. "Qur'an", Encyclopedia of Islam Online.
  15. ^ Le Prophète Mahomet. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved on 03-02-2007.
  16. ^ Dan McCormack. Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved on August 14, 2006.
  17. ^ There are reports of other Arabs before Muhammad who were named "Muhammad"(e.g. Ibn Sa'd). Welch (cf. "Muhammad", "Encyclopedia of Islam") accepts usage of the name "Muhammad" among Arabs but also points out that these reports have a tendentious nature. For example Ibn Sa'd's report has the heading, "Account of those who were named Muhammad in the days of the jahilliya[Pre-Islamic Arabia] in the hope of being called to prophethood which had been predicted."
  18. ^ a b c Ernst (2004), p.80
  19. ^ Welch (cf. "Muhammad","Encyclopedia of Islam") holds that "Al-Amin" was a common Arab name and further suggest that al-Amin might have been Muhammad's give name, a masculine form from the same root as his mother's name, Āmina.
  20. ^ Esposito(1998), p.6
  21. ^ "caliph." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  22. ^ a b Reeves (2003), p.6-7
  23. ^ a b c d Islam, S. A. Nigosian, p.6 , Indiana University Press
  24. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Muhammad
  25. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p.32
  26. ^ F. E. Peters, The Quest for Historical Muhammad, International Journal of Middle East Studies (1991) p.291-315
  27. ^ Donner (1998), p.132
  28. ^ Lewis (1993), pp.33-34
  29. ^ Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum: The Lineage and Family of Muhammad by Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri
  30. ^ See also 43:31 cited in EoI; Muhammad
  31. ^ a b c William Montgomery Watt(1974), p.7
  32. ^ By Mufti Taqi Usmani
  33. ^ Allameh Tabatabaei, A glance at the life of the holy prophet of Islam, p.20
  34. ^ Josef W. Meri (2005), p.525
  35. ^ a b William Montgomery Watt(1974), p.8
  36. ^ a b Chris Charles Park(1994), p.266
  37. ^ William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman, p.8
  38. ^ a b Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2005), v.3, p.1025
  39. ^ Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th Century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art". In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 1–24. Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23-28, 1999, p. 3
  40. ^ F.E.Peters(2003), p. 54
  41. ^ Jonathan M. Bloom, Sheila S. Blair (2002), p. 28-29
  42. ^ Brown (2003), pp.72-73
  43. ^ Brown (2003), pp.73-74
  44. ^
  45. ^ a b William Montgomery Watt (1953), p. 86
  46. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p.36
  47. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p.36
  48. ^ Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Slaves and Slavery
  49. ^ Bilal b. Rabah, Encyclopedia of Islam
  50. ^ Hourani (2003), p.17
  51. ^ Some early Islamic histories recount that as Muhammad was reciting Sūra Al-Najm (Q.53), as revealed to him by the angel Gabriel, Satan tempted him to utter the following lines after verses 19 and 20 :"Have you thought of Allāt and al-'Uzzā and Manāt the third, the other; These are the exalted Gharaniq, whose intercession is hoped for. (Allāt, al-'Uzzā and Manāt were three goddesses worshiped by the Meccans). These histories then say that these 'Satanic Verses' were shortly afterward repudiated by Muhammad at the behest of the angel Gabriel. cf Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume p.166. Academic scholars such as William Montgomery Watt and Guillaume argued for its authenticity while scholars such as Caetani and Burton rejected the tradition.
  52. ^ cf. Encyclopedia of Islam, Muhammad
  53. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003), p.482
  54. ^ a b c d e The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 39
  55. ^ a b
  56. ^ a b Bernard Lewis (1993), p. 41.
  57. ^ Watt, Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman, Oxford University Press, 1961, page 105.
  58. ^ Glubb (2002), pp.179-186.
  59. ^ Lewis, "The Arabs in History," page 44.
  60. ^ ibid.
  61. ^ ibid, pages 44-45.
  62. ^ Watt (1974) p.140
  63. ^ Watt (1974) p.141
  64. ^ Endress (2003), p.29
  65. ^ a b c The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), pp.43-44
  66. ^ Cohen (1995), p.23
  67. ^ a b c F.E.Peters(2003), p.194
  68. ^ Esposito (1998), pp.10-11
  69. ^ F.E.Peters(2003), p.77
  70. ^ F.E.Peters(2003), p.76-78
  71. ^ Khan (1998), p.242
  72. ^ Lings (1987), p.249
  73. ^ a b Khan (1998), p.243
  74. ^ a b c Lings (1987), p.253
  75. ^ Haykal (1995), p.353
  76. ^ a b Khan (1998), p.245
  77. ^ Khan (1998), p.246
  78. ^ Lings (1987), p.255
  79. ^ Khan (1998), p.247
  80. ^ Lings (1987), p.259
  81. ^ Khan (1998), p.248
  82. ^ Haykal (1995), p.356
  83. ^ a b Lings (1987), p. 260
  84. ^ a b Khan (1998), pp.250-251
  85. ^ Haykal (1995), p. 360
  86. ^ a b c d Khan (1998), p.274
  87. ^ Lings (1987), p.291
  88. ^ a b Lings (1987), p.291
  89. ^ a b Khan (1998), pp.274-275
  90. ^ Lings (1987), p.292
  91. ^ Leila Ahmed (Summer 1986). "Women and the Advent of Islam". Signs 11: 665 - 691 (686). Retrieved on 2007-06-19. 
  92. ^ Esposito (1998), p.18
  93. ^ Bullough (1998), p.119
  94. ^ a b Reeves (2003), p.46
  95. ^ Bullough (1998), p.119
  96. ^ Watt, M "Aisha bint Abi Bakr". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  97. ^ Esposito (1998), pp. 16-18
  98. ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 8, Number 3310
  99. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 62, Number 64
  100. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 62, Number 88
  101. ^ Cambridge History of Islam (1970), p.30
  102. ^ a b c Lewis, Bernard. "Islamic Revolution", The New York Review of Books, January 21, 1998. 
  103. ^ Watt (1974), p.234
  104. ^ Robinson (2004) p.21
  105. ^ Esposito (1998), p. 98
  106. ^ "Ak̲h̲lāḳ", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
  107. ^ Islamic ethics, Encyclopedia of Ethics
  108. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p.34
  109. ^ Esposito (1998), p.30
  110. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p.52
  111. ^ a b Denis Gril, Miracles, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
  112. ^ A.J. Wensinck, Muʿd̲j̲iza, Encyclopedia of Islam
  113. ^ Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Moon
  114. ^ a b Brown (1999), p.65
  115. ^ Ernst (2004), p.84
  116. ^ Ilah is also translated as Deity, and means god in the sense of where there can be more than one, in plural, like the Roman gods, Allah, on the other hand, can be translated as 'The God', and can only mean God where there is one, alone
  117. ^ For further information on the meaning of the term, See Friedmann, 'Finality of Prophethood'; G.G. Stroumsa, 'Seal of the prophets: The Nature of a Manichaen Metaphor', JSAI, 7 (1986), 61-74; C.Colpe, 'Das Siegel der Propheten', Orientalia Suecana, 33-5 (1984-6), 71-83, revised version in C.Colpe, Das Siegel der Propheten, (Berlin, 1990), 227-43
  118. ^ Madelung (2004), p.17
  119. ^ BBC News: Q&A: Depicting the Prophet Muhammad. BBC News
  120. ^ Associated Press: Islam Forbids Visual Depiction of Muhammad
  121. ^ See, e.g., Pakistani Penal Code, Act III of 1986, s 295-C and 298-C.
  122. ^ Esposito (1998), p.14 "
  123. ^ Watt (1974), p.231.
  124. ^ Some other sources depicting Muhammad as an idol:
    • Cycle de Guillaume d'Orange
    • Willehalm of Wolfram von Eschenbach
    • History of Ulrich von dem Türlin
    • Rennewart of Ulrich von Türheim
    • Stricker's Karl der Große
    • Karlamagnus saga
    • Partonopier und Meliur of Konrad of Würzburg
  125. ^ Göran Larsson, Ibn Garcia's Shu'Ubiyya Letter: Ethnic and Theological Tensions in Medieval Al-Andalus, Brill Academic Publishers, p.87
  126. ^ Reeves (2003), p.3
  127. ^ Lewis (2002) p.45
  128. ^ Lewis (2002) p.45
  129. ^ Watt, Bell (1995) p. 18
  130. ^ Watt, Muhammad Prophet and Statesman, p.17
  131. ^ Watt (1974) p.231.
  132. ^ Watt, The Cambridge history of Islam, p.37
  133. ^ Bernard W Lewis (1993), The Arabs in History, p. 45
  134. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Muhammad
  135. ^ Watt, Muhammad the prophet and the statesman, p.232

Image File history File links Ar-muhammad. ... The Arabic language has a standard pronunciation, which is basically the one used to recite the Quran. ... Alford T. Welch is a Professor of Religious Studies at Michigan State University. ... The stylized signature of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arab Christians are people who are ethnically Arab or culturally and linguistically Arabized and who follow the religion of Christianity. ... In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic languages, a triliteral is a root containing a sequence of three consonants. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... (س Ù„ Ù…) is the triconsonantal root of many Arabic words, and many of those words are used as names. ... A verbal noun is a noun formed directly as an inflexion of a verb or a verb stem, sharing at least in part its constructions. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qur&#702;&#257;n &#1571;&#1614;&#1604;&#1618;&#1602;&#1615;&#1585;&#1570;&#1606;; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... The new buildings of the library. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Alford T. Welch is a Professor of Religious Studies at Michigan State University. ... Alford T. Welch is a Professor of Religious Studies at Michigan State University. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Indiana University, founded in 1820, is a nine-campus university system in the state of Indiana. ... The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ... The International Journal of Middle East Studies is a scholarly journal published by the Middle East Studies Association of North America. ... Saifur Rahman (Bengali: ) is a Bangladeshi politician, and the current Finance Minister of Bangladesh. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Encyclopedia of Quran (EQ) is an scholarly work published by Brill Academic Publishers. ... The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ... For the novel by Salman Rushdie, see The Satanic Verses. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Guillaume, French for William, may refer to: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Gaetani, or Caetani, the name of the oldest of the Roman princely families which played a great part in the history of the city and of the papacy. ... Burton can mean: // People Burton, Adam aka Maxwell Atoms, U.S. comics creator Burton, Alexander Stewart, Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross Burton, Amanda (born 1957), Irish actress Burton, Beryl (1937-1996), English racing cyclist Burton, Bob, Australian journalist Burton, Brandie (born 1972), U.S. professional golfer Burton, Brian aka... Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society is a feminist journal. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... The Encyclopedia of Ethics is a scholarly work with the original focus on ethical theory. ... Encyclopedia of Quran (EQ) is an scholarly work published by Brill Academic Publishers. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Encyclopedia of Quran (EQ) is an scholarly work published by Brill Academic Publishers. ... In Islamic context, an Ilah is the concept of a deity, lord or god and does not necessarily refer to Allah. ... The Revised Version (or English Revised Version) of the Bible is a late 19th-century British revision of the King James Version of 1611. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criminal Code. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ... Brill Academic Publishers (known as E. J. Brill in Leiden) is a publishing house which specialises in academic literature regarding Middle Eastern, Asian, Arabic, and Turkish cultures. ...

References

  • Accad, Martin (2003). "The Gospels in the Muslim Discourse of the Ninth to the Fourteenth Centuries: An Exegetical Inventorial Table (Part I)". Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 14 (1). 
  • Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th Century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art". In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 1–24. Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23-28, 1999.
  • Arafat, W. N. (1976). "Did Prophet Muhammad ordered 900 Jews killed?". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (JRAS): 100-107. 
  • Bloom, Jonathan; Blair, Sheila (2002). Islam: A Thousand Years of Faith and Power. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09422-1. 
  • Brown, Daniel (2003). A New Introduction to Islam. Blackwell Publishing Professional. ISBN 978-0631216049. 
  • Brown, Daniel (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65394-0. 
  • Bullough, Vern; Brenda Shelton, Sarah Slavin (1998). The Subordinated Sex: A History of Attitudes Toward Women. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0820323695. 
  • Cohen, Mark R. (1995). Under Crescent and Cross, Reissue edition, Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691010823. 
  • Crow, Karim (2005). Facing One Qiblah: Legal and Doctrinal Aspects of Sunny and Shi'ah Muslims. Ibex Publishers. ISBN 9971-77-552-2. 
  • Donner, Fred (1998). Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing. Darwin Press. ISBN 0-87850-127-4. 
  • Endress, Gerhard (2003). Islam. New Age Books. ISBN 978-8178221564. 
  • Ernst, Carl (2004). Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-5577-4. 
  • Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511233-4. 
  • Esposito, John (1999). The Islamic Threat: Myth Or Reality?. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513076-6. 
  • Esposito, John (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0195125597. 
  • Esposito, John (2002). What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515713-3. 
  • Glubb, John Bagot (1970 (reprint 2002)). The Life and Times of Muhammad. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-8154-1176-6. 
  • Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1995). The Life of Muhammad. Islamic Book Service. ISBN 1-57731-195-7. 
  • Holt, P. M.; Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis (1977). The Cambridge History of Islam (Paperback). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521291354. 
  • Hourani, Albert (2003). A History of the Arab Peoples, Revised edition, Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0674010178. 
  • Ishaq, Ibn (2002). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0196360331. 
  • Khan, Majid Ali (1998). Muhammad The Final Messenger. Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 110002 (India). ISBN 81-85738-25-4. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (2002). The Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280310-7. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1992). Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An History Enquiry, Reprint edition, Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0195053265. 
  • Lings, Martin (1987). Muhammad: His Life Based on Earliest Sources. Inner Traditions International, Limited. ISBN 0-89281-170-6. 
  • Madelung, William (2004). The Succession to Muhammad. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521561815. 
  • Muir, William (1878). Life of Mahomet. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-7741-6. 
  • Neusner, Jacob (2003). God's Rule: The Politics of World Religions. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-0878409105. 
  • Peters, F. E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11553-2. 
  • Reeves, Minou (2003). Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0814775646. 
  • Robinson, David (2004). Muslim Societies in African History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052153366X. 
  • Schimmel, Annemarie (1992). Islam: An Introduction. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1327-6. 
  • Schimmel, Annemarie (1995). Mystische Dimensionen des Islam. Insel, Frankfurt. ISBN 3458334157. 
  • Stark, Rodney (2003). For the Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations, Science, Witch-Hunts, and the End of Slavery. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11436-6. 
  • Tucker, Judith E.; Nashat, Guity (1999). Women in the Middle East and North Africa. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21264-2. 
  • Warraq, Ibn (1995). Why I Am Not a Muslim. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0879759844. 
  • Watt, W. Montgomery (1961). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4. 
  • Watt, W. Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, New Edition, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4. .

Encyclopedias

  • Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. (2005). Ed. William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian. Berkshire Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0974309101. 
  • Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World. (2003). Ed. Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028656038. 
  • Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  • Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd edition). (2005). Ed. Lindsay Jones. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028657332. 
  • Encyclopedia of the Qur'an. (2005). Ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-9004123564. 
  • Encyclopedia of World History. (199). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198602235. 
  • The New Encyclopedia Britannica (Rev Ed edition). (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica, Incorporated. ISBN 978-1593392369. 

Motto (French) Ik zal handhaven(Dutch) I shall stand fast1 Anthem Het Wilhelmus Netherlands() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Amsterdam2 Official languages Dutch3 Recognised regional languages Low Saxon, Limburgish Ethnic groups  80. ... Daniel Brown (born 12th September 1980) is an English footballer currently playing for Cambridge United in the Nationwide Conference. ... Daniel Brown (born 12th September 1980) is an English footballer currently playing for Cambridge United in the Nationwide Conference. ... Vern Leroy Bullough (July 24, 1928 – June 21, 2006) was an American historian and sexologist. ... For the Pennsylvania politician, see Mark B. Cohen. ... Fred M. Donner is an Islamic scholar, professor of Near East Studies at the University of Chicago. ... Carl W. Ernst is a scholar of Islamic studies. ... Professor John Esposito John Louis Esposito (born 19 May 1940, Brooklyn, New York City) is a professor of International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University. ... Professor John Esposito John Louis Esposito (born 19 May 1940, Brooklyn, New York City) is a professor of International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University. ... Professor John Esposito John Louis Esposito (born 19 May 1940, Brooklyn, New York City) is a professor of International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University. ... Professor John Esposito John Louis Esposito (born 19 May 1940, Brooklyn, New York City) is a professor of International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University. ... Sir John Bagot Glubb, better known as Glubb Pasha (16 April 1897 &#8211; 17 March 1986), was a British soldier best known for commanding Transjordans Arab Legion 1939-1956. ... Muhammad Husayn Haykal (Arabic: ) ) was an Egyptian writer, journalist, politician and a former minister of Education in Egypt. ... Prof. ... Albert Habib Hourani (March 31, 1915 – January 17, 1993) was a prominent scholar of Middle Eastern history through much of the 20th century. ... Ibn Ishaq (or ibn Ishaq), (d. ... Prof. ... Prof. ... Martin Lings Martin Lings (Abu Bakr Siraj Ad-Din) (January 24, 1909 – May 12, 2005) was a lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon and a British scholar of Sufism. ... Sir William Muir (April 27, 1819–1905), was a Scottish Orientalist. ... Jacob Neusner (born July 28, 1932, Hartford, Connecticut) is an influential as well as controversial academic scholar of Judaism, and the most prolific. ... F.E. Peters is Professor of Middle Eastern Studies, History, and Religion at New York University. ... David Robinson may refer to: david robinson former Irish Army soldier David Robinson (basketball), former NBA player (b. ... Annemarie Schimmel (April 7, 1922 - January 26, 2003) was a well known and very influential German Iranologist and scholar who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism. ... Annemarie Schimmel (April 7, 1922 - January 26, 2003) was a well known and very influential German Iranologist and scholar who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism. ... Rodney Stark is an American sociologist of religion. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Encyclopedia of Quran (EQ) is an scholarly work published by Brill Academic Publishers. ...

Further reading

  • Adil Salahi (2002). Muhammad: Man and Prophet. Islamic Foundation (UK). ISBN 186204290X. 
  • Andrae, Tor (2000). Mohammed: The Man and His Faith. Dover. ISBN 0-486-41136-2. 
  • Armstrong, Karen (1993). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 0-06-250886-5. 
  • Berg, Herbert, ed. (2003). Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins. E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-12602-3. 
  • Cook, Michael (1983). Muhammad. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-287605-8 (reissue 1996). 
  • Dashti, Ali (1994). Twenty-Three Years: A Study of the Prophetic Career of Mohammad. Mazda. ISBN 1-56859-029-6. 
  • Hamidullah, Muhammad (1998). The Life and Work of the Prophet of Islam. [s.n.](Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute). ISBN 969-8413-00-6. 
  • Motzki, Harald, ed. (2000). The Biography of Muhammad: The Issue of the Sources (Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts, Vol. 32). Brill. ISBN 90-04-11513-7. 
  • Rodinson, Maxime (1961). Muhammad. New Publishers. ISBN 1-56584-752-0. 
  • Rodinson, Maxime (2002). Muhammad: Prophet of Islam. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. ISBN 1-86064-827-4. 
  • Rubin, Uri (1995). The Eye of the Beholder: The Life of Muhammad as Viewed by the Early Muslims (A Textual Analysis). Darwin Press. ISBN 0-87850-110-X. 
  • Schimmel, Annemarie (1985). And Muhammad is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4128-5. 
  • Stillman, Norman (1975). The Jews of Arab Lands: a History and Source Book. Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276-0198-0. 
  • Warraq, Ibn (2000). The Quest for the Historical Muhammad. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-787-2. 
  • Winn, Craig (2004). Prophet of Doom. CricketSong Books. ISBN 978-0971448124. 

Tor Julius Efraim Andræ (9 July 1885-24 February 1947) was a Swedish scholar of comparative religion and bishop of Linköping from 1936. ... Karen Armstrong (born November 14, 1944 in Wildmoor, Worcestershire, England) is an author who writes on Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Buddhism. ... Herbert Berg was trained at the University of Torontos Centre for Religious Studies in the late 1980s and early 1990s; he is an Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy and Religion, at the University of North Carolina Wilmington and is Director of their Graduate Liberal Studies program. ... Michael Cook (13 February 1933 -- 1 July 1994) was a playwright. ... Ali Dashti (Persian: علی دشتی []) (born 1894 - died January 16, 1982) was an Iranian rationalist of the twentieth century, who was greatly influenced by Umar Khayyam. ... Prof. ... Harald Motzki is a notable non-Muslim Islamic scholar who is well versed in the science of hadith. ... Maxime Rodinson (26 January 1915&#8211;23 May 2004) was a french marxist historian, sociologist and orientalist. ... Maxime Rodinson (26 January 1915&#8211;23 May 2004) was a french marxist historian, sociologist and orientalist. ... Annemarie Schimmel (April 7, 1922 - January 26, 2003) was a well known and very influential German Iranologist and scholar who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism. ... N. Stillman Norman Arthur Stillman is the Schusterman-Josey Professor and Chair of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... Craig Winn is an American author and former businessman. ... Prophet of Doom is a book written by the American businessman Craig Winn. ...

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Muslim biographies
Muhammad
Banu Hashim
Cadet branch of the Banu Quraish
Born: 570
Died: June 8, 632
Islamic titles
New Title Founder of Islam
570632
Succeeded by
Abū Bakr
Prophets of Islam in the Qur'an
Adam Idris Nuh Hud Saleh Ibrahim Lut Ismail Is'haq Yaqub Yusuf Ayub
آدم ادريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط اسماعيل اسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب
Adam Enoch Noah Eber Shelah Abraham Lot Ishmael Isaac Jacob Joseph Job

Shoaib Musa Harun Dhul-Kifl Daud Sulayman Ilyas Al-Yasa Yunus Zakariya Yahya Isa Muhammad
شعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود سليمان إلياس اليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى محمد
Jethro Moses Aaron Ezekiel David Solomon Elijah Elisha Jonah Zechariah John Jesus Paraclete
v  d  e
Persondata
NAME Muhammed
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Mohammed; Muhammed; Mahomet
SHORT DESCRIPTION Prophet of Islam
DATE OF BIRTH c. 570
PLACE OF BIRTH Mecca
DATE OF DEATH June 8, 632
PLACE OF DEATH Medina

  Results from FactBites:
 
Muhammad (1616 words)
Muhammad and Khakija were married for 25 years until Khadija died at the age of 65 during the month of Ramadan, well after the start of Islam.
Muhammad became convinced and even wrote in the Qur'an, "Say: Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel-for he brings down the (revelation) to thy heart by Allah's will, a confirmation of what went before, and guidance and glad tidings for those who believe," (2:97).
Muhammad called the people of his area to repent from their idol worship, to do good, and to serve the one and true God, Allah.
Muhammad, Messenger of God (1925 words)
   Muhammad's poverty in his youth and the social tensions in Mecca with bitter divisions resulting from the unequal distribution of wealth among the clans became significant aspects of the message of Islam.
Because of this opposition to the wealthy clans, Muhammad's new religion largely appealed to the unfortunate of Mecca: foreigners who were not protected by any clan, members of poor clans, and the children of the wealthiest clans who had fallen out of favor or somehow lost their inheritance.
Muhammad re-entered Mecca as a pilgrim in 628; in 630 (year 8 on the Muslim calendar), Muhammad re-entered Mecca as its conqueror.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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