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Encyclopedia > Mughal Empire
گوركانى
The Mughal Empire

1526 – 1857
Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700
Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal
Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu)
Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure
Emperor
 - 1526-1530 Babur
 - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun
 - 1556–1605 Akbar
 - 1605–1627 Jahangir
 - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan
 - 1659–1707

Later Emperors = 1707-1857 Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The Mughal era is the historic period of the Mughal Empire in India, it ran from the early sixteenth century, to a point in the early eighteenth century when the Mughal Emperors power had dwindled. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hamas. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links British_Raj_Red_Ensign. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... For other uses, see Bhopal (disambiguation). ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... The Mughal Empire was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent between the mid-16th century and the end of the 17th century. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... n ... Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ...

Aurangzeb
History
 - Established April 21, 1526
 - Ended September 21, 1857
Area
3,000,000 km² (1,158,306 sq mi)
Population
 - 1700 est. 150,000,000 
Currency Rupee , Toman
Historical map of the Mughal Empire
Historical map of the Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (Persian: سلطنت مغولی هند, Solṭanat Moġuli Hend; Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت, Muġalīh Sulṭanat; self-designation: گوركانى, Gurakâni), was an Turkic imperial power which ruled most of the Asian subcontinent from the early 16th to the mid-19th centuries[1]. At the height of its power, around 1700, it controlled most of the subcontinent and parts of what is now Afghanistan. Its population at that time has been estimated as between 110 and 130 million, over a territory of over 4 million km² (1.5 million mi²).[2] Following 1725 it declined rapidly. Its decline has been variously explained as caused by wars of succession, agrarian crises fueling local revolts, the growth of religious intolerance and British colonialism. The last Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, whose rule was restricted to the city of Delhi, was imprisoned and exiled by the British after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... The first battle of Panipat took place in northern India, and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... It has been suggested that History of the rupee be merged into this article or section. ... The toman (تومان in Persian, pronounced [tomæn], possibly derived from a Turkic word) is an older official currency of Iran, which was later divided into 10 rials. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1858, just after his show trial in Delhi and before his departure for exile in Rangoon. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ...


The classic period of the Empire starts with the accession of Jalaluddin Mohammad, better known as Akbar the Great, in 1556 and ends with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, although the Empire continued for another 150 years. During this period, the Empire was marked by a highly centralized administration connecting the different regions of India. All the significant monuments of the Mughals, their most visible legacy, date to this period. Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar), also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Imam-i-Adil, Sultan ul-Islam Kaffatt ul-Anam, Amir ul-Muminin, Khalifat ul-Mutaali Abul-Fath Jalal... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...

Contents

Early history

The foundation for the Mughal empire was established around the early 1500s by the Timurid prince Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, when he took control of Doab and eastern regions of Khorasan controlling the fertile Sindh region and the lower valley of the Indus River.[3] 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids, self-designated Gurkānī (Persian: ), were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of originally Turko-Mongol[4][5][6][7] descent whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran, modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia... Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... This article is about the person. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... A Doab, meaning two waters in Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ...


In 1526, Babur defeated the last of the Delhi Sultans, Ibrahim Shah Lodi, at the First Battle of Panipat. To secure his newly founded kingdom, Babur then had to face the Rajput confederacy led by Rana Sanga of Chittor, at the battle of Khanwa. These early military successes of the Mughals, achieved by an army much smaller than its opponents, have been attributed to their cohesion, mobility, horse-mounted archers, and use of artillery.[4] January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Ibrahim Lodhi (died April 21, 1526) was the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. ... The first battle of Panipat took place in northern India, and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Chittorgarh (also Chittor, Chittaur, or Chittaurgarh) is an ancient city in Rajasthan state of western India. ... The Battle of Khanua (1527) was the second of the series of three major battles, victories in which gave Mughal warlord Zaheer-ud-din Babur overlordship over north India. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


Babur's son Humayun succeeded him in 1530 but suffered major reversals at the hands of the Pashtun Sher Shah Suri and effectively lost most of the fledgling empire before it could grow beyond a minor regional state. From 1540 Humayun became a ruler in exile, reaching the Court of the Safavid ruler in 1542 while his forces still controlled some fortresses and small regions. But when the Afghans fell into disarray with the death of Sher Shah Suri, Humayun returned with a mixed army, raised more troops and managed to reconquer Delhi in 1555. Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Sher Shah (VC). ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ...


Humayun crossed the rough terrain of Makran with his wife, but left behind their infant son Jalaluddin to spare him the rigours of the journey. Akbar, as Jalaluddin would be better known in his later years, was taken from the Rajput town of Umerkot in Sindh(Pakistan) where was raised by his uncle Askari. There he became an excellent outdoorsman, horseman, and hunter, and learned the arts of war. Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar), also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Imam-i-Adil, Sultan ul-Islam Kaffatt ul-Anam, Amir ul-Muminin, Khalifat ul-Mutaali Abul-Fath Jalal... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... Umerkot or Omarkot (Urdu: عمرکوٹ ) a (25. ... Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ...


The resurgent Humayun then conquered the central plateau around Delhi, but months later died in an accident, leaving the realm unsettled and in war. Akbar succeeded his father on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah Suri for the throne of Delhi. He soon won his eighteenth victory at age 21 or 22. The rump remnant began to grow, then it grew considerably. He became called Akbar, as he was a wise ruler, set fair but steep taxes. He investigated the production in a certain area and taxed inhabitants 1/5 of their agricultural produce. He also set up an efficient bureaucracy and was tolerant of religious differences which softened the resistance by the conquered. is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sikandar Shah Suri was the sixth ruler of Sur dynasty. ...


Jahangir, the son of Mughal Emperor Akbar ruled the empire from 16051627. In October 1627, Shah Jahan, son of Mughal Emperor Jahangir succeeded to the throne, where he inherited a vast and rich empire in India. At mid-century this was perhaps the greatest empire in the world. Shah Jahan commissioned the famous Taj Mahal (16301653) in Agra as a tomb for his wife Mumtaz Mahal, who died giving birth to their 14th child. By 1700 the empire reached its peak with major parts of present day India, except for the North eastern states, the Sikh lands in Punjab, the lands of the Marathas, areas in the south and most of Afganistan under its domain, under the leadership of Aurangzeb Alamgir. Aurangzeb was the last of what are now referred to as the Great Mughal kings. n ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Look up Punjab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir (November 3, 1618 - March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ...


Religion

The Official State religion of the Mughal Empire was Sunni Islam of the Hanafi Madhab. However , throughout its history , subjects had complete freedom to practise any Religion of his or her choice , though the government tended to support Islamic institutions. During the reign of all the Emperors except Akbar , Non-Muslims were obliged to pay the Jizya tax , signifying their status as Dhimmis and " peoples of the book " Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمّي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Muslim religion. ...


After the invasion of Persia by the Mongol Empire, a regional Turko-Persio-Mongol dynasty formed. Just as eastern Mongol dynasties inter-married with locals and adopted the local religion of Buddhism and the Chinese culture, this group adopted the local religion of Islam and the Persian culture. The first Mughal King, Babur, established the Mughal dynasty in regions spanning parts of present-day Pakistan and India. Upon invading this region, the Mughals inter-married with local royalty once again, creating a dynasty of combined Turko-Persian, and Mongol background. King Babur did this to create peace among the different religions in the region. In accordance to Islamic values, Babur focused on setting a good example for the Mughal Dynasty by emphasizing religious tolerance. An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The composite Turko-Persian tradition was a variant of Islamic culture. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ...


The language of the court was Persian. The language spoken was Urdūn, which today has advanced into Urdu. Urdūn originated from Persio-Arabic formation, and took on various characteristics of Persian, Chagatai, and Arabic. Today, Urdu is the National Language of Pakistan and is spoken by Indian Muslims. Farsi redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... The Chagatai language (Ottoman Turkish:جغتای ; ÇaÄŸatay in modern Turkish) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia and most of Khorasan region. ... Arabic redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


The dynasty remained unstable until the reign of Akbar, who was of liberal disposition and intimately acquainted, since birth, with the mores and traditions of Islam in the Indian sub-continent. Under Akbar's rule, the court abolished the jizya (tax on non-Muslims comparable with zakat for Muslims) and abandoned use of the Muslim lunar calendar in favour of a solar calendar . One of Akbar's most unusual ideas regarding religion was Din-i-Ilahi (Faith of God), which was an eclectic mix of Islam, Zoroastrianism, Jainism and Christianity. It was proclaimed the state religion until his death. These actions however met with stiff opposition from the muslim clergy, especially the Sufi Shaykh Alf Sani Ahmad Sirhindi. Akbar is remembered as tolerant, at least by the standards of the day: only one major massacre was recorded during his long reign (1556–1605), when he ordered most of the captured inhabitants of a fort be slain on February 24, 1568, after the battle for Chitor. Akbar's acceptance of other religions and toleration of their public worship, his abolition of poll-tax on non-Muslims, and his interest in other faiths show an attitude of considerable religious tolerance, which, in the minds of his orthodox Muslim opponents, was tantamount to apostasy. He made the formal declaration of his own infallibility in all matters of religious doctrine, promulgated a new creed, and adopted Hindu and Zoroastrian festivals and practices. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon phase. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... Din-i-Ilahi (دين إلهي) or Divine Faith, was a syncretic religion propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar, intended to merge the best elements of the religions of his empire (primarily Hinduism and Islam; elements were also taken from Christianity, Jainism and Zoroastrianism), and thereby reconcile the sectarian differences that divided his... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Ahmad Sirhindi was an Islamic scholar and prominent member of the Naqshbandi Sufi order. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ...


The emperor Jahangir was also a religious moderate. His mother being Hindu and his father setting up an independent faith-of-the-court ('Din-i-Illahi') and the influence of his two Hindu queens (the Maharani Maanbai and Maharani Jagat) kept religious moderation as a center-piece of state policy which was extended under the emperor Shah Jahan. Religious orthodoxy would only play an important role during the reign of Aurangzeb Ālamgīr, a devout Muslim. Under Aurangzeb, state persecution of non-Muslims reached a zenith. The religious tyranny unleashed by Aurangzeb to sanctify his warlust led to wars with the Sikhs and Hindu Rajputs, Marathas as well as Muslim kingdoms of Bijapur and Hyderabad and the complete subjugation of the Lucknow Nawabs. This last of the Great Mughals retracted most of the tolerant policies of his forbears. Under his reign the empire reached its greatest extent in terms of territorial gain and economic strength.[citation needed]


Economy

The Mughals used the "mansabdar" system to generate land revenue. The emperor would grant revenue rights to a mansabdar in exchange for promises of soldiers in wartime. The greater the size of the land the emperor granted, the greater the number of soldiers the mansabdar had to promise. The mansab was both revocable and non-hereditary; this gave the centre a fairly large degree of control over the mansabdars.


Establishment and reign of Babur

Main article: Babur

In the early 16th century, Muslim armies consisting of Mongol, Turkic, Persian, and Afghan warriors invaded India under the leadership of the Timurid prince Zahir-ud-Din-Muhammad Babur. Babur was the great-grandson of Central Asian conqueror Timur-e Lang (Timur the Lame, from which the Western name Tamerlane is derived), who had invaded India in 1398 before retiring to Samarkand. Timur himself claimed descent from the Mongol ruler, Genghis Khan. Babur was driven from Samarkand by the Uzbeks and initially established his rule in Kabul in 1504. Later, taking advantage of internal discontent in the Delhi sultanate under Ibrahim Lodi, and following an invitation from Daulat Khan Lodhi (governor of Punjab) and Alam Khan (uncle of the Sultan), Babur invaded India in 1526. Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Ethnic groups of Afghanistan (1980 map)  42% Pashtun  27% Tajik  9% Hazara  9% Uzbek         3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        Languages of Afghanistan (1980 map)  50% Dari dialect of Persian  35% Pashto  8% Uzbek  3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        The Demographics of Afghanistan are ethnically and linguistically mixed. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... This article is about the person. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Ibrahim Lodi (died April 21, 1526) was the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Daulat Khan Lodhi was the governor of Lahore during the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi the last ruler of the Lodhi dynasty. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ...


Babur, a seasoned military commander, entered India in 1526 with his well-trained veteran army of 12,000 to meet the sultan's huge but unwieldy and disunited force of more than 100,000 men.[citation needed] Babur defeated the Lodhi sultan decisively at the First Battle of Panipat. Employing firearms, gun carts, movable artillery, superior cavalry tactics, and the highly regarded Mughal composite bow, a weapon even more powerful than the English longbow of the same period,[citation needed] Babur achieved a resounding victory and the Sultan was killed. A year later (1527) he decisively defeated, at the Battle of Khanwa, a Rajput confederacy led by Rana Sanga of Chittor. A third major battle was fought in 1529 at Gogra, where Babur routed the joint forces of Afghans and the sultan of Bengal. Babur died in 1530 in Agra before he could consolidate his military gains. During his short five-year reign, Babur took considerable interest in erecting buildings, though few have survived. He left behind as his chief legacy a set of descendants who would fulfil his dream of establishing an Islamic empire in the Indian subcontinent.[citation needed] The first battle of Panipat took place in northern India, and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. ... Firearms redirects here. ... Union Army gun squad at drill, c. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... The Battle of Khanua (1527) was the second of the series of three major battles, victories in which gave Mughal warlord Zaheer-ud-din Babur overlordship over north India. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ...


Successors



History of South Asia (The Indian Subcontinent)
Stone Age 70,000–3300 BCE
Mehrgarh Culture • 7000–3300 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE
Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE
Vedic period 1500–500 BCE
Iron Age 1200–300 BCE
Maha Janapadas • 700–300 BCE
Magadha Empire • 545 BCE - 550
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Chola Empire • 250 BCE–1070 CE
Satavahana • 230 BCE–220 CE
Kushan Empire • 60–240 CE
Gupta Empire • 280–550 CE
Pala Empire • 750–1174 CE
Rashtrakuta • 753–982 CE
Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596
Delhi Sultanate • 1206–1526
Deccan Sultanates • 1490–1596
Hoysala Empire 1040–1346
Kakatiya Empire 1083–1323
Ahom Kingdom 1228–1826
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1646
Mughal Empire 1526–1858
Maratha Empire 1674–1818
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Mughal Emperors
Emperor Name Reign start Reign end
Babur Zahiruddin Mohammed 1526 1530
Humayun Nasiruddin Mohammed 1530 1540
Interregnum * - 1540 1555
Humayun Nasiruddin Mohammed 1555 1556
Akbar Jalaluddin Mohammed 1556 1605
Jahangir Nuruddin Mohammed 1605 1627
Shah Jahan Shihabuddin Mohammed 1627 1658
Aurangzeb Muhiuddin Mohammed 1658 1707

* Afghan Rule (Sher Shah Suri and his descendants) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). ... The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... Chola redirects here. ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... Extent of Hoysala Empire, 1200 CE Capital Belur, Halebidu Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 1026 – 1047 Nripa Kama II  - 1292 – 1343 Veera Ballala III History  - Earliest Hoysala records 950  - Established 1026  - Disestablished 1343 The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) (pronunciation: in Kannada) was a prominent South Indian empire that... The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... The Ahom Kingdom (1228-1826) was established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra river, between the extant Chutiya kingdom in the north and the Kachari kingdom in the south. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... The Sikh Confederacy (from 1716-1799) was a collection of small to medium sized independent sovereign, punjabi Sikh states, which were governed by barons, in Punjab[1]. They were loosely politically linked but strongly bound in the cultural and religious spheres. ... The Sikh Empire (from 1801-1849) was formed on the foundations of the Sikh Confederacy by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... This article is under construction. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... // Different Researchers Analysed the Baloch ( Balochi : بلوچ ) or Baluch in different ways. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire Further information: History of Bangladesh The history of Bengal (including Bangladesh and West Bengal) dates back four millennia. ... Himachal Pradesh has been inhabited by human beings since the dawn of civilization. ... // Orissa has a history spanning a period of over 3000 years. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the territory... The history of South India covers a span of over two thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. ... Tibetan plateau Tibet is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, but the tangled mountain ranges of the Tibetan Plateau and the towering Himalayas serve to distance it from both. ... The history of Indian coinage stretches back at least 2600 years. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... n ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Sher Shah (VC). ...


Humayun

Main article: Humayun

When Babur died, his son Humayun (1530–1556) inherited a difficult task. He was pressed from all sides by a reassertion of Afghan claims to the Delhi throne and by disputes over his own succession. Driven into Sindh by the armies of Sher Shah Suri, in 1540 he fled to the Rajput Kingdom of Umarkot then to Persia, where he spent nearly ten years as an embarrassed guest of the Safavid court of Shah Tahmasp. During Sher Shah's reign, an imperial unification and administrative framework were established; this would be further developed by Akbar later in the century. In addition, the tomb of Sher Shah Suri is an architectural masterpiece that was to have a profound impact on the evolution of Indo-Islamic funerary architecture. In 1545, Humayun gained a foothold in Kabul with Safavid assistance and reasserted his Indian claims, a task facilitated by the weakening of Afghan power in the area after the death of Sher Shah Suri in May 1545. He took control of Delhi in 1555, but died within six months of his return, from a fall down the steps of his library.[citation needed] His tomb at Delhi represents an outstanding landmark in the development and refinement of the Mughal style. It was designed in 1564, eight years after his death, as a mark of devotion by his widow, Hamida Banu Begum. Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Sher Shah (VC). ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... Umarkot, Pakistan (25. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony...


Akbar

Main article: Akbar

Humayun's untimely death in 1556 left the task of conquest and imperial consolidation to his thirteen-year-old son, Jalal-ud-Din Mohammad Akbar (r.1556–1605). Following a decisive military victory at the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556, the regent Bairam Khan pursued a vigorous policy of expansion on Akbar's behalf. As soon as Akbar came of age, he began to free himself from the influences of overbearing ministers, court factions, and harem intrigues, and demonstrated his own capacity for judgment and leadership. A workaholic who seldom slept more than three hours a night, he personally oversaw the implementation of his administrative policies, which were to form the backbone of the Mughal Empire for more than 200 years. With the aide of his legendary Navaratnas, he continued to conquer, annex, and consolidate a far-flung territory bounded by Kabul in the northwest, Kashmir in the north, Bengal in the east, and beyond the Narmada River in central India. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-DÄ«n Muhammad Akbar), also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Imam-i-Adil, Sultan ul-Islam Kaffatt ul-Anam, Amir ul-Muminin, Khalifat ul-Mutaali Abul-Fath Jalal... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Second Battle of Panipat took place on November 5, 1556. ... Bairam Khan (Persian: بيرام خان) (d. ... Navaratnas (Sanskrit dvigu nava-ratna- nine gems) was a term applied to a group of nine extraordinary people in a kings court in India. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ...

The main Gate of the Agra Fort
The main Gate of the Agra Fort

Starting in 1571, Akbar built a walled capital called Fatehpur Sikri (Fatehpur means "town of victory") near Agra. Palaces for each of Akbar's senior queens, a huge artificial lake, and sumptuous water-filled courtyards were built there. However, the city was soon abandoned and the capital was moved to Lahore in 1585. The reason may have been that the water supply in Fatehpur Sikri was insufficient or of poor quality. Or, as some historians believe, Akbar had to attend to the northwest areas of his empire and therefore moved his capital northwest. In 1599, Akbar shifted his capital back to Agra from where he reigned until his death. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1365, 227 KB)Front Entrance to the Agra Fort File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1365, 227 KB)Front Entrance to the Agra Fort File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... View across Fatehpur Sikri Fatehpur Sikri (Hindi: ) was the political capital of Indias Mughal Empire under Akbars reign, from 1571 until 1585, when it was abandoned, ostensibly due to lack of water. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1599 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Akbar adopted two distinct but effective approaches in administering a large territory and incorporating various ethnic groups into the service of his realm. In 1580 he obtained local revenue statistics for the previous decade in order to understand details of productivity and price fluctuation of different crops. Aided by Todar Mal, a Hindu scholar, Akbar issued a revenue schedule that optimized the revenue needs of the state with the ability of the peasantry to pay. Revenue demands, fixed according to local conventions of cultivation and quality of soil, ranged from one-third to one-half of the crop and were paid in cash. Akbar relied heavily on land-holding zamindars to act as revenue-collectors. They used their considerable local knowledge and influence to collect revenue and to transfer it to the treasury, keeping a portion in return for services rendered. Within his administrative system, the warrior aristocracy (mansabdars) held ranks (mansabs) expressed in numbers of troops, and indicating pay, armed contingents, and obligations. The warrior aristocracy was generally paid from revenues of non-hereditary and transferable jagirs (revenue villages). This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Raja Todar Mal was the Indian Mughal emperor Akbar’s finance minister, who overhauled the revenue system in the kingdom. ... Zamindar, also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, or the Zamindari System (Persian: زمیندار) were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ... The Mansabdar system was a tax collection system that was put in practice by Babar. ... A Jagir is a small territory granted by a ruler to an army chieftain (called a sardar in Marathi language) in recognition of his military service. ...


An astute ruler who genuinely appreciated the challenges of administering so vast an empire, Akbar introduced a policy of reconciliation and assimilation of Hindus (including Jodhabai, later renamed Mariam-uz-Zamani[citation needed] Begum, the Hindu Rajput mother of his son and heir, Jahangir), who represented the majority of the population. He recruited and rewarded Hindu chiefs with the highest ranks in government; encouraged intermarriages between Mughal and Rajput aristocracy; allowed new temples to be built; personally participated in celebrating Hindu festivals such as Deepavali (or Diwali), the festival of lights; and abolished the jizya (poll tax) imposed on non-Muslims. Akbar came up with his own theory of "rulership as a divine illumination," enshrined in his new religion Din-i-Ilahi (Divine Faith), incorporating the principle of acceptance of all religions and sects. He encouraged widow re-marriage, discouraged child marriage, outlawed the practice of sati[citation needed] and persuaded Delhi merchants to set up special market days for women, who otherwise were secluded at home. Mariam-uz-Zamani née Hira Kunwari (born October 1, 1542), was a Rajput princess, the eldest daughter of Raja Bharmal, Raja of Amber (city), a princely state in medieval India. ... Mariam-uz-Zamani née Hira Kunwari (born October 1, 1542), was a Rajput princess, the eldest daughter of Raja Bharmal, Raja of Amber (city), a princely state in medieval India. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... Diwali taking place in a rural area Dīpãvali (also transliterated Deepavali; Sanskrit: row of lights) or Diwãli (contracted spelling) is the Hindu festival of lights, held on the final day of the Vikram calendar, one type of a Hindu calendar that is followed by North Indians. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Din-i-Ilahi (دين إلهي) or Divine Faith, was a syncretic religion propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar, intended to merge the best elements of the religions of his empire (primarily Hinduism and Islam; elements were also taken from Christianity, Jainism and Zoroastrianism), and thereby reconcile the sectarian differences that divided his... // Ceremony of Burning a Hindu Widow with the Body of her Late Husband, from Pictorial History of China and India, 1851. ...


By the end of Akbar's reign, the Mughal Empire extended throughout north India and south of the Narmada river. Notable exceptions were Gondwana in central India, which paid tribute to the Mughals, Assam in the northeast, and large parts of the Deccan. The area south of the Godavari river remained entirely out of the ambit of the Mughals. In 1600, Akbar's empire had a revenue of £17.5 million. By comparison, in 1800, the entire treasury of Great Britain totalled £16 million. Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ... Gondwana, sometimes called Gondaranya, is a region of central India, and is named after the Gondi people who live there (though they can also be found in other parts of India). ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF...


Akbar's empire supported vibrant intellectual and cultural life. The large imperial library included books in Hindi, Persian, Greek, Kashmiri, English, and Arabic, such as the Shahnameh, Bhagavata Purana and the Bible. Akbar regularly sponsored debates and dialogues among religious and intellectual figures with differing views, and he welcomed Jesuit missionaries from Goa to his court. Akbar directed the creation of the Hamzanama, an artistic masterpiece that included 1400 large paintings. Architecture flourished during his reign. One of his first major building projects was the construction of a huge fort at Agra. The massive sandstone ramparts of the Red Fort are another impressive achievement. The most ambitious architectural exercise of Akbar, and one of the most glorious examples of Indo-Islamic architecture, was the creation of an entirely new capital city at Fatehpur Sikri. Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کٲشُر Koshur) is a Dardic language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... The Hamzanama is an artistic masterpiece created about 1558–1573 under the Mughal emperor Akbar. ...


Jahangir

Main article: Jahangir
The Hiran Minar located in Sheikhupura (Pakistan), was a tribute to Jahangir's favourite antelope.
The Hiran Minar located in Sheikhupura (Pakistan), was a tribute to Jahangir's favourite antelope.

After the death of Akbar in 1605, his son, Prince Salim, ascended the throne and assumed the title of Jahangir, "Seizer of the World". He was assisted in his artistic attempts by his wife, Nur Jahan. The Mausoleum of Akbar at Sikandra, outside Agra, represents a major turning point in Mughal history, as the sandstone compositions of Akbar were adapted by his successors into opulent marble masterpieces. Jahangir is the central figure in the development of the Mughal garden. The most famous of his gardens is the Shalimar Bagh on the banks of Dal Lake in Kashmir. n ... Image File history File links Hiran_Minar_Sheikhupura. ... Image File history File links Hiran_Minar_Sheikhupura. ... The Hiran Minar, built during the reign of Jahangir & Shah Jahan Hiran Minar is set in peaceful evirons near Lahore in Sheikhupura, Pakistan. ... Sheikhupura or Shekhupura (Urdu: شيخوپورہ) is an industrial city in the province of Punjab slightly northwest to Lahore in Pakistan. ... The approach to the tomb View towards the south gate Inlay panels on the South Gate Inlay detail The Tomb of Akbar the Great is an important architectural masterpiece set in 48 Ha (119 acres) of grounds near Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. ... sab bakwas hai Categories: India geography stubs | Jammu and Kashmir | Kashmir ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


Mughal rule under Jahangir (1605–27) and Shah Jahan (162858) was noted for political stability, brisk economic activity, beautiful paintings, and monumental buildings. Jahangir's wife Nur Jahan (Light of the World), emerged as the most powerful individual in the court besides the emperor. As a result, Persian poets, artists, scholars, and officers — including her own family members — lured by the Mughal court's brilliance and luxury, found asylum in India. However, the number of unproductive officers mushroomed in the state bureaucracies, as did corruption, while the excessive Persian representation upset the delicate balance of impartiality at the court. Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... 1628 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... For other persons named Noor Jahan, see Noor Jahan (disambiguation). ...


The reign of Jahangir was also known for religious persecution. Joint Hindu and Jain forces were rebelling against the government and disrupting society.[citation needed] Upon stopping the rebellion[citation needed], he severely persecuted the Jains and destroyed Hindu temples.Guru Arjun, the fifth Guru of Sikhs, was tortured to death during his reign. Although his relations with the son of Guru Arjun, Guru Hargobind, remained very cordial and friendly. It is contended that Guru Arjun and the Jains suffered because of their disrespect of the Empire.[citation needed] The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Guru Har Gobind Ji (19 June 1595 - 03 March 1644) was the sixth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 25 May 1606 following in the footsteps of his father Guru Arjan Dev Ji. ...


Nur Jahan's abortive efforts to secure the throne for the prince of her choice (Khurram - later Shah Jahan) led the first-born, Prince Khusrau (Maharani Maanbai's son) to rebel against Jahangir in 1622. In that same year, the Persians took over Kandahar in southern Afghanistan, an event that struck a serious blow to Mughal prestige. Jahangir also had the Tuzak-i-Jahangiri composed as a record of his reign. Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...


Shah Jahan

Main article: Shah Jahan
The Taj Mahal, Mughal India's most famed monument
The Taj Mahal, Mughal India's most famed monument

The Taj Mahal is the most famous monument built by the Mughals. It was built by Prince Khurram who ascended the throne in 1628 as Emperor Shah Jahan. Between 1636 and 1646, Shah Jahan sent Mughal armies to conquer the Deccan and the lands to the northwest of the empire, beyond the Khyber Pass. Even though they aptly demonstrated Mughal military strength, these campaigns drained the imperial treasury. As the state became a huge military machine, causing the nobles and their contingents to multiply almost fourfold, the demands for revenue from the peasantry were greatly increased. Political unification and maintenance of law and order over wide areas encouraged the emergence of large centers of commerce and crafts — such as Lahore, Delhi, Agra, and Ahmadabad — linked by roads and waterways to distant places and ports. Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1015 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Taj Mahal Author: Amal Mongia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1015 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Taj Mahal Author: Amal Mongia. ... For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ... Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1646 (MDCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (altitude: 1,070 m , 3,510 ft) is the mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... Ahmadabad or Ahmedabad is a city in India. ...


However, Shah Jahan's reign is remembered more for monumental architectural achievements than anything else. The single most important architectural change was the use of marble instead of sandstone. He demolished the austere sandstone structures of Akbar in the Red Fort and replaced them with marble buildings such as the Diwan-i-Am (hall of public audience), the Diwan-i-Khas (hall of private audience), and the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque). The tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula, the grandfather of his queen, Mumtaz Mahal, was also constructed on the opposite bank of the Jamuna or Yamuna. In 1638 he began to lay out the city of Shahjahanabad beside the Jamuna river further North in Delhi. The Red Fort at Delhi represents the pinnacle of centuries of experience in the construction of palace-forts. Outside the fort, he built the Jama Masjid, the largest mosque in India. However, it is for the Taj Mahal, which he built as a memorial to his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal, that he is most often remembered. Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ... Jamuna may refer to: Jamuna River in Bangladesh. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ...


Shah Jahan's extravagant architectural indulgence had a heavy price. The peasants had been impoverished by heavy taxes and by the time his son Aurangzeb ascended the throne, the empire was in a state of insolvency. As a result, opportunities for grand architectural projects were severely limited. This is most easily seen at the Bibi-ki-Maqbara, the tomb of Aurangzeb's wife, built in 1678. Though the design was inspired by the Taj Mahal, it is half its size, the proportions compressed and the detail clumsily executed. Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ...


The Taj Mahal thus symbolizes both Mughal artistic achievement and excessive financial expenditures at a time when resources were shrinking. The economic positions of peasants and artisans did not improve because the administration failed to produce any lasting change in the existing social structure. There was no incentive for the revenue officials, whose concerns were primarily personal or familial gain, to generate resources independent of what was received from the Hindu zamindars and village leaders, who, due to self-interest and local dominance, did not hand over the entirety of the tax revenues to the imperial treasury. In their ever-greater dependence on land revenue, the Mughals unwittingly nurtured forces that eventually led to the break-up of their empire.


The Reign of Aurangzeb and the decline of the empire

Main article: Aurangzeb
One of the thirteen gates at the Lahore Fort (Pakistan), this one was actually built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb himself and named Alamgir
One of the thirteen gates at the Lahore Fort (Pakistan), this one was actually built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb himself and named Alamgir

Shah Jahan fell ill in 1657, and a succession struggle emerged among his four sons, Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb, and Murad Baksh. In 1658 Aurangzeb defeated Dara Shikoh's army near Agra, and Dara Shikoh fled north. Aurangzeb captured Agra, crowned himself emperor, and imprisoned Shah Jahan. Dara Shikoh and Murad Baksh were captured and later executed, while Shah Shuja fled into exile in 1660. Shah Jahan remained imprisoned in the citadel at Agra until his death in 1666. Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 106 KB) Summary This is the front entrance to the lahore, one of thirteen entrances to the fort and inner city. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 106 KB) Summary This is the front entrance to the lahore, one of thirteen entrances to the fort and inner city. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... Alamgir is the name of several different persons: Alamgir I, also known as Aurangzeb, was the ruler of the Mogul Empire 1658–1707 Alamgir II was the ruler or the Mogul Empire 1754–1759 Alamgir Hashmi is an English avant-garde poet Alamgir is one of the initiaters of Pop... Dara Shikoh (1615–1659) was the eldest son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal. ... Shāh Shujā (June 23, 1616 – 1660) was the second son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and empress Mumtaz Mahal. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Murad Baksh (died 1658) was the youngest son of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and empress Mumtaz Mahal. ...


Aurangzeb Alamgir was the last of the Great Mughals. During his fifty-year reign, the empire reached its greatest physical size (the Bijapur and Golconda Sultanates which had been reduced to vassaldom by Shah Jahan were formally annexed), but also showed unmistakable signs of decline. The bureaucracy had grown corrupt; the huge army used outdated weaponry and tactics. Aurangzeb restored Mughal military dominance and expanded power southward, at least for a while. Aurangzeb was involved in a series of protracted wars against the sultans of Bijapur and Golkonda in the Deccan, the Rajputs of Rajasthan, Malwa, and Bundelkhand, the Marathas in Maharashtra and the Ahoms in Assam. Peasant uprisings and revolts by local leaders became all too common, as did the conniving of the nobles to preserve their own status at the expense of a steadily weakening empire. From the early 1700s the campaigns of the Sikhs of Punjab under leaders such as Banda Bahadur, inspired by the martial teachings of their last Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, also posed a considerable threat to Mughal rule in Northern India. Bijapur is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Golconda is a ruined city and fortress 11 km west of the city of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh state, India. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... Bundelkhand is a geographic region of central India. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... The Ahoms established the Ahom kingdom (1228-1826) in parts of present-day Assam and ruled it for nearly 600 years. ... Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... Portrait of Banda Singh Bahadur Lachhman Dev alias Madho dass Bairagi alias Baba Banda Singh Bahadur (pronounce like this: Banda- Bun-tha, Bahadur- Bah-Ha-thur {th pronounced as th in the}), of Jammu region, is revered as one of greatest warriors as well as one of its most... Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ) (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) He was born in Patna in India in 1666 and became the tenth Guru of the Sikhs on 11 November 1675, succeeding his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur who was killed by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. ...


But most decisively the series of wars against the Pashtuns in Afghanistan weakened the very foundation upon which Moghul military rested. The Pashtuns formed the backbone of the Muhgal army and were some of the most hardened troops. The antagonism showed towards the erstwhile Mughal General Khushal Khan Khattak, for one, seriously undermined the Mughal military apparatus. The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Khushal Khan Khattak Khushal Khan Khattak (1613 - 1690) was a famous Afghan warrior, poet, and tribal chief of the Khattak tribe. ...


Aurangzeb made his religion an important part of his reign. However, that brought about resentment. For instance, the much resented jiziya tax which non-Muslims had to pay was re-introduced. In this climate, contenders for the Mughal throne were many,[citation needed] and the reigns of Aurangzeb's successors were short-lived and filled with strife. The Mughal Empire experienced dramatic reverses as regional nawabs or governors broke away and founded independent kingdoms such as the Marathas to the southwest and the Sikhs in the northwest.[citation needed] In the war of 27 years from 1681 to 1707, the Mughals suffered several heavy defeats at the hands of the Marathas. In the early 1700s the Sikhs became increasingly militant in an attempt to establish their own country where only they would control and govern.[citation needed] They had to make peace with the Maratha armies.[citation needed] Nader Shah defeated the Mughal army at the huge Battle of Karnal in February, 1739. After this victory, Nader captured and sacked Delhi, carrying away many treasures, including the Peacock Throne.[5] In 1761, Delhi was raided by Ahmed Shah Abdali after the Third battle of Panipat. Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Nāder Shāh Afshār (Persian: ; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 6, 1698[1] – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. ... The battle of Karnal was the war between Nader Shah Afshar and King Saraad Hindion. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... The Peacock Throne, called Takht-e-Tavous (Persian: تخت طائوس) in Persian, is the name originally of a Mughal throne, later used to describe the thrones of the Persian emperors from Nader Shah Afshari to Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. ... Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shah Abdali (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The decline of the Mughal Empire has been ascribed to several reasons. Some historians such as Irfan Habib have described the decline of the Mughal Empire in terms of class struggle.[6] Habib proposed that excessive taxation and repression of peasants created a discontented class that either rebelled itself or supported rebellions by other classes and states. Athar Ali proposed a theory of a "jagirdari crisis." According to this theory, the influx of a large number of new Deccan nobles into the Mughal nobility during the reign of Aurangzeb created a shortage of agricultural crown land meant to be allotted, and destroyed the crown lands altogether.[7] The most obvious concept is that of increasing European hegemony and spheres of influence in the region. The powers of Europe were challenging themselves to the game of who could conquer these foreign lands and exploit their riches and wealth for their own personal gain. Other theories put weight on the devious role played by the Saeed brothers in destabilizing the Mughal throne and auctioning the agricultural crown lands to the Dutch or the British for revenue extraction. Irfan Habib (1931- ) is a Marxist Indian historian, a professor at the Aligarh Muslim University and a former Chairman of the Indian Council for Historical Research. ... There are several different spellings and terms for the Saiyid Brothers. ...


The lesser Mughals

Muazzam Bahadur Shah (Persian: Bahādur Shāh; his name Bahādur means brave)(October 14, 1643 – February 1712), also known as Shah Alam I was the Mughal emperor of India from 1707 to 1712. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Jahandar Shah (1661-1713) was Mughal Emperor for a brief period in 1712-1713 AD. Jahandar Shah was born on May 9, 1661, a son of the future emperor Bahadur Shah I. Upon the death of their father, he and his brother Azim-ush-shan both declared themselves emperor and... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Furrukhsiyar (or Farrukhsiyar, 1683–1719) was the mughal emperor of India from 1713. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Rafi-ul Darajat, son of Rafiu-Shan (Azimu-sh-Shans brother) was the tenth mughal emperor and succeeded Furrukhsiyar in 1719, proclaimed Badshah by the Sayyid brothers. ... Rafi ud Daulat also known as Shah Jahan II was Mughal emperor for a brief period in 1719 AD. He succeeded his short-lived brother Rafi Ul-Darjat in that year, being proclaimed Badshah by the Sayyid brothers. ... Nikusiyar Mohammed was the 12th Mughal Emperor. ... Mohammed Ibrahim (محمد ابراهيم) was the 13th Mughal emperor. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... Muhammad Shah (1702 – 1748) was a Mughal emperor of India between 1719 and 1748. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmed Shah Bahadur was born in 1725 to Mohammed Shah. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alamgir II (عالمگير ۲) (1759 - 1699) was the Mughal emperor of India between 1754 and 1759. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Shah Jahan III was Mughal Emperor briefly. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Shah Alam II (1728–1806) was a Mughal emperor of India. ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... a potrait of Akbar II at Smithsonian Institute Akbar Shah II (1760 - 1837), also known as Mirza Akbar, was the second-to-last of the Mughal emperors of India. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1858, just after his show trial in Delhi and before his departure for exile in Rangoon. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about 1862 . ...

Present-day descendants

A few descendants of Bahadur Shah Zafar are known to be living in Pakistan, Delhi, Kolkata (previously called Calcutta), Hyderabad, and Burma. Some of the direct descendants still identify themselves with the clan name Timur and with one of its four major branches: Shokohane-Timur (Shokoh), Shahane-Timur (Shah), Bakshane-Timur (Baksh) and Salatine-Timur (Sultan). Some direct descendants of the Timur carry the surname of Mirza, Baig and Jangda are found predominantly in Pakistan, especially in major cities like Multan and Lahore. A number of 'imposter' Mughals, ie people who do not have authentic right to descent are to be found in India. Descendants in Pakistan are now known of the surname of "Malik". However, good genealogical records exist for most families in the subcontinent and are often consulted for establishing the authenticity of their claims. Some descendants of the Mughal empire have even settled in the western places like America and Europe. Some Burmese decedents of Bahadur Shah Zafar live in Rangoon, France and Canada. The Pashtun tribe Babar living in Baluchistan regard themselves as direct descendants of Babar however this claim has not been proven authentically. However, there are real descendants of Mughal kings living in all over Pakistan as one of the family is in Lahore Pakistan. The surname "Sheikh" is also commonly known to be descendent's of the Mughul Empire and the these type of families do have their family tree written prove with them also known as (shajra e nasab) which can be traced back to zaher ud din babar and some times to Amir Taimor Lang Jogzai. Some descendants are also called "Chughtai" so it can be also used by them. Although not the descendants of the many heirs to the Mughal empire's throne, the descendants of Bahadur Shah II's brother Mirza Nali (the crown prince of the empire, as decided by his father Akbar Shah II) live in Rajshahi and Dhaka (Bangladesh). The present day heir to the throne is Colonel HH Prince Azam II, the son of Nali's great grand daughter (Gul Bodon Begum). Gul Bodon became the head of the family as she was born well before her siblings. Mirza Nali's descendants are very well off, owning lots of land around North Bengal. Nali fled to Bangladesh, in fear of the British. It has been found that the direct descendant of Bahadur Shah II is an old low-middle class lady with 8 grandsons. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Bahadur Shah II (1775-1862) aka Bahadur Shah Zafar (Zafar was his nom de plume, or takhallus, as an Urdu poet) was the last of the Mughal emperors in India. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Babar can refer to: Babar the Elephant The BaBar Experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Babur (also spelled Baber or Babar), 16th-century ruler of India and founder of the Mogul Empire Babar Island, an island of Indonesia Safir A Babar, This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ...


Mughal influence on the subcontinent

The Badshahi Mosque (King's mosque) was built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan

A major Mughal contribution to south Asia was their unique architecture. Many monuments were built during the Mughal era including the Taj Mahal. The first Mughal emperor Babur wrote in the Bāburnāma: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2270x1514, 427 KB) Summary A 4 Megapixel picture of Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2270x1514, 427 KB) Summary A 4 Megapixel picture of Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Bāburnāma (Chagatai/Persian: ; literally: Book of Babur or Letters of Babur) are the memoirs of Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad Bābur (1483-1530), the founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur. ...

Hindustan is a place of little charm. There is no beauty in its people, no graceful social intercourse, no poetic talent or understanding, no etiquette, nobility or manliness. The arts and crafts have no harmony or symmetry. There are no good horses, meat, grapes, melons or other fruit. There is no ice, cold water, good food or bread in the markets. There are no baths and no madrasas. There are no candles, torches or candlesticks"[8].

Fortunately his successors, with fewer memories of the Central Asian homeland he pined for, took a less jaundiced view of Indian culture, and became more or less naturalised, absorbing many Indian traits and customs along the way. The Mughal period would see a more fruitful blending of Indian, Iranian and Central Asian artistic, intellectual and literary traditions than any other in Indian history. The Mughals had a taste for the fine things in life — for beautifully designed artifacts and the enjoyment and appreciation of cultural activities. The Mughals borrowed as much as they gave; both the Hindu and Muslim traditions of India were huge influences on their interpretation of culture and court style. Nevertheless, they introduced many notable changes to Indian society and culture, including: The term Hindustan (Hindi: हिन्दुस्तान [Hindustān], Urdu: [Hindustān], from the (Persian) Hindu + -stān, often formerly rendered Hindoostan) and the adjective Hindustani may relate to various aspects of three geographical areas (see Names of India): The modern Republic of India. ...

  • Centralised government which brought together many smaller kingdoms
  • Persian art and culture amalgamated with native Indian art and culture
  • Started new trade routes to Arab and Turk lands, Islam was at its very highest
  • Mughlai cuisine
  • Urdu language was formed by amalgamation of Farsi, Arabic, Turkish with many North Indian languages. Spoken Hindi branched off from Urdu at a much later date (late 19th Cent.) retaining a more distinct Sanskrit flavour.
  • A new style of architecture
  • Landscape gardening

The remarkable flowering of art and architecture under the Mughals is due to several factors. The empire itself provided a secure framework within which artistic genius could flourish, and it commanded wealth and resources unparalleled in Indian history. The Mughal rulers themselves were extraordinary patrons of art, whose intellectual caliber and cultural outlook was expressed in the most refined taste. Mughlai cuisine comes from the kitchens of the the Mughal Empire. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...


Alternate meanings

  • The alternate spelling of the empire, Mogul, is the source of the modern word mogul.[citation needed] In popular news jargon, this word denotes a successful business magnate who has built for himself a vast (and often monopolistic) empire in one or more specific industries. The usage is a reference to the expansive and wealthy empire built by the Mughal kings. Rupert Murdoch, for example, is a called a news mogul.

Mogul may mean: a bump in the snow in alpine skiing, a Mongolian the Mughal empire, or any member of its ruling dynasty by extension, any ruler or powerful person, such as a industrial mogul or media mogul a railroad steam locomotive type called the Mogul the largest size light... For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ... Polish Magnate (17th century) Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus great, designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. ... This article is about the economic term. ... Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ... A media proprietor is a person who controls, either through personal ownership or a dominant position in a public company, a significant part of the mass media. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent between the mid-16th century and the end of the 17th century. ... The Mughal era is the historic period of the Mughal Empire in India, it ran from the early sixteenth century, to a point in the early eighteenth century when the Mughal Emperors power had dwindled. ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ... The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ... Islam in the world. ... The Turco-Persians were an originally nomadic ethnic group that eventually conquered most of central, western, and south Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries. ... The Turco-Mongols were the aristocratic, nomadic, mostly Turkic-speaking horsemen of Turkic and Mongolian descent in Central Asia who served as rulers and conquerors in Central and Western Asian societies during the Middle Ages. ... Scholars debate what exactly constitutes an Empire. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Mughal painting, a particular style of Indian painting, generally confined to illustrations on the book and done in miniatures, and which emerged, developed and took shape during the period of the Mughal Empire 16th -19th centuries). ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids, self-designated Gurkānī (Persian: ), were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of originally Turko-Mongol[4][5][6][7] descent whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran, modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia... The History of India as Told by its Own Historians is a book with eight volumes written by H. M. Elliot and John Dowson. ... Charlemagne to the Mughals is a genealogical route connecting Charlemagne with the Mughal dynasty of India. ...

References

  1. ^ "The Mughal Empire"
  2. ^ John F Richards, The Mughal Empire, Vol I.5 of the New Cambridge History of India, Cambridge University Press, 1996
  3. ^ The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)
  4. ^ The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)
  5. ^ Iran in the Age of the Raj
  6. ^ Irfan Habib, The Agrarian System of Mughal India (Revised edition, Oxford University Press India, 2001) 317–51.
  7. ^ M. Athar Ali, The Mughal nobility under Aurangzeb. Revised ed. (Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1997) 11.
  8. ^ The Baburnama Ed. & Trans. Wheeler M. Thackston (New York) 2002 p. 352

Bāburnāma (Chagatai/Persian: ; literally: Book of Babur or Letters of Babur) are the memoirs of Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad Bābur (1483-1530), the founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur. ...

Further reading

  • Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. (Online Copy: The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877 - This online Copy has been posted by: The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List)
  • Preston, Diana and Michael; Taj Mahal: Passion and Genius at the Heart of the Moghul Empire; Walker & Company; ISBN-10: 0802716733.

The History of India as Told by its Own Historians is a book with eight volumes written by H. M. Elliot and John Dowson. ...

External links

London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Mughal Empire was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent between the mid-16th century and the end of the 17th century. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... n ... Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... Combatants Mughal dynasty Delhi Sultanate Commanders Babur Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi Strength 10,000 Mughals & Pathans 5,000 allied Indian troops 30,000-40,000 troops 100 war elephants Casualties Low 15,000 - 20,000 The first battle of Panipat took place in northern India, and marked the beginning of the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Maratha Empire Durrani Empire Commanders Sadashivrao Bhau, Ibrahim Khan Gardi Ahmed Shah Durrani, Najib-ud-Daula, Shuja-ud-Daula Strength 40,000 cavalry, 200 pieces of artillery, 15,000 infantry, 15,000 Pindaris accompanied by 300,000 non-combatants (pilgrims and camp-followers 41,800 cavalry, 120-130 pieces... Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... Humayuns tomb is a complex of buildings of Mughal architecture located in Nizamuddin east, New Delhi. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... The Delhi Fort also known as Lal Qilah, or Lal Qila, meaning the Red Fort, located in Delhi, India is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ... The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. ... Jahangirs mausoleum in Shahdara, Lahore Tomb of Jahangir, is the mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who ruled from 1605 to 1627. ... Bibi Ka Maqbara Bibi Ka Maqbara was built by Prince Azam Shah, son of Emperor Aurangzeb, in the late 17th century as a loving tribute to his mother, Dilras Bano Begam. ... Ibrahim Lodhi (died April 21, 1526) was the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Sher Shah (VC). ... MAHARANA PRATAP(1540-1597) The Grandson of the illustrious Rana Sanga. ... Hemuchandra or Hemu was an Indian military leader. ... // The early life Gokula or Gokul Singh was a Jat chieftain of village Sinsini near Mathura in Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजीराजे भोसले) (Born:February 19, 1627, Died: March 4, 1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ) (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) He was born in Patna in India in 1666 and became the tenth Guru of the Sikhs on 11 November 1675, succeeding his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur who was killed by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. ... Khushal Khan Khattak Khushal Khan Khattak (1613 - 1690) was a famous Afghan warrior, poet, and tribal chief of the Khattak tribe. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mughal Empire - MSN Encarta (933 words)
Mughal Empire, Indian empire that ruled the subcontinent for more than 300 years from 1526 to 1858, except for a brief period under the Sur sultans (1540-1555).
The Mughal Empire was founded in 1526 by Babur, a Central Asian Turk, after he had defeated the Lodi ruler of Delhi, Ibrahim, and occupied the capital at Āgra.
Akbar, who is often considered the true founder of the Mughal Empire, laid the grounds for the significant economic growth and the fabulous art and building activities of his successors.
Mughal Empire 1526-1707 by Sanderson Beck (19924 words)
The Ahom Swargadeo agreed to be a Mughal vassal.
Kashmir was annexed to the Mughal empire by Qasim Khan in 1586.
Mughal emperor Shah Jahan urged the sultans to partition the empire of Karnataka and annex Vijayanagara.
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