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Encyclopedia > Mudra

A mudrā (Sanskrit, मुद्रा, literally "seal") is a symbolic gesture usually made with the hand or fingers. Along with āsanas (seated postures), they are employed in the yoga meditation practice of Hinduism. Each mudrā has a specific quality that is said to be imparted to the practitioner, and they are a central part of Hindu iconography. With the onset of Buddhism, many mudrā practices were absorbed into the culture. Common hand gestures are to be seen in both Hindu and Buddhist iconography. An example of a mudra done with the hands would be the outward-facing open palm known as Abhaya (without fear) mudrā, a gesture meant to dispel the fear of the devotee. An example of a mudra done without the hands would be Kechari mudra, done with the tongue.[citation needed] The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Eka-Pada-Rajakapotasana or Single Legged Pidgeon Asana is Sanskrit for seat. It is no accident that this word be chosen to describe the posture of Yoga. ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion and a philosophy. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Kechari mudra is a yoga practice which is carried out by placing the tongue in contact with the roof of the mouth, and, in the more advanced stages of the practice, up into the nasal pharynx and to the nasal septum. ...

Contents

Abhaya Mudrā

Korea's National Treasure no. 119. The right hand shows the fear-not gesture while the left is in the Varada (wish-granting gesture).
Korea's National Treasure no. 119. The right hand shows the fear-not gesture while the left is in the Varada (wish-granting gesture).

The Abhaya "No-fear" Mudrā represents protection, peace, benevolence, and dispelling of fear. In the Theravāda it is usually made with the right hand raised to the shoulder's height, the arm bent and the palm facing outward with the fingers upright and joined and the left hand hanging down on the right side of the while standing. In Thailand and Laos this mudrā is associated with the walking Buddha often shown having both hands making a double Abhaya mudrā that is uniform. The mudrā was probably used before the onset of Buddhism as a symbol of good intentions proposing friendship when approaching strangers. In Gandhāra Art it is seen used during showing the action of preaching and also seen in China during the Wei and Sui eras of the 4th and 7th centuries. The gesture was used by the Buddha when attacked by an elephant, subduing it as shown in several frescoes and scripts. In Mahāyāna the northern schools deities often used it with another mudrā paired with the other hand. In Japan when the Abhaya Mudrā is used with the middle finger slightly projected forward it is a symbol of the Shingon Sect. (Japanese- Semui-in; Chinese- Shiwuwei Yin)[citation needed]
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (602x800, 76 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mudra Korean Buddhist sculpture Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (602x800, 76 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mudra Korean Buddhist sculpture Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Theravada (Pāli: थेरवाद theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and parts of southwest... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... A XIV Century fresco featuring Saint Sebastian Note: Fresco is the NATO reporting name of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Shingon (真言宗) is a major school of Japanese Buddhism, and the most important school of Vajrayana Buddhism outside of the Himalayan region. ...


Bhūmisparśa Mudrā

The Bhūmisparśa "Earth-touching" Mudrā literally represents the Buddha as taking the earth as witness. It represents the moment when Buddha took the earth as testimony when he had resolved the problem of cessation of suffering while he was under the peepal tree at Bodh-Gaya. Usually represented by the historical Buddha and Akṣobhya sitting in the lotus position. The right hand touches the ground with the fingertips near the right knee extended or with only the index pointing down touching the ground with the left hand commonly resting on the lap with the palm facing up. It can also represent the subjugation of the demon horde of Māra. Akṣobhya is often seen using this mudra while clutching part of his robe with his left hand. In Korea confusion of the high period led to rare imagery where Amitābha was using the Bhūmisparśa Mudrā. (Japanese- Goma-in, Anzan-in, Anchi-in, Sokuchi-in; Chinese- Chudi Yin)[citation needed]
Download high resolution version (1091x1488, 548 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1091x1488, 548 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Seokguram Grotto is a hermitage and part of the Bulguksa temple complex. ... Media:Example. ... In Vajrayana Buddhism, Akshobhya (Sanskrit for Immovable One, Jp. ... Kodo Sawaki in lotus position practices meditation in Zen The first pictorial representation of the lotus position is seen in the ancient Indian depiction of Shiva as Pashupati, Lord of Beasts, in Harappa The lotus position (Sanskrit: Padmasanam -- lotus posture) is a cross-legged sitting posture which originated in representations... An aniconic representation of Maras assault on the Buddha, 2nd century CE, Amaravati (India). ... Amitabha Buddha and his two acolytes, Mahasthamaprapta and Avalokitesvara Amitābha is a celestial Buddha described in the scriptures of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ...


Dharmachakra Mudrā

The Dharmachakra Mudrā represents a central moment in the life of Buddha when he preached his first sermon after his Enlightenment, in Deer Park in Sarnath. Gautama Buddha is generally only shown making this Mudrā, save Maitreya as the dispenser of the Law. This Mudrā position represents the turning of the wheel of the Dharma. Dharmacakra Mudrā is formed when two hands close together in front of the chest in Vitarka having the right palm forward and the left palm upward, sometimes facing the chest. There are several variants such as in the frescoes of Ajanta, India the two hands are separated, and the fingers do not touch. In the Indo-Greek style of Gandhāra the clenched fist of the right hand seemingly overlie the fingers joined to the thumb on the left hand. In pictorials of Horyu-ji in Japan the right hand is superimposed on the left. Certain figures of Amitābha, Japan are seen using this mudrā before the 9th century. (Japanese: Tenborin-in, Chikichi-jo, Hoshin-seppo-in; Chinese: Juanfalun Yin)
It has been suggested that Dharma-chakra be merged into this article or section. ... Sarnath (formerly also Mrigadava, Rishipattana, Isipatana), located 13 kilometres from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha was founded. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Maitreya Bodhisattva (Sanskrit) or Metteyya Bodhisatta (Pāli) is the future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. ... Dharma (Sanskrit) or Dhamma (Pāli) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Ajanta takes the name after the village Ajinţhā in Aurangabad district in the state of Maharashtra(N. lat. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Horyu-ji. ... Amitabha Buddha and his two acolytes, Mahasthamaprapta and Avalokitesvara Amitābha is a celestial Buddha described in the scriptures of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


Dhyāna Mudrā

Hands of Amitābha statue at Kotokuin in Kamakura
Hands of Amitābha statue at Kotokuin in Kamakura

The Dhyāna Mudrā is the gesture of meditation, of the concentration of the Good Law and the Sangha. The two hands are placed on the lap, right hand on left with fingers fully stretched and the palms facing upwards, forming a triangle, symbolic of the spiritual fire or the Triratna, the three jewels. This Mudrā is used in representations of the Buddha Śākyamuni and the Buddha Amitābha. Sometimes the Dhyāna Mudrā is used in certain representations of Bhaiṣajyaguru as the Medicine Buddha, with a medicine bowl placed on the hands. It originated in India most likely in the Gandhāra and in China during the Wei period. This mudrā was used long before the Buddha as yogins have used it during their concentration, healing, and mediation exercises. It is heavily used in Southeast Asia in Theravāda Buddhism however the thumbs are placed against the palms. (Dhyāna Mudrā, Samadhi Mudrā, Yoga Mudrā; Japanese- Jo-in, Jokai Jo-in; Chinese- Ding Yin)
Download high resolution version (850x626, 291 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (850x626, 291 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Amitabha Buddha and his two acolytes, Mahasthamaprapta and Avalokitesvara Amitābha is a celestial Buddha described in the scriptures of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Amida Buddha, Kotokuin Kotokuin (高徳院) is a Buddhist temple of the Pure Land sect in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ... Crowds of visitors in Kamakura (Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine) Kamakura (Japanese: 鎌倉市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo (to which it is linked by the railway line to Yokosuka). ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Amitabha Buddha and his two acolytes, Mahasthamaprapta and Avalokitesvara Amitābha is a celestial Buddha described in the scriptures of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Bhaisajyaguru (薬師 Ch. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... Theravada (Pāli: थेरवाद theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and parts of southwest...


Varada Mudrā

The Varada Mudrā signifies offering, welcome, charity, giving, compassion and sincerity. It is nearly always used with the left hand for those whom devote oneself to human salvation. It can be made with the arm crooked the palm offered slightly turned up or in the case of the arm facing down the palm presented with the fingers upright or slightly bent. The Varada Mudrā is rarely seen without using another mudra used by the right hand, typically with the Abhaya Mudrā. It is often confused with the Vitarka Mudrā, which it closely resembles. In China and Japan during the Wei and Asuka periods respectively the fingers are stiff and then gradually begin to loosen as it developed through time, eventually leading to the Tang Dynasty were the fingers are naturally curved. In India the mudrā is used in images of Avalokitesvara from the Gupta Period of the 4th and 5th centuries. The Varada mudrā is extensively used in the statues of Southeast Asia. (Japanese- Yogan-in, Segan-in, Seyo-in; Chinese- Shiynan Yin)
The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Avalokitesvara with a 1,000 arms, part of the Dazu Stone Carvings at Mount Baoding, Dazu County, Chongqing, China. ... This article is about the surname Gupta. ...


Vajra Mudrā

Vajra Mudrā

The Vajra Mudrā is the gesture of knowledge. It is made making a fist with the right hand, index extending upward, and the left hand also making a fist and enclosing the index.

A good example of the application of the Vajra Mudrā is the seventh technique (out of nine) of the Nine Hand Seals, using the mudra with mantras in a ritual application. Here is a video of a sanskrit prayer to set the mind in a sacred state, followed by a quick version of the kuji-in ritual, using the Japanese kanji pronunciation (sanskrit mantras are usually offered to the serious seeker). http://www.livemaster.org/archive/KujiIn_front_low.wmv
Download high resolution version (667x990, 173 KB)Vajra Mudra. ... Download high resolution version (667x990, 173 KB)Vajra Mudra. ... Vajrasattva holds the vajra in his right hand and a bell in his left hand. ...


Vitarka Mudrā

Vitarka mudrā, Tarim Basin, 9th century
Vitarka mudrā, Tarim Basin, 9th century

The Vitarka Mudrā is the gesture of discussion and transmission of Buddhist teaching. It is done by joining the tips of the thumb and the index together, and keeping the other fingers straight very much like Abhaya and Varada Mudrās but with the thumbs touching the index fingers. This mudra has a great number of variants in Mahāyāna Buddhism in East Asia. In Tibet it is the mystic gesture of Taras and Bodhisattvas with some differences by the deities in Yab-yum. (Sanskrit: Prajñāliṅganabhinaya, Vyākhyāna mudrā; Japanese: Seppo-in, An-i-in; Chinese- Anwei Yin)
Vitarka Mudra. ... Vitarka Mudra. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... a. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Yab Yum is an exclusive brothel in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ...


Jana mudra

The Jana mudra is the mudra of teaching. It resembles the vitarka mudra, and is done by joining the tips of the thumb and the index together, and keeping the other fingers straight. The fingers are somewhat kept straighter and rather horizontal, and the hand is held at the level of the chest.


Karana mudra

Joseon Dynasty figure on the left makes the Karana mudra.
Joseon Dynasty figure on the left makes the Karana mudra.

The Karana mudra is the mudra which expels demons and removes obstacles such as sickness or negative thoughts. It is made by raising the index and the little finger, and folding the other fingers. It is rather similar to the gesture known as corna in the West. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 314 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mudra Korean Buddhist sculpture ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 314 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mudra Korean Buddhist sculpture ... Joseon or Chosun (Korean: 조선; Hanja: 朝鮮; Revised: Joseon; McCune-Reischauer: Chosŏn; Chinese: Cháoxiǎn; Japanese: Chōsen) is a name for Korea, as used in the following cases: As part of the name of several ancient kingdoms (including Gojoseon, Gija Joseon, and Wiman Joseon); During most of the Joseon... Horns The corna (Italian for horns, also mano cornuta, horned hand) is a gesture with a vulgar meaning in Mediterranean countries and a variety of meanings and uses in other cultures. ...


External links

  • Mudras Photo Gallery
  • Mudras in Buddhism
  • Information on various types of mudras, including yoga mudras

  Results from FactBites:
 
TIBETcenter - Mudras in Buddhism (1811 words)
That is, mudras induce the deity to be near the worshipper.
This mudra, formed with all five fingers of the right hand extended to touch the ground, symbolizes the Buddha's enlightenment under the bodhi tree, when he summoned the earth goddess, Sthavara, to bear witness to his attainment of enlightenment.
It is the mudra of the accomplishment of the wish to devote oneself to human salvation.
Mudra - Hand positions of Japanese Buddhist Deities; Japanese Buddhism (2827 words)
Mudras are used primarily to indicate the nature and function of the deity.
Vyakhyana Mudra; the Exposition of the Dharma Mudra
This is also known as the six elements mudra, or the fist of wisdom mudra, for it symbolizes the unity of the five worldly elements (earth, water, fire, air, and metal) with spiritual consciousness.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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