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Encyclopedia > Mud volcano
A gaseous mud volcano
A gaseous mud volcano

The term mud volcano or mud dome is used to refer to formations created by geologically excreted liquids and gases, although there are several different processes which may cause such activity. Temperatures are much cooler than igneous processes. The largest structures are 10 km in diameter and reach 700 metres in height. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (683 × 1024 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Salton Sea Mud volcano ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (683 × 1024 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Salton Sea Mud volcano ...


About 86% of released gases are methane, with much less carbon dioxide and nitrogen emitted. Ejected materials often are a slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water (frequently acidic or salty) and hydrocarbon fluids. Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Acidity redirects here. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ...

Contents

Details

Mud volcano in the Gulf of Mexico sea bottom.
Mud volcano in the Gulf of Mexico sea bottom.

A mud volcano may be the result of a piercement structure created by a pressurized mud diapir which breaches the Earth's surface or ocean bottom. Temperatures may be as low as the freezing point of ejected materials, particularly when venting is associated with the creation of hydrocarbon clathrate hydrate deposits. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x930, 848 KB)Two seismic-reflection scans of a fault zone in the Gulf of Mexico. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x930, 848 KB)Two seismic-reflection scans of a fault zone in the Gulf of Mexico. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... A piercement structure in Geology is a structure which has penetrated overlaying material. ... A lava lamp illustrates the basic principle of diapirism. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Clathrate hydrates are a class of solids in which gas molecules occupy cages made up of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. ...


Mud volcanoes are often associated with petroleum deposits and tectonic subduction zones and orogenic belts. Hydrocarbon gases are often erupted. Mud volcanoes are also often associated with lava volcanoes, and the typical relationship is that where they are close, the mud volcanoes emit incombustible gases including helium, while the ones further away emit methane. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...


In Azerbaijan, eruptions are driven from a deep mud reservoir which is connected to the surface even during dormant periods, when seeping water still shows a deep origin. Seeps have temperatures up to 2–3 °C above the ambient temperature.[1]


Approximately 1,100 have been identified on land and in shallow water. It has been estimated that well over 10,000 may exist on continental slopes and abyssal plains.  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... Abyssal plains are flat or very gently sloping areas of the deep ocean basin floor. ...


Features

  • Gryphon: steep-sided cone shorter than 3 meters that extrudes mud
  • Mud cone: high cone shorter than 10 meters that extrudes mud and rock fragments
  • Scoria cone: cone formed by heating of mud deposits during fires
  • Salse: water-dominated pools with gas seeps
  • Spring: water-dominated outlets smaller than 0.5 meters
  • Mud shield and many other kinds of features

A gryphon is a mud volcano feature, a steep-sided cone shorter than 3 m. ... Puʻu ʻŌʻō, a cinder-and-spatter cone on Kīlauea, Hawaiʻi Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcano formations in the world. ... Scoria Scoria is the vesicular ejecta of mafic to intermediate magmas such as basalt and andesite. ...

Emissions

Most liquid and solid material is released during eruptions, but various seeps occur during dormant periods.


First order estimates of mud volcano emissions have been recently made.

  • 2002: L.I. Dimitrov estimated that 10.2–12.6 Tg/yr of methane is released from onshore and shallow offshore mud volcanoes.
  • 2002: Etiope and Klusman in 2002 estimated at least 1–2 and as much as 10–20 Tg/yr of methane may be emitted from onshore mud volcanoes.
  • 2003: Etiope, in an estimate based on 120 mud volcanoes: "The emission results to be conservatively between 5 and 9 Tg/yr, that is 3–6% of the natural methane sources officially considered in the atmospheric methane budget. The total geologic source, including MVs (this work), seepage from seafloor (Kvenvolden et al., 2001), microseepage in hydrocarbon-prone areas and geothermal sources (Etiope and Klusman, 2002), would amount to 35–45 Tg/yr." [2]
  • 2003: Milkov et al's analysis suggests that the global gas flux may be as high as 33 Tg/yr (15.9 Tg/yr during quiescent periods plus 17.1 Tg/yr during eruptions). 6 Tg/yr of greenhouse gases from onshore and shallow offshore mud volcanoes. Deep-water sources may emit 27 Tg/yr. Total may be 9% of fossil CH4 missing in the modern atmospheric CH4 budget, and 12% in the preindustrial budget. [3]
  • 2003: Alexei Milkov estimated approximately 30.5 Tg/yr of gases (mainly methane and CO2) may escape from mud volcanoes to the atmosphere and the ocean. [4]
  • 2003: Achim J. Kopf estimated 1.97 × 1011 to 1.23 × 1014 m³ of methane is released by all mud volcanoes per year, of which 4.66 × 107 to 3.28 × 1011 m³ is from surface volcanoes.[5] That converts to 141–88,000 Tg/yr from all mud volcanoes, of which 0.033–235 Tg is from surface volcanoes.

A teragram (symbol: Tg) is an SI unit of mass. ...

Locations

Hydrate-bearing sediments, which often are associated with mud volcano activity.
Source: USGS, 1996.

Image File history File links Worldwide distribution of confirmed or inferred offshore gas hydrate-bearing sediments. ... Image File history File links Worldwide distribution of confirmed or inferred offshore gas hydrate-bearing sediments. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ...

Europe and Asia

Mud volcanoes are generally few in Europe, but dozens can be found on the Kerch Peninsula of southeastern Ukraine. In Italy they are common in the northern front of the Apennines and in Sicily. Another relatively accessible place where mud volcanoes can be found in Europe are the Berca Mud Volcanoes near Berca in Buzău County, Romania close to the Carpathian Mountains. The Cimmerian Bosphorus of antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Landsat satellite photo Kerch Strait. ... This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... , The biggest mud volcano from Little Mud Volcanoes location. ... Buzău is a county (judeÅ£) in the center-East Romania, in Eastern Wallachia region, in center Muntenia, with the capital city at Buzău (population: 149,025). ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ...


Many mud volcanoes exist on the shores of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. Tectonic forces and large sedimentary deposits around the latter have created several fields of mud volcanoes, many of them emitting methane and other hydrocarbons. Features over 200 meters high exist in Azerbaijan, with large eruptions sometimes producing flames of similar scale. Iran and Pakistan also possess mud volcanoes in the Makran range of mountains in the south of the two countries. China has a number of mud volcanoes in Xinjiang province. There are also mud volcanoes at the Arakan Coast in Myanmar. There are two active mud volcanoes in South Taiwan, and several inactive ones. NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


In May 2006 a mud flow started in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Now named Lusi, the mud volcano appears to be a hydrocarbon/hydrothermal hybrid. Homes buried by the mud flow The Sidoarjo mud flow, also informally named Lusi, from Lumpur Sidoarjo, is an ongoing eruption of gas and mud from the earth in the subdistrict of Porong, Sidoarjo in East Java, Indonesia. ... Homes buried by the Sidoarjo mud flow The Sidoarjo mud flow or Lapindo mud, also informally abbreviated as Lusi from Lumpur Sidoarjo (lumpur is Indonesian term of mud), is an ongoing eruption of gas and mud from the earth in the subdistrict of Porong, Sidoarjo in East Java, Indonesia (20...


The island of Baratang, part of the Great Andaman archipelago (India) in the Andaman Islands, Indian Ocean has several sites of mud volcanic activity. The most recent significant eruption event was in 2003. This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ...


Azerbaijan

Lokbatan Mud Volcano eruption in Azerbaijan, 2001

It's estimated that 300 of the planet's estimated 700 mud volcanoes sit in Eastern Azerbaijan and the Caspian Sea.[6] Many geologists as well as locals and international mud tourists trek to such places as the Firuz Crater, Gobustan, Salyan and end up happily covered in mud which is thought to have medicinal qualities.[7] In 2001 one mud volcano 15 kilometers from Baku made world headlines when it suddenly started spewing flames 15 meters high.[8] Gobustan is amongst the most unique places on Earth. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1428x943, 86 KB) boom shakalaka boom I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1428x943, 86 KB) boom shakalaka boom I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Qobustan is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Salyan is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 260 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: AZ10 Area code: +99412 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 40° 23 N Longitude: 49° 52 E Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ...


North and South America

Mud volcanoes of the North American continent include:

Yagrumito Mud Volcano in Monagas, Venezuela. (6 km from Maturín)
Yagrumito Mud Volcano in Monagas, Venezuela. (6 km from Maturín)

South American mud volcanoes include: A fisherman (bottom center) dipnetting for salmon on the Copper River at Chitina. ... Wrangell Mountains The Wrangell Mountains are a high mountain range in southeast Alaska in the United States and the southwest Yukon Territory in Canada. ... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... Location of Redondo Beach in California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1892-04-29 [2]  - Mayor Michael A. Gin [1] Area    - City 16. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The Salton Sea is an inland saline lake, located in the Colorado Desert in Southern California, north of the Imperial Valley. ... Niland is a census-designated place located in Imperial County, California. ... A canyon in Monterey Bay, which is commonly explored by the scientists at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Approximate area of the Beaufort Sea, and the disputed waters The Beaufort Sea is a large body of water north of The Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska and west of Canadas arctic islands that is a part of the Arctic Ocean. ... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... West Indian redirects here. ... Look up Trinidad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The district of Moruga lies on the central south coast of Trinidad at the western end of the Trinity Hills. ... Piparo is a village in Central Trinidad on the southern edge of the Central Range. ... The Columbus Channel is the name of the narrow body of water between the south coast of the island of Trinidad and the Venezuelan mainland. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (904x609, 429 KB) Volcán de lodo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (904x609, 429 KB) Volcán de lodo. ...

  • Venezuela. The Eastern part of Venezuela contains several mud volcanoes, all of them, like in Trinidad, having an origin related to oil deposits. The image shows the Volcán de lodo de Yagrumito, about 6 km from Maturín, Venezuela. Its mud contains, water, biogenic gas, certain amount of hydrocarbons and an important quantity of salt. Cows from the savanna often gather around to lick the dried mud for its salt content which is an integral part of their diet needed to produce milk.
  • Colombia. Volcan El Totumo [1], which marks the division between Bolivar and Atlantico in Colombia. This volcano is approximately 50 feet high and can accommodate 10 to 15 people on its crater, many tourists and locals visit this volcano due to the medicinal benefits of the mud, the volcano is located next to a "cienaga" or lake. This volcano is currently under a legal fight between the Bolivar and the Atlantico "Departamentos" because of its tourist value.

Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. ... Bolivar is derived from Sim n Bol var, one of the principal figures of the Latin American civil wars so called of independence; the Republic of Bolivia and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela are named after him, as are a number of other things, mainly in the Western Hemisphere: More... Atlántico is a department of Colombia. ...

Other parts of the world

The island of Baratang, part of the Great Andaman archipelago in the Andaman Islands, Indian Ocean has several sites of mud volcanic activity. The most recent significant eruption event was in 2003. Baratang (Lat: 12. ... Great Andaman is the main archipelago of the Andaman Islands of India. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A drilling accident offshore of Brunei in 1979 caused a mud volcano which took 20 relief wells and nearly 30 years to stop the eruption.


Another drilling accident on May 29th, 2006 in the Porong subdistrict of East Java province, Indonesia in Sidoarjo created an ongoing mud volcano, which has been nicknamed Lusi, a combination of "Lumpur," the Indonesian word for mud, and Sidoarjo, its city of origin. The mud has covered about 440 hectares, or 1,087 acres and has inundated four villages, homes, roads, rice fields, factories, and displaced about 24,000 people. The gas exploration company was operated by PT Lapindo Brantas. Homes buried by the mud flow The Sidoarjo mud flow, also informally named Lusi, from Lumpur Sidoarjo, is an ongoing eruption of gas and mud from the earth in the subdistrict of Porong, Sidoarjo in East Java, Indonesia. ... Porong is a subdistrict (kecamatan) of Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... PT Lapindo Brantas is an oil and gas exploration company, a subsidiary owned by PT Energi Mega Persada Tbk and 60% owned and controlled by the Bakrie Group. ...


Yellowstone's "Mud Volcano"

Yellowstone's Mud Volcano feature. (NPS,Peaco,1998).
Yellowstone's Mud Volcano feature. (NPS,Peaco,1998).

The name of Yellowstone National Park's Mud Volcano feature and the surrounding area is misleading; it consists of hot springs, mud pots and fumaroles rather than a true mud volcano. Actually, it depends on how you define the term mud volcano. It could be considered a hydrothermal mud volcano cluster. The feature is much less active than in its first recorded description, although the area is quite dynamic. Yellowstone is an active geothermal area with a magma chamber near the surface, and active gases tend to be steam, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide.[9] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1999x1366, 528 KB)The hot spring/mud pot named Mud Volcano in Yellowstone National Park. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1999x1366, 528 KB)The hot spring/mud pot named Mud Volcano in Yellowstone National Park. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean by UNESCO. [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... Yellowstone National Park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest intact ecosystem in the Earths northern temperate zone. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Fountain Paint Pots, Yellowstone National Park A mud pot (technically known as solfatare) is a hot spring or fumarole formed in high-temperature geothermal areas where water is in short supply. ... Sulfur deposits near a fumarole A fumarole (Latin fumus, smoke) is an opening in Earths (or any other astronomical bodys) crust, often in the neighborhood of volcanoes, which emit steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, and hydrogen sulfide. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...


The mud volcano in Yellowstone used to be an actual mound, until one day it literally tore itself apart into what is seen today.


See also

For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... A black smoker in the Atlantic Ocean Black smokers are a type of hydrothermal vent found on the ocean floor. ... Tubeworms, soft corals and chemosynthetic mussels at a seep located 3,000 metres down on the Florida Escarpment. ... A hydrothermal vent A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... Lahar from a March 1982 eruption of Mount St. ... A sand volcano or sand blow is a cone of sand formed by the ejection of sand onto a surface from a central point. ... Burning ice. Methane released by heating burns, water drips. ... Nikolai Alexandrovich Kudryavtsev Russian: (Opochka, October 21, 1893 - Leningrad, December 12, 1971) was a Russian petroleum geologist. ...

References

  1. ^ S. Planke, H. Svensen, M. Hovland, D. A. Banks, B. Jamtveit (December 2003). "Mud and fluid migration in active mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan". Geo-Marine Letters 23 (3-4): 258-268.  DOI:10.1007/s00367-003-0152-z
  2. ^ Etiope, Giuseppe (2003). "A NEW ESTIMATE OF GLOBAL METHANE FLUX TO THE ATMOSPHERE FROM ONSHORE AND SHALLOW SUBMARINE MUD VOLCANOES". Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs: 115.  A NEW ESTIMATE OF GLOBAL METHANE FLUX TO THE ATMOSPHERE FROM ONSHORE AND SHALLOW SUBMARINE MUD VOLCANOES. XVI INQUA Congress. Retrieved on April 20, 2005.
  3. ^ Milkov, A. V., R. Sassen, T. V. Apanasovich, and F. G. Dadashev (2003). "Global gas flux from mud volcanoes: A significant source of fossil methane in the atmosphere and the ocean". Geophys. Res. Lett. 30 (2): 1037.  DOI:10.1029/2002GL016358
  4. ^ Global Distribution and Significance of Mud Volcanoes. AAPG Annual Meeting 2003: Energy - Our Monumental Task. Retrieved on April 20, 2005.
  5. ^ Achim J. Kopf (2003). "Global methane emission through mud volcanoes and its past and present impact on the Earths climate". International Journal of Earth Sciences 92 (5): 806-816.  DOI:10.1007/s00531-003-0341-z ISSN 1437-3254 (Paper) ISSN 1437-3262 (Online)
  6. ^ http://www.azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/ai112_folder/112_articles/112_mud_volcano.html
  7. ^ http://www.istc.org/sisp/index.htm?fx=event&event_id=39793
  8. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1626310.stm
  9. ^ Mud volcano. USGS Photo glossary of volcano terms. Retrieved on April 20, 2005.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
11.2 Mud Volcanoes - Mysterious Phenomena Fascinate Scientists and Tourists by Ronnie Gallagher (2142 words)
Both mud volcanoes and hydrocarbon fields are the result of a single process of oil and gas formation, which has a characteristic vertical zone with methane gas forming in younger strata, overlying a zone of intense formation of oil and fatty gases.
Mud volcanoes are one of the visible signs of the presence of oil and gas reserves hidden deep beneath land and sea in the Caspian region.
Mud volcanoes are essentially channels for releasing pressurized gas and mineral water, sometimes with traces of oil, together with associated mud from great depths (8­12km) and depositing them on the surface of the earth where they form mounds ranging from 5 to 500m high.
Volcano K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects (5881 words)
Active mud volcanoes tend to involve temperatures much lower than those of igneous volcanoes, except when a mud volcano is actually a vent of an igneous volcano.
In 1989 the Voyager 2 spacecraft observed ice volcanoes (cryovolcanism) on Triton, a moon of Neptune and in 2005 the Cassini-Huygens probe photographed fountains of frozen particles erupting from Saturn's moon Enceladus [2].
Some volcanoes consist of a crater alone, with scarcely any mountain at all; but in the majority of cases the crater is situated on top of a mountain (the volcano), which can tower to an enormous height.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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