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In computer gaming, a MUD (Multi-User Dungeon, Domain or Dimension) is a multi-player computer game that combines elements of role-playing games, hack and slash style computer games and social chat rooms. Typically running on an Internet server or bulletin board system, the game is usually text-driven, where players read descriptions of rooms, objects, events, other characters, and computer-controlled creatures or non-player characters (NPCs) in a virtual world. Players usually interact with each other and the surroundings by typing commands that resemble a natural language, usually English. Arguably, modern graphics-based massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), such as World of Warcraft, and social avatar virtual worlds such as Second Life can be considered MUD variants. For a homophonic name, see Mudd. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... A multiplayer game is a video game in which more than one person can play the same game at the same time. ... This article is about traditional role-playing games. ... HACK/slash is the name of a graphic novel from Devils Due Publishing. ... A chat room or chatroom is a term used primarily by mass media to describe any form of synchronous conferencing, occasionally even asynchronous conferencing. ... BBS redirects here. ... A non-player character is a fictional character in a role-playing game whose role is generally created and performed by the gamemaster. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a language that is spoken, written, or signed by humans for general-purpose communication, as distinguished from formal languages (such as computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic) and... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Players interacting in Ultima Online, a classic MMORPG. Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) is a genre of online computer role-playing games (CRPGs) in which a large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world. ... World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment and is the fourth game in the Warcraft series, excluding expansion packs and the cancelled Warcraft Adventures: Lord of the Clans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Second Life (abbreviated as SL) is an Internet-based virtual world launched in 2003, developed by Linden Research, Inc (commonly referred to as Linden Lab), which came to international attention via mainstream news media in late 2006 and early 2007. ...


Traditional MUDs implement a fantasy world populated by elves, goblins, dwarves, halflings and other mythical or fantasy-based races, with players being able to take on any number of classes, including warriors, mages, priests, thieves, druids, etc., in order to gain specific skills or powers. The object of this sort of game is to slay monsters, explore a rich fantasy world, to complete quests, go on adventures, create a story by roleplaying, and/or advance the created character. Many MUDs were fashioned around the dice rolling rules of the Dungeons & Dragons series of games. For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Read psychedelic section for amazing info! on the experiments of real elves good for school projects This article is about the small mythical creature, for the 2003 film, see Elf (film). ... For other uses, see Goblin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... Halfling is another name for J. R. R. Tolkiens hobbit and is a fictional race sometimes found in fantasy novels and games. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Many fantasy stories and worlds call their main sapient humanoid species races rather than species. ... This article is about a concept in role-playing games. ... Warrior (From Middle English, from Old North French, to make war) is a character class (or job) found in many computer role-playing games, most notably in Square Enixs Final Fantasy series. ... In roleplaying games, a spellcaster is a character able to cast magic spells. ... The cleric is a character class in Dungeons & Dragons and other fantasy role-playing games. ... Zidane Tribal is a thief from Final Fantasy IX Thief, taken from the Battle for Wesnoth computer game. ... Elvish druid, taken from the Battle for Wesnoth computer game. ... This article is about the legendary creature. ... In roleplaying, participants adopt and act out the role of characters, or parts, that may have personalities, motivations, and backgrounds different from their own. ... This article is about the role-playing game. ...


Such fantasy settings for MUDs are common, while many others are set in a science fiction–based universe or themed on popular books, movies, animations, history, and so on. Not all MUDs are games; some, more typically those referred to as MOOs, are used in distance education or for virtual conferences. MUDs have attracted the interest of academic scholars from many fields, including communications, sociology, law, and synthetic economies. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Look up moo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Distance Education is a field of expertise exploring situations in which the learner and the teacher are separated in time, space or both. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... ...


Most MUDs are run as hobbies and are free to players; some may accept donations or allow players to "purchase" in-game items, while others charge a monthly subscription fee.

Contents

History

A MUD logon screen.

Prehistory

The first games which might today be recognised as MUDs appeared in 1977 on the PLATO system.[citation needed] In Europe at around the same time, MUD development was centered around academic networks, particularly at the University of Essex where they were played by many people, both within and outside of the university. In this context, it has been said that MUD stands for "Multi-Undergrad Destroyer" or "Multiple Undergraduate Destroyer" due to their popularity among college students and the amount of time devoted to the MUD by the student. The popularity of MUDs of the Essex University tradition escalated in the USA during the 1980s, when—relatively speaking—cheap, home personal computers with 300 to 2400 bit/s modems enabled role-players to log into multi-line BBSes and online services such as Compuserve. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The University of Essex rules is a British plate glass university. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... BBS redirects here. ... An online service provider is an entity which provides a service online. ... CompuServe, (in full, CompuServe Information Services, or CIS), was the first major commercial online service in the United States. ...


MUD the game

The first known MUD was created in 1978 by Roy Trubshaw and Richard Bartle at Essex University on a DEC PDP-10 in the UK, using initially MACRO-10 (an assembly language) and, later, rewritten in BCPL; also used was a database description language, MUDDL.[1] They chose the acronym MUD to stand for Multi-User Dungeon,[2] in reference to a Fortran port of Infocom's text adventure game Zork for the PDP-10 called Dungeon (or DUNGEN due to the six character filename limit).[3] Zork in turn was inspired by an older text-adventure game known as Colossal Cave Adventure or ADVENT. The classic game MIST (also part of Essex University MUD) which could be played from any computer connected to JANET (a European academic network), became one of the first of its kind to attain broad popularity.[4] Roy Trubshaw was a programmer at Essex University who coauthored, with Richard Bartle, the first known MUD on a DEC PDP-10. ... Richard Allan Bartle (born January 10, 1960, in England) is a British writer and game researcher, best known for being the co-author of MUD, the first multi-user dungeon. ... The PDP-10 was a computer manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from the late 1960s on; the name stands for Programmed Data Processor model 10. It was the machine that made time-sharing common; it looms large in hacker folklore because of its adoption in the 1970s by many... An assembly language is a low-level language for programming computers. ... BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) is a computer programming language that was designed by Martin Richards of the University of Cambridge in 1966; it was originally intended for use in writing compilers for other languages. ... Zork universe Zork games Zork Anthology Zork trilogy Zork I • Zork II • Zork III Beyond Zork • Zork Zero Enchanter trilogy Enchanter • Sorcerer • Spellbreaker Other games Wishbringer • Return to Zork Zork: Nemesis • Zork Grand Inquisitor Zork: The Undiscovered Underground Topics in Zork Encyclopedia Frobozzica Characters • Kings • Creatures Timeline • Magic • Calendar Zorkmid... Zork I is one of the first interactive fiction games, as well as being one of the first commercially sold. ... This article is about an early text based computer game. ... MIST was one of the first public access MUDs (Multi-user Dungeon) games in the world. ... JANET is a private British government-funded computer network dedicated to education and research. ...


Oubliette, written by Jim Schwaiger, and published on the PLATO system predated MUD1 by about a year. It was so difficult that one could not play it alone: in order for players to survive, they had to run in groups. While Oubliette was a multi-player game, there was no persistence to the game world. Following it, also on PLATO, was a game called Moria written in 1977, copyright 1978. Again, players could run in parties but in this game it was also possible to effectively play while only running one character. They were graphical in nature and very advanced for their time, but were proprietary programs that were unable to spread beyond PLATO. Textual worlds, which typically ran on Unix, VMS, or DOS, were now far more accessible to the public. Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ...


Another early MUD was Avatar, begun around 1977 and opened in 1979, written by Bruce Maggs, Andrew Shapira, and Dave Sides, all high school students using the PLATO system at the University of Illinois. This MUD was 2.5-D game running on 512x512 plasma panels of the PLATO system, and groups of up to 15 players could enter the dungeon simultaneously and fight monsters as a team. Avatar, with by far the most hours played of any PLATO game, is still running, playable by anyone, on the emulated mainframe at www.cyber1.org and via the NovaNET NPT service. Avatar is a text-based & graphics-based multi-user highly interactive role-playing computer game, created on the Control Data Corporation PLATO computer system. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... (Redirected from 2. ... An example of a plasma display A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display now commonly used for large TV displays (typically above 37-inch or 940 mm). ...


In the late 1970s there were numerous other PLATO games which were MUD-like, in various stages of development, some open, some never opened. Some were essentially single-player games but had some multi-player interaction such as communication and shared halls of fame. These games influenced the development of more well-known PLATO MUDs such as Avatar and Oubliette. At the time, these games were referred to as 'dungeon games'. Around this time, at least 10 and possibly as many as 100 people were actively working on MUD games on PLATO. It was common to see two to five people sitting side by side and working on different MUD games in room 165 or the author room of University of Illinois's CERL building. Many non-MUD games also came from this environment, such as empire and airfight.


Commercialisation and spread

In 1978, Alan E. Klietz wrote a game called Milieu using Multi-Pascal on a CDC Cyber, which was used by high school students in Minnesota for educational purposes. Klietz ported Milieu to an IBM XT in 1983, naming the new port Scepter of Goth (also spelled Sceptre of Goth). Scepter supported 10 to 16 simultaneous users, typically connecting in by modem. It was one of the first commercial MUDs; franchises were sold to a number of locations. Scepter (and an unfinished advanced MUD by Klietz called ScreenPlay) was first owned and run by GamBit (of Minneapolis, Minnesota), founded by Bob Alberti. GamBit's assets, including Scepter and ScreenPlay, were later sold to InterPlay (of Fairfax, Virginia). InterPlay eventually went bankrupt, making Scepter no longer available. In 1984, Mark Peterson wrote The Realm of Angmar, beginning as a clone of Sceptre of Goth. Pascal is a structured imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ... The CDC Cyber range of mainframe/super-computers were Control Data Corporation (CDC)s primary products during the 1970s and 1980s. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... Scepter of Goth, also spelled Sceptre of Goth, was an early multi-user text-based adventure game, a genre now typically called a multi-user dungeon or MUD. Originally written by Alan E. Klietz, Scepter of Goth was one of the first commercial MUDs, usually implementing a fantasy setting in... Minneapolis redirects here. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Founded 1805 Government  - Mayor Robert Lederer Area  - City  6. ... In the computer and video game industry, a clone is a game or game series which is very similar to or heavily inspired by a previous popular game or game series. ...


In 1984, Mark Jacobs created and deployed a commercial gaming site, Gamers World. The site featured two games coded and designed by Jacobs, a MUD called Aradath (which was later renamed, upgraded and ported to GEnie as Dragon's Gate) and a 4X science-fiction game called Galaxy, which was also ported to GEnie. At its peak, the site had about 100 monthly subscribers to both Aradath and Galaxy. GEnie was shut down in the late 1980s, although Dragon's Gate was later brought to America Online before it was finally released on its own. Dragon's Gate was officially closed on February 10th, 2007 until further notice.[5] Mark Jacobs is President and CEO of Mythic Entertainment, Inc. ... For other uses, see Genie (disambiguation). ... Dragons Gate was an interactive, real time, text-based multi user online fantasy role-playing game, sometimes referred to as a MUD. It was one of the longest running pay-for-play online games in the world, it opened to the public in the spring of 1991 on GEnie. ... This article is about the strategy game genre. ... For other uses, see Genie (disambiguation). ... Dragons Gate was an interactive, real time, text-based multi user online fantasy role-playing game, sometimes referred to as a MUD. It was one of the longest running pay-for-play online games in the world, it opened to the public in the spring of 1991 on GEnie. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


These text-adventure games (both single and multi-player) drew inspiration from the paper-and-pencil based role-playing games (RPGs) that were approaching their peak popularity at this time, especially with the release of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons (AD&D) in 1977. This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... For other uses, see Dungeons & Dragons (disambiguation). ...


This strong bond between RPGs and MUDs continued through the years with the release of dozens of AD&D modules and related books and stories (e.g., Forgotten Realms and Dragonlance). Influences also came from the gamebooks such as Fighting Fantasy, Choose Your Own Adventure, and Lone Wolf. It has been suggested that Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting be merged into this article or section. ... The current edition Dragonlance logo, as seen on all books published in the more recent times. ... A gamebook is a book with a branching plot that serves as a medium for gameplay. ... For a list of Fighting Fantasy media, see List of Fighting Fantasy gamebooks Fighting Fantasy is a series of single-player role-playing gamebooks created by Steve Jackson and Ian Livingstone, originally published by Puffin and now by Wizard Books. ... The Cave of Time, the first Choose Your Own Adventure book. ... Lone Wolf role-playing gamebooks. ...


Other MUDs that appeared around 1985 included Mirrorworld, run by Pip Cordrey and developed and written by Tim Rogers, Lorenzo Wood and Nathaniel Billington. Mirrorworld was the first MUD to feature rolling resets. SHADES by Neil Newell was a commercial MUD accessible in the UK via British Telecom's Prestel and Micronet networks. A scandal on SHADES led to the closure of Micronet, as described in Indra Sinha's net-memoir, The Cybergypsies. Prestel, the brand name for the British General Post Offices Viewdata technology, was an interactive videotex system developed during the late 1970s and commercially launched in 1979. ... Some factual claims in this article or section need to be verified. ... Some factual claims in this article or section need to be verified. ... Indra Sinha (b. ...


Another popular MUD was AberMUD, written in 1987 by Alan Cox (also known as Anarchy), named after the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. Avalon, the Legend Lives, started in 1989, was the first MUD to combine a consistent fantasy story-line with a commercial venture. AberMUD was initially written in B for a Honeywell L66 mainframe under GCOS3/TSS and later ported to C, which enabled it to rapidly spread to many Unix platforms.[6] AberMUD was the first popular internet-based MUD. The first version was written in B by Alan Cox for an old Honeywell mainframe and opened in 1987. ... Alan Cox at FOSS.IN/2005 Alan Cox (born 1968) is a computer programmer heavily involved in the development of the Linux kernel since its early days (1991). ... Affiliations University of Wales AMBA ACU Universities UK HiPACT Website http://www. ... B was the name of a programming language developed at Bell Labs. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ...


Monster was a multi-user adventure game created by Richard Skrenta for the VAX and written in VMS Pascal. It was publicly released in November 1988.[7] Monster was disk-based and modifications to the game were immediate. Monster pioneered the approach of allowing players to build the game world, setting new puzzles or creating dungeons for other players to explore.[8] Monster was the inspiration for TinyMUD.[9] Rich Skrenta is a computer programmer. ... VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ... The letters OLC can be an abbreviation for many different topics, including the following: online creation Office of Legal Council This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... TinyMUD is the name both of a certain implementation of a Multi-User Dungeon server, and the first MUD run using that implementation. ...


TinyMUD and diversification

In 1989, TinyMUD began to allow players to easily participate in creating the online environment, as well as playing in it. The TinyMUD code spawned a number of descendants, including TinyMUCK and TinyMUSH, which added more sophisticated programmability. (TinyMUCK versions 2 and higher contain a full programming language named MUF, or Multi-User Forth, while MUSH greatly expanded the variety of commands and functions available and allowed them to apply to all objects.) Some use the term MU* to refer to TinyMUD, MUCK, MUSH, MUSE, MUX, and their kin; others simply allow the term MUD to apply universally. MUVE is a recent coinage, intended to stand for Multi-User Virtual Environment. UberMUD, UnterMUD, and MOO are some other MUD servers that were at least partially inspired by TinyMUD but are not direct descendants. TinyMUD is the name both of a certain implementation of a Multi-User Dungeon server, and the first MUD run using that implementation. ... TinyMUCK is a MUD server written by Stephen White which was released sometime before Feb 1990 and was derived from TinyMUD 1. ... The login screen from M*U*S*H, the centre of development for PennMUSH. A MUSH (sometimes said to be an abbreviation for Multi-User Shared Hack, Habitat, Holodeck, or Hallucination, though these are backronyms) is a text-based online social medium to which multiple users are connected at the... MUF (short for Muckers Forth or Multi-User Forth) is a Forth-based programming language used on TinyMUCK MUCK servers and their descendants, including Fuzzball MUCK, ProtoMUCK and GlowMUCK. MUF is the systems-programming language for TinyMUCK systems. ... Forth is a programming language and programming environment, initially developed by Charles H. Moore at the US National Radio Astronomy Observatory in the early 1970s. ... Look up moo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Also in 1989, and inspired by TinyMUD and AberMUD, LPMud was developed as a more game-oriented MUD built around a C-like programming language, LPC. 1989 also saw the development of Avalon, using its own code base run through the Hourglass compiler. Developed in complete isolation from all other MUDs, Avalon adopted an object-oriented approach using the powerful British Acorn Archimedes computer technology. In Europe it was very popular for MUD writers to write in isolation. The three largest commercial examples would be Avalon, Shades and the Terris/Cosrin Engine. LPMud (sometimes shortened to simply LP) is a MUD variant developed in 1989 by Lars Pensjö that separates the mud game functionality between a virtual machine (known as the driver) and world-building components in the LPC programming language (known as the mudlib). ... The LPC programming language is an object-oriented programming language derived from C and developed by Lars Pensjö to facilitate MUD building on LPMuds. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 1991, the release of DikuMUD, which was inspired by AberMUD, led to a virtual explosion of hack-n-slash MUDs based upon its code. DikuMUD inspired several derivative codebases too, including CircleMUD, Merc, ROM and SMAUG. Meanwhile, Avalon had become a commercial game operating in the UK on up to 16 simultaneous modem connections. DikuMUD is a multiplayer text-based adventure game (a type of MUD) written in 1990 and 1991 by Sebastian Hammer, Tom Madsen, Katja Nyboe, Michael Seifert, and Hans Henrik Staerfeldt at DIKU (Datalogisk Institut Københavns Universitet), the department of computer science at the University of Copenhagen in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... In several different types of games, hack and slash refers to a type of game or a style of gameplay which is primarially comprised of defeating enemies and monsters in combat, typically with swords or other melée weapons, hence the name. ... Codebase is a term used in software development to refer to the aggregate of all source code used to build a particular application or component. ... CircleMUD is a MUD codebase written by Jeremy Elson first released on July 16, 1993. ... Merc is a MUD engine derived from DikuMUD (through Copper MUD) in the early 1990s that has served as the basis for many later MUDs. ... ROM is a MUD codebase derived from Merc, which is based on DikuMUD. Russ Taylor (Alander) released Rom 2. ... Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Smaug is a fictional character in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


In 1992 a second Avalon, the Legend Lives site was opened in the north of England, Sheffield, to give local users cheaper phone call access.


In 1993 Avalon, the Legend Lives attempted to circumvent the expense of online connections in the UK with the Hostplay concept: providing access via terminals in Avalon's own offices in central London in addition to its 16 modem connections.


In 1994, Mark Peterson rewrote The Realm of Angmar, adapting it to MS-DOS (the basis for many dial-in BBS systems), and renamed it Swords of Chaos. For a few years this was a very popular form of MUD, hosted on a number of BBS systems, until widespread Internet access eliminated most BBSes. Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... A bulletin board system or BBS is a computer system running software that allows users to dial into the system over a phone line and, using a terminal program, perform functions such as downloading software and data, uploading data, playing games, reading news, and exchanging messages with other users. ... Swords of Chaos is a computer game by Mark Peterson of the type called a MUD (Multi-User Dungeon). ...


Avalon, like other commercial MUDs, went live on the Internet in late 1994. In doing so, they closed down the local Sheffield site. It also released a specialized Windows telnet client named AvPlay, making it the first MUD to release such a client (although AvPlay can also be used for any other MUD.) Avalon, the Legend Lives is still running and under continuous development today.


The closing of the Sheffield site motivated one Avalon player, Paul Barnett (now creative Director for the Warhammer Online MMO at EA-Mythic), to design and write the Legends of Terris MUD engine with Doug Goldner. Paul Barnett designed the game and Doug Goldner wrote the code. Paul Barnett (born January 15, 1970) is an English game designer most often associated with Games Workshops Warhammer universe. ...


At this time, AOL US already ran several highly successful games, including Dragons Gate and Darkness Falls (by Mythic Entertainment, which later launched Dark Age of Camelot), Federation (game) (a space trading game) and Gem Stone III (Simutronics, which later launched A Hero's Journey), and AOL Europe had begun operations and was looking for a European MUD game to offer to its subscribers. Legends of Terris was selected to be AOL Europe’s flagship MUD. Legends of Terris was launched on AOL Europe at the end of the year. Legends of Terris itself was hosted at a place called Sub-Cyberia in the basement of the first UK Internet cafe, Cyberia. The game was also translated into German. Contemporary European commercial games typically had around 30-50 players connected at once; within one month, Legends of Terris had over 600 simultaneous players connected. Federation is a text-based online game developed by IBGames. ...


Legends of Terris became the largest commercial MUD in Europe[citation needed], with over 2000 simultaneous players connected at once. It was now generating over 250,000 game-hours worth of revenue for AOL. Legends of Terris would hit a number as high as 2,544 players at once, while Gem Stone III continued to dominate the commercial MUD world, attracting 6000 concurrent users at its height. Gem Stone III, Avalon and Legends of Terris are all commercially operating today.


Of the commercial engines available, Avalon focused on player vs. player design, Gem Stone III was dominant in the areas of game world size and installed player base, and Legends of Terris championed the player vs. environment style of play.


MUDs can be accessed via standard telnet clients, or specialized MUD clients which are designed to improve the user experience. Numerous games are listed at various web portals (see External Links). For the packet switched network, see Telenet. ... A mud client is a piece of software used to connect to a MUD. Generally a mud client is a very basic telnet client that lacks VT100 terminal emulation and the capability to perform telnet negotiations. ...


Next phase?

Online graphics-based games (MMORPGs), such as EverQuest, World of Warcraft, Runescape, and Dungeons & Dragons Online: Stormreach, and graphics-based social avatar worlds like Second Life, are arguably analogous to MUDs, and are sometimes referred to as "graphical MUDs" (see next section) or "next-generation MUDs". An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ... EverQuest, often called EQ, is a 3D fantasy-themed massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) that was released on March 16, 1999. ... World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment and is the fourth game in the Warcraft series, excluding expansion packs and the cancelled Warcraft Adventures: Lord of the Clans. ... RuneScape is a Java-based MMORPG operated by Jagex Ltd. ... Second Life (abbreviated as SL) is an Internet-based virtual world launched in 2003, developed by Linden Research, Inc (commonly referred to as Linden Lab), which came to international attention via mainstream news media in late 2006 and early 2007. ...


Similarities include the basic goals and objectives of the games, where games are present, and the sociality of the environments (the tendency to associate in or form social groups). One difference, among many, is that the majority of MMORPGs and social avatar worlds are commercial ventures. The Business of Social Avatar Virtual Worlds


Variants

Graphical MUDs

Main article: MMORPG

A graphical MUD is a MUD that uses computer graphics to represent parts of the virtual world and its visitors. A prominent early graphical MUD was Habitat, written by Randy Farmer and Chip Morningstar for Lucasfilm in 1985. Graphical MUDs require players to download a special client and the game's artwork. They range from simply enhancing the user interface to simulating 3D worlds with visual spatial relationships and customized avatar appearances. An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ... Computer graphics (CG) is the field of visual computing, where one utilizes computers both to generate visual images synthetically and to integrate or alter visual and spatial information sampled from the real world. ... Habitat was an early and technologically influentual online role-playing game developed by Lucasfilm Games and made available as a beta test in 1987 by Quantum Link, an online service for the Commodore 64 computer and the corporate progenitor to America Online. ... F. Randall Randy Farmer is a respected pioneer in creating online communities. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: #REDIRECT Life preserver If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Lucasfilm Ltd. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ...


After the increase in computing power and Internet connectivity during the late nineties, graphical MUDs became better known as MMORPGs, Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games. An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ...


Talkers and spods

Main article: Talker

A less-known MUD variant is the talker, typically based on ew-too or NUTS, with plenty of derived codebases. The early talkers were essentially MUDs with most of the complex game machinery stripped away, leaving just the communication commands -- hence the name "talker". Talkers use simple protocols and create very little network traffic, making them ideal for setting up quietly at work. A talker is a MUD variant, a communication system precursor to MMORPGs and other virtual worlds such as Second Life. ... A talker is a MUD variant, a communication system precursor to MMORPGs and other virtual worlds such as Second Life. ... ewtoo, short for Elsewhere Too, was the first publicly available code base for Internet talkers and was written by Simon Burble Marsh in 1992. ... NUTS is a talker base written in C programming language by Neil Robertson, and got the status as the most well-known talker base. ... Codebase is a term used in software development to refer to the aggregate of all source code used to build a particular application or component. ...


People who use these tend to be called spods, and have earned a place in the Jargon File. Spod is used to refer to a person who uses ew-too-style talkers (it is unheard of with NUTS-style talkers, which make up half of all talkers[]). The spod tends to be something of a long-term fanatic; many have been using the same talker for a decade... The Jargon File is a glossary of hacker slang. ...


Role-play intensive MUDs

One style of MUD is the Role-Play Intensive MUD, or RPIMUD, a somewhat obscure category of MUDs whose proponents aggressively work to define and differentiate it from other MUDs. RPIMUDs focus on realistic, enforced roleplay, often within fantasy themes. In general, the objective of the game is not goal-based hack-and-slash, but to collaborate with fellow players to create complex and multi-layered storylines in a cohesive game world. In role-playing, participants adopt characters, or parts, that have personalities, motivations, and backgrounds different from their own. ... HACK/slash is the name of a graphic novel from Devils Due Publishing. ...


The majority of RPIMUDs do not use the concepts of character level and class, focusing instead on skills, crafts, and role-playing against the world or environment, often going as far as to request that their players engage in role-play with inanimate creatures and objects. Such dedication to role-playing, in addition to creating a vivid experience for other players, is often rewarded by staff members who monitor the game. Out-of-character communications are generally restricted, if present at all. This contrasts with other MUD role-playing styles, such as storytelling and freestyle MUSHes, in which role-play is orchestrated between players and OOC communications are more important.


Player versus player MUDs

Main article: Player versus player

A player versus player, or player killing, MUD is one which encourages player versus player combat. Some MUDs have registered player killing, meaning a player must register as a player killer and can only fight other registered player killers. This article is about multiplayer computer role-playing games. ... This article is about multiplayer computer role-playing games. ... This article is about multiplayer computer role-playing games. ...


Psychology

Dr. Sherry Turkle, Ph.D. of Sociology of Science at MIT, developed a theory in her book "Life on the Screen" that the constant use (and in many cases, overuse) of MUDs allows users to develop different personalities in their environments. She uses examples, which date back to the text-based MUDs of the mid-1990s, showing college students who simultaneously live different lives through characters in separate MUDs, up to three at a time, all while doing schoolwork. The students claimed that it was a way to "shut off" their own lives for a while and become part of another reality. Turkle claims that this could present a psychological problem of identity for today's youths. Sherry Turkle (born 1948) is a clinical psychologist and a professor of Science, Technology and Society at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet is a study of how people interact with machines and some of the consequences for the way people use these computers by clinical psychologist and professor Sherry Turkle. ...


Turkle also explores the ideas of the use of bots in MUDs. She references the Turing Test, put forth by Alan Turing, proposing that an automaton could be considered truly intelligent if they were able to convince a human conversing with it that it was human. Turkle presents the troubling ideas of sexual deviancy involved with this: that someone posing as a bot could "trick" someone into believing that they were a bot and allowing them to engage in sexual activity online. Turkle wonders aloud if this could be considered, at the worst, rape and at the very least, an invasion of privacy. Look up bot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Doctor Who novel named after the test, see The Turing Test (novel). ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ...


See also

Zork I is one of the first interactive fiction games, as well as being one of the first commercially sold. ... A mud client is a piece of software used to connect to a MUD. Generally a mud client is a very basic telnet client that lacks VT100 terminal emulation and the capability to perform telnet negotiations. ... A MUD tree or multi-user dungeon tree is a hierarchical display of derived code from source code packages. ... A mobile is a non-player character (NPC) or monster in a MUD (also used in other computer role-playing games such as MMORPGs). ... An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ... The login screen from M*U*S*H, the centre of development for PennMUSH. A MUSH (sometimes said to be an abbreviation for Multi-User Shared Hack, Habitat, Holodeck, or Hallucination, though these are backronyms) is a text-based online social medium to which multiple users are connected at the... Look up moo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Muck can refer to several different things: An Alternative Rock Band From Baltimore Muck(Band) A type of soil: Muck (soil) An island in Scotland: Muck, Scotland The kayak club of NUIM: MUCK, NUIM Kayak Club In gambling, a number of actions both legal and illegal: Muck (gambling) Other meanings... A talker is a MUD variant, a communication system precursor to MMORPGs and other virtual worlds such as Second Life. ... Online Creation (OLC, sometimes also referred to as Online Coding) is a software feature, often found in MUDs, that allows users to edit world data while simultaneously playing the game. ... An online text-based role playing game (OTBRPG) is a role-playing game played online using a solely text-based interface such as TELNET, an internet forum, or in a chat. ...

References

  1. ^ Early MUD History.
  2. ^ The Dragon Ate My Homework
  3. ^ Richard A. Bartle. Designing Virtual Worlds. July, 2003. ISBN 0-1310-1816-7. Chapter 1, pg.5: "The "D" in MUD stands for "Dungeon" [...] due to the fact that the version of ZORK Roy played was a Fortran port called DUNGEN."
  4. ^ Escape from the Dungeon
  5. ^ The Future of Dragon's Gate
  6. ^ Richard A. Bartle. Designing Virtual Worlds. July, 2003. ISBN 0-1310-1816-7. Chapter 1, pg.9.
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ http://www.skrenta.com/monster/final.html
  9. ^ http://www.linnaean.org/~lpb/muddex/mud-answers3.html#note1

External links

MUD history, analysis

  • Some history and reviews from Richard Bartle's "Interactive Multi-User Computer Games" report
  • The MUDline: A timeline of MUD history up to 1995.
  • A Classification of MUDs by Martin Keegan, Grandmaster Data Services Ltd, Cambridge, UK
  • Early MUD history
  • Online World Timeline - Raph Koster's timeline of significant events for the development of virtual worlds.
  • Living Internet A comprehensive history of the internet, including MUDs.
  • Bartle MUD Personality Analyzer Long-running test to classify MUD/MMORPG personality, based on Bartle's research.
  • [2] Cultural Formations in Text-Based Virtual Realities.
  • Journal of Virtual Environments: Formerly the Journal of Mud Research. A currently inactive peer-reviewed academic journal.

Richard Allan Bartle (born January 10, 1960, in England) is a British writer and game researcher, best known for being the co-author of MUD, the first multi-user dungeon. ...

MUD source code repositories

  • Erwin S. Andreasen: Home of the 16k MUD competition, and other resources.
  • ftpgame.org: Hierarchal archive of MUD source code
  • MudBytes.net: MUD code repository and discussion.
  • MudMagic.com: MUD software downloads, discussion, game listings, and documentations.
  • Mindcloud.com: MUD code repository and discussion. Specifically dealing with the GodWars Derivative line.

MUD resources

  • The MUD Connector: Large portal site containing 1300+ searchable listings of text-based MUDs, discussions, a social network devoted to mudding, resources, etc
  • Jargon File: The Jargon File's entry on MUDs.
  • Mapping MUDs: 3-Dimensional modelling of a MUD
  • Mud Domain: The Social Network for Mudders
  • MU*Wiki: A community site for discussion and promotion of MUDs.
  • The MudLists Resource Center: A comprehensive list of over 600 MUDS including numerous player references and other MUD related statistics.
  • Top Mud Sites: MUD portal and voting site containing 1700+ MUDS, MUD forums, reviews, resources, MUD articles.
  • MUDseek: Google custom search engine indexing MUD and MUD-related web sites.
  • RPIMUD Network: Site devoted to Role-Play Intensive MUDs.
  • NoGFX (No Graphics): MUD logs and resource archive.
  • FindMUD: MUD listings and codebase downloads.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Basic Information about MUDs and MUDding (2998 words)
Some MUDs have a policy called "registration" to cut down on abuse of privileges; you might have to send mail to the God/Wizard of the MUD in order to obtain a character.
However, there is nothing preventing the MUD's owner from modifying the code to dump the passwords to a file, along with other information such as the host you connected from.
MUDSex is the act of performing MUD actions to imitate having sex with another character, usually consentually, sometimes with one hand on the keyboard, sometimes with two.
Mud volcano - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1265 words)
A mud volcano may be the result of a piercement structure created by a pressurized mud diapir which breaches the Earth's surface or ocean bottom.
Mud volcanoes are often associated with petroleum deposits and tectonic subduction zones and orogenic belts.
Mud volcanoes are often associated with lava volcanoes, and the typical relationship is that where they are close, the mud volcanoes emit incombustible gases, while the ones further away emit methane.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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