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Encyclopedia > Mucus
Mucus cells.
Mucus cells.

Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of the mucous membranes in the body. It is a viscous colloid containing antiseptic enzymes (such as lysozyme) and immunoglobulins. Mucus is produced by goblet cells in the mucous membranes that cover the surfaces of the membranes. It is made up of mucins and inorganic salts suspended in water. Phlegm is a type of mucus that is restricted to the respiratory tract, while the term mucus refers to secretions of the nasal passages as well. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 2. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... A Colloid or colloidal dispersion is a type of homogeneous mixture. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Lysozyme single crystal. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Goblet cells are glandular simple columnar epithelial cells whose sole function is to secrete mucus. ... Mucins are a family of large, heavily glycosylated proteins. ... Phlegm (pronounced ) is sticky fluid secreted by the typhoid membranes of animals. ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ...

Contents

Respiratory system

In the respiratory system, mucus traps particles such as bacteria and dust, helping to prevent them from entering the body; this occurs especially in the nose. Mucus aids in the protection of the lungs by trapping foreign particles that enter the nose during normal breathing. Additionally, it prevents tissues from drying out. Increased mucus production in the respiratory tract is a symptom of many common illnesses, such as the common cold. The presence of mucus in the nose and throat is normal, but increased quantities can impede comfortable breathing and must be cleared by blowing the nose or expectorating phlegm from the throat. Among the components of nasal mucus are tears. Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... Phlegm (pronounced ) is sticky fluid secreted by the typhoid membranes of animals. ... The tear system. ...


Dried nasal mucus (vulgarly or colloquially called "snot", "booger(s)", "boogie(s)" (US) or "bogey" (UK)) is partially solidified mucus from the nose. Dried nasal mucus forms when the mucus traps dust and other particles in the air. Mucus dries around the particle and hardens, somewhat like a pearl forming in an oyster. Since catching foreign particles is one of the main functions of nasal mucus, the presence of dried nasal mucus is a good indicator of a properly functioning nose. (As opposed to a "runny nose", which can indicate illness). For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... Rhinorrhea, commonly known as a runny nose, is a symptom of the common cold and may also result from allergies (hay fever). ...


Mucin

Mucus is produced by submucosal cells as well as goblet cells in the respiratory system. It consists of mucin, a highly glycosylated peptide. Upon stimulation, MARPKs (myrastine-alanine rich protein kinases) signal the binding of mucin filled vesicles to the plasma membrane. The fusion of the vesicles causes the release of the mucin, which as it exchanges Ca2+ for Na+ expands up to 600 fold. The result is a viscoelastic product of interwoven molecules called mucus. Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ...


Digestive system

In the digestive system, mucus is used as a lubricant for materials which must pass over membranes, e.g., food passing down the esophagus. A layer of mucus along the inner walls of the stomach is vital to protect the cell linings of that organ from the highly acidic environment within it. The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ...


Reproductive system

In the female reproductive system, cervical mucus prevents infection and helps the movement of the penis during sexual intercourse. When thin, cervical mucus helps the movement of spermatozoa. The consistency of cervical mucus varies depending on the stage of a woman's menstrual cycle. At ovulation cervical mucus is clear, runny, and conducive to sperm; post-ovulation, mucus becomes thicker and is more likely to block sperm. The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Schematic diagram of a sperm cell, showing the (1) acrosome, (2) cell membrane, (3) nucleus, (4) mitochondria, and (5) flagellum (tail) A sperm cell, or spermatozoon ( spermatozoa) (in Greek: sperm = semen and zoon = alive), is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ...


In the male reproductive system, the seminal vesicles located behind the bladder contribute up to 60% of the total volume of the semen and contain mucus, amino acids, and fructose as the main energy source for the sperm. Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ...


Nasal mucus

Nasal mucus is mucus produced by the nasal mucosa. It serves to protect the respiratory tract and trap foreign objects such as dust and pollen before they enter the remainder of the respiratory tract. Nasal mucus is produced continually, and most of it is swallowed unconsciously. The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ...


Diseases involving mucus

Generally mucus is clear and thin, serving to filter air during inhalation. During times of infection, mucus can change color to yellow or green either as a result of trapped bacteria,[1] or due to the body's reaction to viral infection.[2] Such colored mucus or phlegm usually has an offensive putrid odor. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ...


In the case of bacterial infection, the bacterium becomes trapped in already clogged sinuses, breeding in the moist, nutrient-rich environment. Antibiotics may be used fruitfully to treat the secondary infection in these cases, but will generally not help with the original cause. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...


In the case of a viral infection such as cold or flu, the first stage of infection causes the production of a clear, thin mucus in the nose or back of the throat. As the body begins to react to the virus (generally one to three days), mucus thickens and may turn yellow or green. In these cases, antibiotics will not be useful, and are a major source of misuse. Treatment is generally symptom-based; the only cure is to allow the immune system to fight off the virus over time.


Cystic fibrosis

Main article: Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that affects the entire body, but symptoms begin mostly in the lungs with excess production of mucus which is difficult to expel.


Cold weather and mucus

During cold weather, the cilia which normally sweep mucus away from the nostrils and towards the back of the throat (see respiratory epithelium) become sluggish or completely cease functioning. This results in mucus running down the nose and dripping (a runny nose). Mucus also thickens in cold weather; when an individual comes in from the cold, the mucus thaws and begins to run before the cilia begin to work again. Not to be confused with Psyllium. ... Respiratory epithelium is another name for ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells. ...


As a medical symptom

Increased mucus production in the respiratory tract is a symptom of many common diseases, such as the common cold. The presence of mucus in the nose and throat is normal, but increased quantities can hinder comfortable breathing and may be cleared by blowing the nose or expectorating excess mucus from the back of the throat. Nasal mucus may also be removed by using traditional methods of nasal irrigation. Excess mucus, as with a cold or allergies may be treated cautiously with decongestant drugs. Excess mucus in the bronchial tubes, as which occurs in asthma or bronchitis, may be treated with anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce the mucus production. Thickening of mucus by decongestant drugs may produce problems of drainage and circumstances that promote infection. Mucus with any color other than clear or white is generally an indicator of an infection of the nasal mucosa or the paranasal sinus. // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... Spitting is the act of forcibly ejecting saliva or other substances from the mouth. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jala neti. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A decongestant is a broad class of drugs designed to symptomatically treat ailments affecting the respiratory system. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Rhinolith

Main article: Rhinolith

A rhinolith is sometimes mistaken for dried mucus but is actually a medical condition caused by salt deposition with the nasal cavity. A rhinolith is a calculus present in the nasal cavity. ... A rhinolith is a calculus present in the nasal cavity. ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ...


See also

Right nasal airway passage Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a medical condition that is caused when too much inner nasal mucus-producing tissue (the turbinates) are cut out of the nose, leaving the nasal cavities too empty, too wide and too dry, with severely diminished capabilities to perform their functions... Spinnbarkeit is a medical term and refers to the stringy and stretchy quality of cervical mucus at the time just prior to ovulation. ...

References

  1. ^ Why is nasal mucus green? (english) (2000-07-08). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  2. ^ Yellow-green Phlegm and Other Myths (html) (english). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.

  Results from FactBites:
 
NFPS-401 Cervical Mucus (638 words)
Throughout the day the presence or absence of mucus will be recognised by the sensation at the vulva (the vaginal lips), the way the beginning of a period is noticed.
Mucus is often noticed on underclothing, where it will have dried slightly causing some alteration in its characteristics.
Fertile mucus maintains the life of sperm, nourishes it and allows it to pass freely through the cervix.
Mucus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (590 words)
Mucus aids in the protection of the lungs by trapping foreign particles that enter the nose during normal breathing.
Mucus is made by goblet cells in the mucous membranes that cover the surfaces of the membranes.
The hardened mucus that forms in the eyes during sleep is sometimes referred to as "eye boogers".
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