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Encyclopedia > Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
Reign 661680
Full name Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abu Sufyān
Born 602
Died May 6, 680
Predecessor Ali
Successor Yazid I
Royal House Banu Abd Shams
Dynasty Umayyad
Father Abu Sufyan
Mother Hind bint Utbah

Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية بن أبي سفيانTransliteration: Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602-680) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. He engaged in a civil war against the fourth and final Rightly Guided Caliph, Ali (Muhammad's son-in-law) and met with considerable military success, including the seizure of Egypt. He assumed the caliphate after Ali's assassination in 661 and reigned until 680. Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Events Phocas kills Byzantine Emperor Maurice I and makes himself emperor Beginning of a series of wars between the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanids Births Muawiyah, founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs (approximate date) Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Banu Abd Shams refers to a clan within the Meccan Quraishi tribe. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was the leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, and was the chieftain of the entire Quraish tribe, making him one of, if not the most powerful men in Mecca during the lifetime of Muhammad. ... Hind bint Utbah (هند بنت عتبة) was an Arabic woman who lived in the late 6th and early 7th centuries CE; she was the wife of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, a powerful man of Mecca, in western Arabia. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Four Righteous Caliphs ( translit: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four caliphs that ruled after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


Because of his involvement in the Battle of Siffin again Ali, whom the Shia Muslims believe was Muhammad's true successor (see Succession to Muhammad), broke the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali (as) by appointing his son Yazid as ruler and was responsible for the deaths of various companions, he has been hated and reviled by generations of Shi'a. Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ...

Contents

Early life

Muawiyah ibn Abi-Sufyan was born (c. 600) into a powerful clan, (Banu Abd Shams), of the Quraysh tribe. The Quraysh controlled the city of Mecca, in what is now western Saudi Arabia, and the Banu Abd-Shams were among the most influential of its citizens. His father, Abu Sufyan, opposed Muhammad before becoming a Muslim after the Prophet conquered Mecca. His mother, Hind bint Utba, ripped the chest of Hamza (uncle of Mohammad) in the battle of Uhud and chewed his liver. Muawiyah is reported to have been of a polite, charming and confident nature and has been described as being tall, fair and handsome in appearance. Banu Abd Shams refers to a clan within the Meccan Quraishi tribe. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was the leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, and was the chieftain of the entire Quraish tribe, making him one of, if not the most powerful men in Mecca during the lifetime of Muhammad. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... view of Mt. ...


In 630 CE, Muhammad and his followers conquered Mecca, and most of the Meccans, including the Abd-Shams, formally submitted to Muhammad and accepted Islam. General consensus among early Islamic historians is that Muawiyah, along with his father Abu Sufyan, became Muslims at the conquest of Mecca when further resistance to Muslims became an impossibility. [1] [2] According to some historians[attribution needed] Muāwiyya accepted Islam in defiance of his relatives.


Muhammad welcomed his former opponents, enrolled them in his army and gave them important posts in the expanding Islamic empire. During Muhammad's last years, Muawiyah served him by writing down the revelations of the Qur'an which were revealed to the Prophet. After Muhammad's death in 632, he served in the Islamic army sent against the Byzantine forces in present-day Syria. He held a high rank in the Muslim Army with his brother Yazid bin Abu Sufyan. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Governor of Syria

Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab had appointed Yazid Ibn Abu Sufyan as governor of Syria. In the year 640, Umar appointed Muawiyah, the brother of Yazid Ibn Abu Sufyan, as governor of Syria when the latter died due to an outbreak of plague. Muawiyah gradually gained mastery over the other areas of Syria, instilling remarkable personal loyalty among his troops and the people of the region. By 647, Muawiyah had built a Syrian army strong enough to repel a Roman attack and, in subsequent years, to take the offensive against the Romans in campaigns that resulted in the capture of Cyprus (649) and Rhodes (654) and a devastating defeat of the Roman navy off the coast of Lycia (655). At the same time, Muawiyah periodically dispatched land expeditions into Anatolia. For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


According to the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor,Muawiyah I after capturing Rhodes sold the remains Colossus of Rhodes to a traveling salesman from Edessa. The buyer had the statue broken down, and transported the bronze scrap on the backs of 900 camels to his home. Pieces continued to turn up for sale for years, after being found along the caravan route. Saint Theophanes the Confessor (about 758/760, Constantinople - March 17, 817 or 818, Samothrace) was an aristocratic but ascetic Byzantine monk and chronicler. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... “The Colossus of Rhodes” redirects here. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


All these campaigns came to a halt with the accession of Ali to the caliphate, when a new and decisive phase of Muawiyah's career began. Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


Conflict with Ali

Muawiyah sought justice for the assassinated caliph Uthman ibn Affan. Aisha (Muhammad's widow), Talha and Zubayr ibn al-Awwam were all in agreement with Muawiyah that those who assassinated Uthman should be brought to justice. However, Ali refused to apprehend and punish Uthman's murderers, citing rebel infiltration of the Muslim ranks resulting in Muawiyah's refusal to acknowledge Ali's caliphate.[citation needed] However, Muawiyah did not participate in the Rebellion of Aisha, Talha and Zubayr ibn al-Awwam who went to war against Ali in the Battle of the Camel. It should be noted that Aisha, Talha, Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Muawiyah did not want to cause Muslim bloodshed [3]. The following few sentences from a speech made by Aisha before the start of the Battle of the Camel speak for themselves: For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... The murder of Uthman ibn Affan had become Talhahs tryst with destiny. ... Abu Abdullah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam was a Sahabi, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ... Combatants Islamic Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 10,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces...

"People used to find fault with Uthman and his officers. They would come to Madina and consult us. They understood whatever advice we gave them about keeping peace and order. When we considered the grievances they had against Uthman, we found Uthman innocent, God-fearing, and truthful, and these agitators, sinful, treacherous and liars. Their hearts concealed one thing whereas their lips gave utterance to another. When they gathered strength and entered the house of innocent Uthman without any just cause and shed blood which it was not lawful to shed. They plundered what it was not lawful to take. They desecrated the soil whose sanctity it was their duty to respect. Now listen! The work before us which it does not behove us to neglect is to arrest the assassins of Uthman and see that the law of God has its way".[citation needed]

The city of Basrah fell to Aisha, Talha and Zubayr ibn al-Awwam. Most of the mischief mongers[citation needed] were rounded up and killed. Nonetheless, Ali was victorious and pardoned Aisha, had her escorted to Medina and allocated her a pension. Talha and Zubayr ibn al-Awwam were killed in the Battle of the Camel.


Ali then turned towards Syria, which was in open revolt under governor Muawiyah. He marched to the Euphrates and engaged Muawiyah's troops at the famous Battle of Siffin (657). Accounts of the clash vary -- however, it would seem that neither side had won a victory, since the Syrians called for arbitration to settle the matter, arguing that continuing civil war would embolden the Byzantines.[4] There are several conflicting accounts of the arbitrations. For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ...


In the meantime, dissension broke out in Ali's camp when some former supporters, later known as Kharijites, felt that Ali had betrayed them by entering into negotiations. Ali set out to quell the Kharijites. At about the same time, unrest was brewing in Egypt and some of its citizens were demanding retribution for the blood of Uthman.[citation needed] The governor of Egypt, Qais, was recalled, and Ali had him replaced with Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (the brother of Aisha and the son of Islam's first Caliph Abu Bakr Sidiq). Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr's rule resulted in widespread rebellion in Egypt.[citation needed] Seeing these events, Muawiyah ordered Amr ibn As to invade Egypt and was successful in doing so. Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while initially accepting the caliphate of Ali, later rejected him. ...


When Alī was assassinated in 661, Muawiyah, as commander of the largest force in the Muslim Empire, had the strongest claim to the Caliphate.[citation needed] Ali's son Hasan, after initial defiance of Muawiyah, ceased hostilities and retired to Medina. Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ...


Sunni Muslims claim that Hasan pledged allegiance to Muawiyah.[citation needed] Most Shi'a Muslims say that he never pledged allegiance, merely ceased to advance his claim to the caliphate out of consideration for the supporters of Ali's family, who had been much reduced during the tumults of Ali's caliphate.[citation needed] Allegiance is a duty of fidelity said to be owed by a subject or a citizen to his state or sovereign. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


Rule

After his accession to the position of Caliph by the year 661, Muawiyah governed the geographically and politically disparate Caliphate, which spread from Egypt in the West to Iran in the East, by strengthening the power of his allies in the newly conquered territories. Prominent positions in the emerging governmental structures were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments. The employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious tolerance that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, especially in Syria itself. This policy also boosted his popularity and solidified Syria as his power base.


To have an insight into Mu’awiyah’s character, we may mention what Ibn Katheer reports in his history book Al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah. “At the height of tension when fighting was about to erupt at Siffin between Ali and Mu’awiyah, Mu’awiyah was informed that the Byzantine Emperor raised a very large army and was drawing very close to the borders of the Muslim state. He wrote to him, giving him a very clear warning, ‘By God, if you do not stop your designs and go back to your place, I will end my dispute with my cousin and will drive you out of the entire land you rule, until I make the earth too tight for you.’ The Byzantine Emperor was scared off and abandoned his plans


Muawiyah instituted several Byzantine-style bureaucracies, called diwans, to aid him in the governance and the centralization of the Caliphate and the empire. Early Arabic sources credit two diwans in particular to Muawiyah: the Diwan al-Khatam (Chancellery) and the Barid (Postal Service), both of which greatly improved communications within the empire. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ...


Muawiyah died May 6, 680. He was succeeded by his son Yazid I. Muawiyah had held the expanding empire together by force of his personality, through personal allegiances, in the style of a traditional Arab shaykh. However Muawiyah's attempt to start a dynasty failed because both Yazid and then his grandson Muawiya II died prematurely. The caliphate eventually went to a descendant of another branch of his clan. is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Shaikh (شيخ, also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning an elder or a revered old man. ...


Legacy

Caliph Muawiyah greatly beautified Damascus and developed a court to rival that of Constantinople. He expanded the frontiers of the empire, reaching the very gates of Constantinople at one point, though failing to hold any territory in Asia Minor. Sunni Muslims credit him with saving the fledgling Muslim nation from post civil war anarchy. Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


One of Caliph Muawiyah's most controversial and enduring legacies was his decision to designate his son Yazid as his successor, thereby the Caliphate became a dynasty. According to Shi'a doctrine, this was a clear violation of the treaty he made with Hasan, in which he said he would not make his son his successor.[citation needed] He attempted to preserve the form of the election however, by causing his nobles and the chiefs of the empire to elect and swear allegiance to his son in his own lifetime, a tradition that endured for several succeeding dynasties. // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ...


Sunni View

Sunni historians see him as a companion of Muhammad, and worthy of respect although he fought the Rightly Guided Caliph of the time, Ali ibn Abi Talib. A few historians view him as a fifth Rightly Guided Caliph. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Four Righteous Caliphs ( translit: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four caliphs that ruled after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. ...

"Allah, make him guided, a guider, and guide people through him." [5]

He is favorably depicted in a hadith from Bukhari which reads: Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardiziyeh al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه البخاري), was the author of a collection of traditions, compiled in Sahih Bukhari. ...

"..Muawiyah who was really the best of the two men said to him, "O 'Amr! If these killed those and those killed these, who would be left with me for the jobs of the public, who would be left with me for their women, who would be left with me for their children?" Then Muawiya sent two Quraishi men from the tribe of 'Abd-i-Shams called 'Abdur Rahman bin Sumura and Abdullah bin 'Amir bin Kuraiz to Al-Hasan saying to them, "Go to this man (i.e. Al-Hasan) and negotiate peace with him and talk and appeal to him." So, they went to Al-Hasan and talked and appealed to him to accept peace..." [6]

The Prophet prayed for Mu’awiyah more than once. In one of them, the Prophet is quoted to have said: “My Lord, give him guidance and make him a source of guidance.” (Related by Al-Tirmidhi and Al-Tabarani). In another prayer for Mu’awiyah the Prophet said: “My Lord, teach him the Book (i.e. the Qur’an) and arithmetic, and protect him against suffering.” (Related by Al-Bukhari in his Al-Tareekh). Needless to say, when the Prophet prayed for anyone, his prayer was answered in the clearest and most comprehensive way. Mu’awiyah’s rule was one of the best in our history, second only to that of the four rightly-guided caliphs who were his predecessors


Sunni scholars rationalize that Hasan's willingness to abandon the caliphate to Muawiyah suggests that Hasan did not view Muawiyah as an apostate, renegade and hypocrite. They argue that Hasan did so for the sake of peace and ending Fitnah. He gave the caliphate to Muawiyah because he had little support and Muawiyah had conquered most of the cities in the empire and the people of those cities ended up giving him bay'ah. Fitna is an Arabic word for civil war, disagreement, division within Islam. ... Bayah, in Islamic terminology is an oath of allegiance to a leader. ...


Sunnis tend to discourage criticizing Muawiyah's character and rule, observing his status as a companion of Muhammad. However, Sunnis hold a critical view of Muawiyah's decision to give the Caliphate to his son, Yazid.


Shi'a View

The Shi'a tend to vilify Muawiyah. His supposed conversion to Islam before the conquest of Mecca is dismissed as a fable, or mere hypocrisy. He is said to have opposed Ali, the rightful Caliph, out of sheer greed for power and wealth. His reign opened the door to unparalleled disaster, marked by persecution of Ali and his followers, resulting in Yazid I coming into power, shortly followed by the Battle of Karbala. He is said to have killed many of Muhammad's companions (Sahaba), either in battle or by poison, due to his lust for power. He is also accused of killing the children of Ubaidullah For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ...

[...] Then he [i.e. Mu'awiyah] was informed that Ubaidullah had two infant sons. So he set out to reach them, and when he found them - they had two (tender) forelocks like pearls - [and] he ordered to kill them.[7]

Here is a list of just a few prominent companions that Muawiyah is responsible for the killing of: Hujr ibn Adi[8], Ammar ibn Yasir, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, Malik al-Ashtar, the 2nd Shia Imam Hasan ibn Ali[9][10][11][12] etc. Hujr ibn Adi was a supporter of Ali, he and his companions were killed by Muawiya I for refusing to Curse Ali. ... “Ammar” redirects here. ... Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (631–658) was the son of Islams first caliph, Abu Bakr and Asma bint Umais. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ...


References

  1. ^ The History of al-Tabari, Volume IX, The Last Years of the Prophet, p32, SUNY Press
  2. ^ Life of Muhammad, Ibn Hisham, Volume 2, p597 (Urdu)
  3. ^ The Early Caliphate, Maulana Muhammad Ali, Al-Jadda Printers, pg. 169-206, 1983
  4. ^ pg.22 Mu'awiyah: Restorer of the Muslim Faith, Aisha Bewley, Dar al Taqwa Ltd. 2002.
  5. ^ Sunan Al-Tirmidhi, Book of Virtues #3824 and Sahih Al-Tirmidhi #3018
  6. ^ Sahih Bukhari 3:49:867
  7. ^ 21:6 Secrets of Mu'awiyah from Al-Amali: The Dictations of Sheikh al-Mufid
  8. ^ al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, Volume 8 page 53
  9. ^ Mu'ajam al-Kabeer, Volume 3 page 119 Tradition 2628
  10. ^ Mustadrak' Volume 3 page 176
  11. ^ Tadkhirath al Khawwas, page 192
  12. ^ al Istiab, Volume 1 page 115

External Links

Preceded by
ˤAlī
Caliph
661680
Succeeded by
Yazid I
Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... -1... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Muawiyah I Summary (2280 words)
Muawiyah's father was Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and mother was Hind bint Utbah.
By 647, Muawiyah had built a Syrian army strong enough to repel a Byzantine attack and, in subsequent years, to take the offensive against the Byzantines in campaigns that resulted in the capture of Cyprus (649) and Rhodes (654) and a devastating defeat of the Byzantine navy off the coast of Lycia (655).
As a kinsman of the slain caliph Uthman ibn Affan, Muawiyah bore the duty of revenge.
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Muawiyah I (447 words)
But Mu'awiyah's contributions to Islamic history are wholly associated with his career in Syria, which began shortly after the death of the Prophet, when he, along with his brother Yazid, served in the tribal armies sent from Arabia against the Byzantine forces in Syria.
Thereupon 'Ali marched to the Euphrates border of Syria and engaged Mu'awiyah's troops at the famous Battle of Siffin[?] (657).
Thus, when 'Ali was assassinated in 661, Mu'awiyah held both Syria and Egypt and, as commander of the largest force in the Muslim Empire, had the strongest claim to the caliphate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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