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Encyclopedia > Muammar al Qaddafi
Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi
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Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi

Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 (Arabic: معمر القذافي Mu`ammar al-Qadhdhāfī) (born 1942), has been the leader of Libya since 1969. Although he holds no public office or title, he is accorded the honorifics "Guide of the First of September Great Revolution of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" or "Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution". File links The following pages link to this file: Muammar al-Qaddafi Categories: Public domain images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Muammar al-Qaddafi Categories: Public domain images ... Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ...

Contents


Early history

Qaddafi was the youngest child from a nomadic Bedouin peasant family in the desert region of Sirte. He was given a traditional religious primary education and attended the Sebha preparatory school in Fezzan from 1956 to 1961. Qaddafi and a small group of friends that he met in this school went on to form the core leadership of a militant revolutionary group that would eventually seize control of the country. Qaddafi's inspiration was Gamal Abdul Nasser, president of neighboring Egypt, who rose to the presidency by appealing to Arab unity and condemning the West. In 1961, Qaddafi was expelled from Sebha for his political activism. The video game console is called the Sega Nomad. ... Bedouin resting at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic badawi بدوي, a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and... Fezzan is a desert region in south-western Libya. ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are an originally Arabian ethnicity widespread in the Middle East and North Africa. ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Qaddafi went on to attend the University of Libya, where he graduated with high grades. He then entered the Military Academy in Benghazi in 1963, where he and a few of his fellow militants organized a secretive group dedicated to overthrowing the pro-Western Libyan monarchy. After graduating in 1965, he was sent to Britain for further training, returning in 1966 as a commissioned officer in the Signal Corps. The University of Libya is now known as The University of Al-Fatah, which situated at the outskirts of Tripoli, the capital city of Libya. ... Benghazi is a seaport in Libya, Africa. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ...


Seizure of power

On September 1, 1969, a small group of military officers led by Qaddafi staged a coup d'etat against King Idris, who was exiled to Egypt. The new regime, headed by the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), abolished the monarchy and proclaimed the new Libyan Arab Republic. Qaddafi emerged as leader of the RCC and eventually as de facto chief of state, a political role he still plays, although he holds no official position. Qadhafi is referred to in government statements and the official press as the "Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution." September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Idris I (March 12, 1890 - May 25, 1983) was the first King of Libya, reigning from 1951 to 1969. ...


Unlike other military dictators, Qaddafi did not promote himself to the highest rank of General upon seizing power, but rather accepted a ceremonial promotion from Captain to Colonel and has remained at this rank for the last thirty five years. This no doubt appears odd to western militaries, in that a Colonel can rule a country and serve as Commander-in-Chief of its military, but in Qaddafi's own words Libya's utopian society is ruled by the people, so he needs no grandiose title or a supreme military rank. General is a military rank, in most nations the highest rank, although some nations have the higher rank of Field Marshal. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...


Qaddafi remaining a Colonel, even while military ruler of an entire country, is not a new concept among military dictatorships. Gamal Abdel Nasser remained a Colonel after seizing power in Egypt while Jerry Rawlings, dictator of Ghana, held no military rank higher than Flight Lieutenant. Nasser on Time magazine, 1958 Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) (January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... FormerPresident Jerry John Rawlings (born 1947) is a longtime Ghanaian politician who served as the countrys president twice. ... Flight Lieutenant (pronounced as flight lef-tenant, see Lieutenant) is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many Commonwealth countries. ...


Islamic Socialism and Pan Arabism

Qaddafi based his new regime on a blend of Arab nationalism, aspects of the welfare state and what Qaddafi termed "direct, popular democracy." He called this system "Islamic socialism" and while he permitted private control over small companies, the government controlled the larger ones. Welfare, liberation and education were emphasized. He also imposed a system of conservative morals, outlawing alcohol and gambling. To reinforce the ideals of this socialist state, Qaddafi outlined his political philosophy in his Green Book, published in 1976. In practice, however, Libya's political system is thought to be somewhat less idealistic and from time to time Qaddafi has responded to domestic and external opposition with violence. His revolutionary committees called for the assassination of Libyan dissidents living abroad in February 1980, with Libyan hit squads sent abroad to murder them. The neutrality and accuracy of this article are disputed. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... Islamic socialism is a term coined by various muslim leaders to counter the demand at home for a more spiritual form of socialism. ... The Green Book is a book written by the Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi, outlining his views on democracy and his political philosophy. ... Jack Ruby murdered the alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...

Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito (blue uniform) and Qaddafi (brown uniform)
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Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito (blue uniform) and Qaddafi (brown uniform)

With respect to Libya's neighbors, Qaddafi followed Abdul Nasser's ideas of pan-Arabism and became a fervent advocate of the unity of all Arab states into one Arab nation. He also supported pan-Islamism, the notion of a loose union of all Islamic countries and peoples. After Nasser's death on September 28, 1970, Qaddafi attempted to take up the mantle of ideological leader of Arab nationalism. He proclaimed the "Federation of Arab Republics" (Libya, Egypt and Syria) in 1972, hoping to create a pan-Arab state, but the three countries disagreed on the specific terms of the merger. In 1974 he signed an agreement with Tunisia's Habib Bourguiba on a merger between the two countries, but this also failed to work in practice and ultimately differences between the two countries would deteriorate into strong animosity. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (636x637, 85 KB)Gadaffi and Tito. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (636x637, 85 KB)Gadaffi and Tito. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... Josip Broz Tito  listen? (May 7, 1892 – May 4, 1980) was the president of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 _ September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Pan-Islamism is the loose unification of all Islamic countries and peoples. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years). ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Habib Ben Ali Bourguiba (born August 3, 1903 in Monastir – died April 6, 2000) was an Tunisian politican and President of Tunisia from 1957 to 1987. ...


Qaddafi also became a strong supporter of the Palestine Liberation Organization, which ultimately harmed Libya's relations with Egypt when in 1979 Egypt pursued a peace agreement with Israel. As Libya's relations with Egypt worsened, Qaddafi sought closer relations with the Soviet Union. Libya became the first country outside the Soviet bloc to receive the supersonic MiG-25 combat fighters, but their relations remained relatively distant. Qaddafi also sought to increase Libyan influence, especially in states with an Islamic population, by calling for the creation of a Saharan Islamic state and supporting anti-government forces in sub-Saharan Africa. Notable in his politics has been the support for liberation movements, in most cases Muslim groups. In the 1970s and the 1980s this support was sometimes so freely given that even the most unsympathetic groups could get Libyan support. Often the groups represented ideologies far away from Qaddafi's own. Through these politics, Qaddafi confused the world. Throughout the 1970s, his regime was implicated in subversion and terrorist activities in both Arab and non-Arab countries. By the mid-1980s, he was widely regarded in the West as the principal financier of international terrorism. Reportedly, Qaddafi is to have been a major financier of the "Black September Movement" which perpetrated the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre, and is accused by the United States to be responsible for the direct control of the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing that killed 3 people and wounded more than 200 others, of which a substantial number were U.S. servicemen. He is also said to have paid "Carlos the Jackal" to kidnap and release several of the Saudi Arabian and Iranian oil ministers when it fit his purposes to do so. The PLO emblem shows the Palestinian flag above a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the... MiG 25 Foxbat The MiG-25 (NATO reporting name Foxbat) is a high-speed interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft produced by the Soviet Unions Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau. ... Islam  listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... A satellite composite image of Africa showing the ecological break between North and Sub-Saharan regions Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara Desert, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... The expression Black September may refer to: Black September, a Palestinian paramilitary organization The Black September in Jordan, a conflict between Palestinian militant organizations and Hashemite King Hussein of Jordan that began in September 1970 and ended in July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO to Lebanon. ... The Games of the XX Olympiad were held in 1972 in Munich, West Germany. ... The April 6, 1986 La Belle discotheque bombing was a terroristic attack on a discotheque in West Berlin that was frequented by US soldiers. ... Carlos with fiancée Isabelle Coutant_Peyre Ilich Ramírez Sánchez (born October 12, 1949) was a terrorist, professional revolutionary, and playboy; he is better known by the nom de guerre Carlos the Jackal, which may have been given to him by the press after a copy of the Frederick... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ...


External relations

Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.
Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi
This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.

Tensions between Libya and the West reached a peak during the Ronald Reagan administration, which tried to overthrow Qaddafi. In 1984 a British policewoman, PC Yvonne Fletcher, was shot outside the Libyan Embassy in London, while policing a demonstration against Muammar al-Qaddafi. A burst of machine-gun fire from within the building was always suspected of killing her, but the Libyan diplomats asserted their diplomatic immunity and were repatriated. The incident led to the breaking-off of diplomatic relations between the UK and Libya. File links The following pages link to this file: Muammar al-Qaddafi Categories: Public domain images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Muammar al-Qaddafi Categories: Public domain images ... Order: 40th President Vice President: George H.W. Bush Term of office: 20 January 1981 – 20 January 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: 6 February 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: 5 June 2004 Place of death: Bel-Air... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... WPC (Woman Police Constable) Yvonne Fletcher (1959–17 April 1984) was a British policewoman killed during a protest in Londons St. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster which contains Big Ben Tower Bridge at night A red double-decker bus crosses Piccadilly Circus. ...


The Reagan administration saw Libya as an unacceptable player on the international stage because of its uncompromising stance on Palestinian independence, its support for revolutionary Iran in its 1980-1988 war against Saddam Hussein's Iraq (see Iran-Iraq War), and its backing for "liberation movements" in the developing world. In March 1982 the U.S. declared a ban on the import of Libyan oil and the export to Libya of US oil industry technology; Europe did not follow suit. 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majīd al-Tikrīt, spelled Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 1) was President of Iraq from 1979 until 2003. ... Iranian troops in the northern front. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Oil is a generic term for organic liquids that are not miscible with water. ...


The U.S. attacked Libyan patrol boats from January to March 1986 during clashes over access to the Gulf of Sidra, which Libya claimed as territorial waters. Later, on April 14, 1986, Reagan ordered major bombing raids, dubbed Operation El Dorado Canyon, against Tripoli and Benghazi that killed 60 people following U.S. accusations of Libyan involvement in a bomb explosion in a German nightclub frequented by U.S. servicemen on April 5, which had killed 3. Among the victims of the April 14 attack was the adopted daughter of the Libyan leader. January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub | Seas ... The territorial waters are sea waters of a littoral state that are regarded as under jurisdiction of the state: commonly, those waters measured from the shoreline of a sovereign state where the laws of that state are applicable. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation El Dorado Canyon was the name of the joint United States Air Force and Navy air-strikes against Libya on April 15, 1986. ... Tripoli (population 1. ... Benghazi is a seaport in Libya, Africa. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ...


For most of the 1990s, Libya endured economic sanctions and diplomatic isolation as a result of Qaddafi's refusal to allow the extradition to the United States or Britain of two Libyans accused of planting a bomb on Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. With the intercession of South African President Nelson Mandela, who made a high-profile visit to Qaddafi in 1997, and U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, Qaddafi agreed in 1999 to a compromise that involved handing over the defendants to the Netherlands for trial under Scottish law. U.N.-sponsored sanctions were suspended, but U.S. sanctions against Libya remained in force. Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... Extradition is a formal process by which a criminal suspect held by one government is handed over to another government for trial or, if the suspect has already been tried and found guilty, to serve his or her sentence. ... The nose, containing the flight crew and first-class section, landed in a farmers field near a tiny church in Tundergarth, Scotland Pan Am Flight 103 was blown up as it flew over Lockerbie, Scotland, on December 21, 1988, when 12–16 oz of plastic explosive was detonated in... Lockerbie is a small town with a population of 4,009 (Census 2001) located in the Dumfries and Galloway region in south-western Scotland. ... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ... President Nelson Mandela, 1995-1999 Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, OM CC, (18 July 1918 –) was the first democratically-elected President of South Africa. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Order: 7th Secretary-General Term of office: January 1, 1997–present Predecessor: Boutros Boutros-Ghali Successor: incumbent Born: April 8, 1938 Place of birth: Kumasi, Ghana Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanian diplomat and the seventh and current Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Scots Law (or Scottish Law) is the Law of Scotland. ...


In October 1993 there was an unsuccessful attempt on Qaddafi's life by 2,000 members of the army, in May 1994 Libyan troops withdrew from Chad after a territorial dispute that began in 1973, returning to the original borders, and in July 1996 bloody riots followed a football match as a protest against Qaddafi. October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... This article is about the month of May. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


A new Qaddafi?

New Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi? This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.
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New Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi?
This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.

From the mid-1990s, Qaddafi managed to improve his connections among Middle Eastern nations and is today considered a much more moderate and responsible leader in the Arab world than he had been. Regarding the Palestinians, he has begun pushing the concept of a binational single-state solution, called "Isratine", a combination of the Arabic words for Israel and Palestine. File links The following pages link to this file: Muammar al-Qaddafi Categories: Public domain images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Muammar al-Qaddafi Categories: Public domain images ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... The Seif Islam Qaddafi proposal is a proposal to create peace for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict between the Palestinians and Israel which was made by Seif Islam Qaddafi, the son of Muammar Qaddafi of Libya, at the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London. ... Palestine (Latin: Syria Palæstina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina, ארץ־ישראל Eretz Yisrael; Arabic: فلسطين Filasṭīn) is the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River, plus various adjoining lands to the east. ...


Simultaneously, Qaddafi has also emerged as a popular African leader. As one of the continent's longest-serving, post-colonial head of state, the Libyan leader enjoys a reputation among many Africans as an experienced and wise statesman who has been at the forefront of many struggles over the years. Qaddafi has earned the praise of Nelson Mandela and others, and is always a prominent figure in various pan-African organizations, such as the Organization of African Unity. He is also seen by many Africans as a humanitarian, pouring large amounts of money into sub-Saharan states. Large numbers of Africans have come to Libya to take advantage of the avalablility of jobs there. In addition, many more, primarily from Somalia and Ghana move through Libya as a means to reach Italy and other European countries. President Nelson Mandela, 1995-1999 Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, OM CC, (18 July 1918 –) was the first democratically-elected President of South Africa. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ...


Qaddafi also appears to be struggling to improve his image in the West. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Qaddafi offered one of the first, and firmest denunciations of the Al-Qaida bombers by any Muslim leader. In 2002, he publicly apologized for the 1988 Lockerbie bombing, and offered to pay compensation to the victims' families. Qaddafi also appeared on ABC for an open interview with George Stephanopoulos, a move that would have seemed unthinkable less than a decade ago. September 11 is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years). ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The ABC Circle logo, designed by Paul Rand in 1962. ... George Stephanopoulos (born February 10, 1961) was a political adviser to the 1992 U.S. presidential campaign of Bill Clinton and later became Clintons communications director. ...


There are many explanations for the change of Qaddafi's politics. The most obvious is that the once very rich Libya was no longer strong through the 1990s, since oil prices have dropped significantly. Qaddafi needs other countries more than before, and cannot hand out as much as he once could. Another possibility is that strong Western reactions have forced Qaddafi into changing his politics. But more important is that realpolitik changed Qaddafi. His ideals and aims did not materialize: there never was any Arab unity, the various armed revolutionary organizations he supported did not achieve their goals, and the demise of the Soviet Union left Qaddafi's main symbolic target, the United States, stronger than ever. Realpolitik (German for politics of reality) is foreign politics based on practical concerns rather than theory or ethics. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ...


Following the overthrow of Saddam Hussein by US forces in 2003, Qaddafi announced that his nation had an active weapons of mass destruction program, but was willing to allow international inspectors into his country to observe and dismantle them. The threat posed by WMD programs violating non-proliferation treaty responsibilities had been cited by US President George W. Bush as one of his leading reasons for invading Iraq, and it is believed that after Saddam's downfall Qaddafi feared for the future of his own regime if he continued to keep and conceal the weapons. Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi was quoted as saying that Qaddafi had privately phoned him, admitting as much. Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein Ê»Abd al-MajÄ«d al-TikrÄ«t, spelled Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 1) was President of Iraq from 1979 until 2003. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ... Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is a politician and currently the 43rd President of the United States. ... Silvio Berlusconi   listen? (born September 29, 1936 in Milan) is the current Prime Minister of Italy and is the leader of the Forza Italia political movement, a party which was established for his entry into politics. ...


International inspectors turned up several thousand tonnes of chemical weaponry in Libya, as well as an active nuclear weapons program. The process of destroying the weapons continues, and Libya has improved its cooperation with international monitoring regimes. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


In March 2004, British prime minister Tony Blair became one of the first western leaders in decades to visit Libya and publicly meet Qaddafi. Blair praised Qaddafi's recent acts, and stated that he hoped Libya could now be a strong ally in the international war on terrorism. March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953 in Edinburgh, Scotland) is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies, the aim of which, they have declared, is to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist...


A major obstacle to improving relations is now the trial of Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor, who were arrested and eventually sentenced to death after an HIV outbreak in Benghazi. The international view is that Libya has used the medics as scapegoats for poor hygiene conditions, and Bulgaria and other countries including the European Union and the United States have repeatedly called on Tripoli to release them. As of 2005, the case remains unresolved, and is the source of increasing tensions with Bulgaria, as well as an obstacle to continuing the process of improved relations with the West. The trial against the Bulgarian medics and a Palestinian doctor in Libya is the prosecution by Libya of the Benghazi six, five Bulgarian nurses (Kristiyana Valtcheva, Nasya Nenova, Valentina Siropulo, Valya Chervenyashka and Snezhana Dimitrova) as well as one Palestinian doctor (Ashraf al-Hajuj, also al-Hadjudj), who have been... HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a retrovirus that infects cells of the human immune system. ... Benghazi is a seaport in Libya, Africa. ... The scapegoat was a goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, in Judaism during the times of the Temple in Jerusalem. ... The as of technique is a way to deal with statements that date quickly. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


Personal

Qaddafi has eight children, seven of them sons. His oldest son, Muhammad Qaddafi, is by a wife now in disfavor, but runs the Libyan Olympic Committee. The next eldest Al-Saadi Qaddafi, runs the Libyan Football Federation, plays for Italian Serie A team Perugia, and produces films. The third eldest, Saif al-Islam Qaddafi, a painter, runs a charity which has been involved in negotiating freedom for hostages taken by Islamic militants, especially in the Philippines. His only daughter is Ayesha Qaddafi, a lawyer who has joined the defense team of Saddam Hussein. All have been speculated to be possible successors. Three more sons, Al Moatassim, Hannbil, and Khamees, are less prominent. (In September 2004, Hannbil was involved in a police chase in Paris.) One adopted daughter was killed in the 1986 US air raid. Al-Saadi Qadhafi (b. ... Serie A is the top division of the Italian Football League, the highest football league in Italy. ... Perugia (population 150,000) is a city in the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river, and the capital of the province of Perugia. ... Saif al-Islam Qaddafi Saif al-Islam Qaddafi is a son of Muammar al-Qaddafi, leader of Libya. ... Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Ayesha Qaddafi is the daughter of Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi. ... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein Ê»Abd al-MajÄ«d al-TikrÄ«t, spelled Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 1) was President of Iraq from 1979 until 2003. ... -1...


In January 2002, Qaddafi purchased a 7.5% share of Italian football club Juventus for USD 21 million, through Lafico ("Libyan Arab Foreign Investment Company"). Though an avid soccer fan, this more importantly continued a longstanding association with the late Gianni Agnelli, the primary investor in Fiat. Qaddafi has also become involved in chess: in March 2004, FIDE, the game's world governing body, announced that he would be providing prize money for their next World Championship, to be held in June-July 2004 in Tripoli. 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for January, 2002. ... Juventus F.C. (Latin for Youth) is one of Italys oldest and most successful football clubs, based in Turin. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Giovanni Agnelli, better known as Gianni Agnelli (March 12, 1921 - January 24, 2003), was an Italian industrialist and principal shareholder of Fiat. ... Fiat S.p. ... Chess is a board game and mental sport for two players. ... The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world. ... The 1984 World Chess Championship was between Anatoly Karpov (left) and Garry Kasparov (right). ... Tripoli (population 1. ...


In November 2002, he hosted the first Miss Net beauty pageant, a first for Libya and as far as is known, the world's first to be held on the internet. November is the eleventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with the length of 30 days. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Quotation

"Ronald Reagan plays with fire! He sees the world like the theater".


"Irrespective of the conflict with America, it is a human duty to show sympathy with the American people and be with them at these horrifying and awesome events which are bound to awaken human conscience." — September 11, 2001 The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


Spelling

Qaddafi's name has been transliterated in a wide variety of ways. For example, an article published in the London Evening Standard on March 29, 2004 lists a total of 37 spellings; a 1986 column by The Straight Dope counted "at least 12". [1] Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one system of writing into another. ... The Evening Standard is a newspaper published in London. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cecil Adams is the pen name of the author of The Straight Dope since 1973, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ...


Authority preferences

The Associated Press and affiliates (such as CNN and FOX News) use the spelling Moammar Gadhafi. Al Jazeera uses Muammar al-Qadhafi. The U.S. State Department uses Mu'ammar Al-Qadhafi. Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although he currently is not recognized in CNNs official history). ... The FOX News Channel is a US cable and satellite news channel. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


Personal preferences

In 1986, responding to a Minnesota school's letter in English, he used the spelling Moammar El-Gadhafi.1 According to his personal website, he prefers the spelling Muammar Gadafi, although the domain name gives yet another version, al-Gathafi. State nickname: North Star State Other U.S. States Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Governor Tim Pawlenty Official languages None Area 225,365 km² (12th)  - Land 206,375 km²  - Water 18,990 km² (8. ...


Lists

The list below includes the alternatives listed on the Library of Congress name authority record: Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is the unofficial national library of the United States. ...

  • Qaddafi, Muammar (preferred)
  • Al-Gathafi, Muammar
  • al-Qadhafi, Muammar
  • Al Qathafi, Mu'ammar
  • Al Qathafi, Muammar
  • El Gaddafi, Moamar
  • El Kadhafi, Moammar
  • El Kazzafi, Moamer
  • El Qathafi, Mu'Ammar
  • Gadafi, Muammar
  • Gaddafi, Moamar
  • Gadhafi, Mo'ammar
  • Gathafi, Muammar
  • Ghadafi, Muammar
  • Ghaddafi, Muammar
  • Ghaddafy, Muammar
  • Gheddafi, Muammar
  • Gheddafi, Muhammar
  • Kadaffi, Momar
  • Kad'afi, Mu`amar al-
  • Kaddafi, Muamar
  • Kaddafi, Muammar
  • Kadhafi, Moammar
  • Kadhafi, Mouammar
  • Kazzafi, Moammar
  • Khadafy, Moammar
  • Khaddafi, Muammar
  • Moamar al-Gaddafi
  • Moamar el Gaddafi
  • Moamar El Kadhafi
  • Moamar Gaddafi
  • Moamer El Kazzafi
  • Mo'ammar el-Gadhafi
  • Moammar El Kadhafi
  • Mo'ammar Gadhafi
  • Moammar Kadhafi
  • Moammar Khadafy
  • Moammar Qudhafi
  • Mu`amar al-Kad'afi
  • Mu'amar al-Kadafi
  • Muamar Al-Kaddafi
  • Muamar Kaddafi
  • Muamer Gadafi
  • Muammar Al-Gathafi
  • Muammar al-Khaddafi
  • Mu'ammar al-Qadafi
  • Mu'ammar al-Qaddafi
  • Muammar al-Qadhafi
  • Mu'ammar al-Qadhdhafi
  • Mu`ammar al-Qadhdhāfī
  • Mu'ammar Al Qathafi
  • Muammar Al Qathafi
  • Muammar Gadafi
  • Muammar Gaddafi
  • Muammar Ghadafi
  • Muammar Ghaddafi
  • Muammar Ghaddafy
  • Muammar Gheddafi
  • Muammar Kaddafi
  • Muammar Khaddafi
  • Mu'ammar Qadafi
  • Muammar Qaddafi
  • Muammar Qadhafi
  • Mu'ammar Qadhdhafi
  • Muammar Quathafi
  • Mulazim Awwal Mu'ammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Qadhafi
  • Qadafi, Mu'ammar
  • Qadhafi, Muammar
  • Qadhdhāfī, Mu`ammar
  • Qathafi, Mu'Ammar el
  • Quathafi, Muammar
  • Qudhafi, Moammar



These further alternate spellings may be found in New York Times, Associated Press Wire, and Xinhua English News sources between 1998 and 2000: The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... Xinhua (Chinese:新华通讯社/新華通訊社, pinyin:xīnhuá tōngxùnshè) is also the short for Xinhua News Agency Xinhua (Chinese:新化县/新化縣, pinyin:xīnhuà xiàn) is a county in Hunan,China, See Xinhua County. ...

  • Maummar Gaddafi
  • Moamar AI Kadafi
  • Moamar Gadhafi
  • Moamer Gaddafi
  • Moamer Kadhafi
  • Moamma Gaddafi
  • Moammar Gaddafi
  • Moammar Gadhafi
  • Moammar Ghadafi
  • Moammar Khadaffy
  • Moammar Khaddafi
  • Moammar el Gadhafi
  • Moammer Gaddafi
  • Mouammer al Gaddafi
  • Muamar Gaddafi
  • Muammar Al Ghaddafi
  • Muammar Al Qaddafi
  • Muammar Al Qaddafi
  • Muammar El Qaddafi
  • Muammar Gadaffi
  • Muammar Gadafy
  • Muammar Gadafy
  • Muammar Gaddhafi
  • Muammar Gadhafi
  • Muammar Ghadaffi
  • Muammar Qadthafi
  • Muammar al Gaddafi
  • Muammar el Gaddafy
  • Muammar el Gaddafi
  • Muammar el Qaddafi
  • Muammer Gadaffi
  • Muammer Gaddafi
  • Mummar Gaddafi
  • Omar Al Qathafi
  • Omar Mouammer Al Gaddafi
  • Omar Muammar Al Ghaddafi
  • Omar Muammar Al Qaddafi
  • Omar Muammar Al Qathafi
  • Omar Muammar Gaddafi
  • Omar Muammar Ghaddafi
  • Omar al Ghaddafi



Qaddafi is also the inspiration for name of the rap artist, Yaki Kadafi. Yaki Kadafi was a rapper of Tha Outlawz, the back-up group for Tupac Shakur. ...


References

Note 1: "Second-Graders Get Letter From Khadafy." The Associated Press 16 May 1986: Domestic News.


See also

This is a List of national leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ...

External links

  • Official web site
  • http://www.qadhafi.org/

  • Reuters article on Gaddafi's Unified Africa - during G8 summit meetings on relieving African debt 4 July 2005 22:08 (UTC)
  • "Meeting Muammar" by Vivienne Walt, Slate.com, Dec. 16, 2004

  • Straight Dope article on the many spellings of Moammar's name
  • Find Out More About Libya

 
 

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