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Encyclopedia > Mozarabic Rite

The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. It dates principally to the 7th and 8th centuries, and is localized in Spain. Its liturgy is particularly apt as a spiritual defense during Islamic rule, and is widely reputed to be spiritually fulfilling. Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article (The Latin Rite), is a term by which documents of the Catholic Church designate the particular Church, distinct from the Eastern Rite Churches, that developed in western Europe and northern Africa, where Latin was the language of... // Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Syria, Iraq, Persia, North Africa and Central Asia convert to Islam. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), a daily activity such... Islam â–¶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second largest religion. ...

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Divergence of early Catholic rites

Ritual worship surrounding the Eucharist in the earliest Christian Church was not scripted with precise rubrics as is the norm today. One of the earliest known documents setting down the nature of Eucharistic celebration is the Didache, dating from 70140 (see historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology). The liturgy, or form of worship, was fairly homogenous among followers of Jesus for about three centuries after which variations began to form in the different patriarchates; by the 5th century it becomes possible to distinguish among several liturgies: the Oriental, the Gallican, the Roman, and the Mozarabic. The liturgical distinctions stem from the effects of the invasions of the 5th century and of the break-up of the Roman Empire in 476, all of which reduced communication among different regions. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article incorporates text from the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). ... Events Pope Pius I succeeded Pope Hyginus. ... The historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology are the basis upon which a number of ecclesial communities, or churches, express their faith in the bread of life as given by Jesus, and are to be found in the Church Fathers, Scripture, the writings of Thomas Aquinas, and other early church... Jesus, also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, most of the adherents of which worship him as the Messiah, son of God, and God incarnate. ... // Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... // Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine Empire. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ...


Visigoths in Spain

The Arian Visigoths were driven from France and came south, converting to Catholicism in 587. The Catholic liturgical practice in Spain prior to the Visigoths (and the Muslims) is termed "Old Spanish", and inaccurately is often called Mozarabic. There was a liturgical tradition in Spain prior to the arrival of the Visigoths as evidenced by the fact that it lacks Arian influence. This liturgy reached its point of greatest development in the 7th century, and is found partly in the Verona Orationale, taken to Italy for safekeeping after the invasion of Muslims (below). Terminological confusion regarding the liturgical development in this area is common, and most names proposed bear a degree of inaccuracy; hence qualifications are the norm in the discussion of this history. The most precise use of the term "Mozarabic rite" is for that liturgy followed by the Spanish who submitted to Islamic rule. St. Isidore of Seville (d. 636), who was influential at the Fourth Council of Toledo 633, according to the wishes of that Council, gave the Mozarabic rite its final form before the invasion of the Muslims.n00barna kom från norge, dom tog med sig HE och FLashbangs :) Dom tog över Sverige med ett rus och sedan bazzade dom alla nudister :) Arianism was a Christological view held by followers of Arius, a Christian priest who lived and taught in Alexandria, Egypt, in the early 4th century. ... The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Events End of the Nan Liang Dynasty in China. ... // Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Syria, Iraq, Persia, North Africa and Central Asia convert to Islam. ... I am a loser, WEDGIES GOT A WEDGIE according to sdmmbdkmegzsgrcg. ... It has been suggested that Isidro be merged into this article or section. ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ...


Muslims in Spain

A crisis within Visigoth rule facilitated the Muslim invasion; shortly after 711 only a remnant of Spain was left outside of Muslim control. The term "Mozarabic", in early centuries having more diverse spellings, comes from Arabic for "Arabized". As is generally the case with Islamic rule, strong pressure was placed on dhimmis, Christians and Jews, to abandon their respective faiths and convert to Islam. Islamic rule is more systematic than Christianity was at encouraging conversions. The jizya tax, great cruelty, burnings, relegation to servitude, and systematic killing of clergy are mentioned as occurring at this time in Spain, all of which was averted for converts to Islam. There were many in Spain who in various ways perforce adapted to Moorish culture, in dress and work, in marriage, and in language. See also: phone number 711. ... A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمّي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Islamic religion. ... This article discusses faith in a religious context. ... Islam ▶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second largest religion. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax imposed on non-Muslim adult males. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. Juba II king of Mauretania // Origins of the name The name derives from the old Berber (barbarian) tribe of the Mauri...


Toledo, approximately 75 kilometers south-east of Madrid, was strategically important to the Muslims, and there the Christians were able to arrange a compromise making Toledo somewhat different from the rest of Muslim Spain: Christians were permitted to practice their religion and retain their property.ioszhrdfkzergrögtrg This article is about the city in Spain named Toledo. ... Plaza de Cibeles (Cibeles square) and the Palacio de Comunicaciones (Communications Palace) Coat of arms. ...


Christianity restored in Spain

As the Christians reconquered Spain, the kings sought to establish links to Europe and the Papacy. They established the Way of Saint James for pilgrims and invited Roman-rite Catholics ("Franks") into Spain, who established that rite in all liberated portions, a change that was met with "uprisings", such that the Mozarabic rite was permitted to be used in Toledo and Leon even after the Muslims had been expelled. The Mozarabic rite was approved by Pope John X in 918, suppressed by Pope Gregory VII in 1085 yet permitted in six parishes. Unity in liturgical practice was strongly encouraged by Rome from an early date as well as around the general period of the East-West Schism; areas liberated after periods of conquest typically had the Roman rite installed — this was true for centuries in the East as well. Eventually the Mozarabic rite became a memorial service, as people grew to accept the Roman rite.Everone who reads this suck cock and they know it :D For other uses, see Reconquista (Disambiguation). ... External links Official city site Live Cam of Obradoiro Façade Confraternity of St. ... John X, pope from 914 to 928, was deacon at Bologna when he attracted the attention of Theodora, the wife of Theophylact, the most powerful noble in Rome, through whose influence he was elevated first to the see of Bologna and then to the archbishopric of Ravenna. ... Events Taebong has been overthrown and Goryeo established in Korean peninsula. ... Gregory VII, né Hildebrand (c. ... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... The East-West Schism, known also as the Great Schism (though this latter term sometimes refers to the later Western Schism), was the event that divided Chalcedonian Christianity into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. ...


Gallican, Mozarabic, and Roman rite connections

There is evidence that the Mozarabic rite is tied to the Gallican rite, given common points of construction. Schaff argues for an Oriental element in both the Gallican and the Mozarabic (or Old Spanish), while Jenner quotes Dom Marius Férotin, O.S.B., who writes that the framework of the liturgy is from Italy or Rome, while various details such as hymns are from Spain, Africa, and Gaul. Jenner states that there is no extant concrete information about the Old Spanish liturgy prior to the end of the 6th century, a point echoed by Cabrol. Michael Davies reports that it is commonly believed that the Gallican rite came from the East, perhaps Antioch, and through Italy influenced the West. The work of St. Isidore, who was asked by a Council of Toledo (probably the one occurring in 633) to revise and rearrange the liturgy of the time (Old Spanish), leaves us a number of documents demonstrating liturgical stability prior to the Muslim invasion. Cabrol lists several liturgical points of Oriental origin ("the place of the diptychs, the Kiss of Peace, and even the 'epiclesis'") while indicating the liturgical commonalities to the entire West, including Rome and Gaul. Cabrol also indicates that the Mozarabic rite contains some customs that ante-date those of Rome. Everyone who reads this suck cock and they know it :D The Gallican Rite is actually a family of Western Rites which comprised the majority use of most of Western European for the greater part of the 1st millenium. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... In Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Roman Catholic churches, the epiclesis (also sometimes spelled epiklesis, since it is a transliterated Greek word) is that part of the prayer of consecration of the Eucharistic elements (bread and wine) by which the priest invokes the Holy Spirit. ...


Preservation and relevance of the Mozarabic rite

The Mozarabic rite is the second-best attested liturgy in the Latin Church in terms of preserved documentation. The Mozarabic rite was considered authoritative for the clarification of a Sacramentary received by Charlemagne from Pope Adrian I (d. 795). The first, of course, is that of Rome, which was installed at every opportunity, to encourage unity of faith and worship. The Latin Church is that part of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin rites are or were used in the liturgy. ... Charlemagne (ca. ... Adrian, or Hadrian I, (died December 25, 795) was pope from 772 to 795. ... Events Leo III becomes pope Earliest recorded Viking raid on Ireland. ...


After the Mozarabic rite was suppressed in 1085, apart from six parishes, St. Veremundus offered a successful defense of its merits; some continued use was permitted. Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros (d. 1517) published in 1500 a Mozarabic Missal, and two years later a Breviary, both of which were formally approved by Pope Julius II. To perfect the presentation of the liturgy Ximenes interpolated elements of the Roman rite then in Spain, particularly the preliminary prayers for the Mass. He also erected a chapel in Toledo and a college of thirteen priests whose task it would be to use the Missal and Breviary, centuries after the Roman rite was officially installed throughout Spain. The Council of Trent permitted the continued use of both the Milanese and the Mozarabic rites. In the 16th century the Mozarabic was restored to use in Toledo, and Cabrol reports as late as 1934 that this was still the case, and it is still celebrated in some locations today, particularly in Catalonia. Pope John Paul II celebrated it once in each of 1992 and 2000. A vernacular (Spanish) translation has lately been made. Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... Cisneros visits the construction of the Hospital of the Charity. ... Events January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. ... // Events Europes population was ~60 million. ... A breviary (from Latin brevis, short or concise) is a liturgical book containing the public or canonical prayers, hymns, the Psalms, readings, and notations for everyday use, especially for priests, in the Divine Office (i. ... Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ... The Pope who rose from his Grave! Look has he ever heard of anti-agining Cream! Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the Latin rites of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Council of Trent (Italian: Trento) was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in discontinuous sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Protestant Reformation. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Capital Barcelona Official languages Spanish and Catalan In Val dAran, also Aranese. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef WojtyÅ‚a (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005) reigned as pope of the Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978, making his the second-longest pontificate (or the third-longest, as enumerated by Roman Catholic tradition). ...


The Mozarabic rite has been of interest to non-Catholic communions as well. For example, in the 1880s the Anglican church examined the Mozarabic rite for ideas about making their own liturgy more inspiring. 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ...


Mozarabic rite a lesson in evolution of rites

The Mozarabic rite offers insight into how rites evolve within the Church. After the early period of persecutions came to an end, Christians began to develop more elaborate forms of worship, perhaps because it became possible to store and share rubrical ideas over time and geography, and because love for Christ inspired greater elaboration. Liturgical variety has always been assumed, by the Church, to be permissible in small details that do not touch upon articles of faith or morals. This variety is a natural result of the Church, i.e. the body of faithful, being in "a dialogue of love" with Jesus: this is how forms of worship are perceived by the Church — which can authoritatively, but not arbitrarily, "define and limit the usage of rites" (quotes from Ratzinger). G. S. Lee writes that the Church is always eager to "recognize the varying wants of her spiritual children, and to shape her devotional exercises in conformity to these". The needs of the Spanish Christians, living as oppressed people minimally permitted to exercise their religion, were arguably greater than those of Christians living freely elsewhere. The Mozarabic liturgy is perhaps more communal than others, involving more responsories among priest and congregation. This rite was largely arranged prior to the Muslim invasion, but its character was perhaps an especial help during that time. The Mozarabic rite is esteemed to be of great beauty and source of piety, which would have been sustenance to these Christians. The Council of Toledo affirmed it to be "a form of worship grateful to the people" and the Council of Mantua, 1067, declared it to be free of heresy and "also worthy of praise". Jesus, also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, most of the adherents of which worship him as the Messiah, son of God, and God incarnate. ... Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... A congregation is an assembly of people for a given purpose. ... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ...


Character of Mozarabic rite

While the liturgy used during the period of Islamic rule was very much like that to which St. Isidore put some finishing touches in the 7th century, during Islamic rule the pastors took more care, where practice of Christianity was permitted, to address the faithful during the Mass. The Bible was translated into Arabic during this period as well, and the liturgy was celebrated in Arabic. The Biblical canon is an exclusive list of books written during the formative period of the Jewish or Christian faiths; the leaders of these communities believed these books to be inspired by God or to express the authoritative history of the relationship between God and his people (although there may...


The Mozarabic mass is longer in duration than that of the Roman rite. Imagery and ceremony are used extensively; its great beauty is shown in the support it received even after the Roman rite was installed throughout Spain. Many learned theologians have praised it. Many hymns were written within the Mozarabic rite.


The Mozarabic rite may have emphasized the Blessed Virgin Mary's role as co-redemptrix even more so than did the liturgy of Rome. It also exalts Mary by addressing her directly in prayer, which the Roman rite does not do. Blessed Virgin Mary A traditional Catholic picture sometimes displayed in homes. ...


The Mozarabic rite is the first to use ashes within the liturgical celebrations of the Church. Ashes were used prior to the Mozarabic rite, but this was done outside of liturgical events, e.g., marking people for penance.


The Breviary has a short and uncomplicated extra office (session of prayer) before the main morning office. A breviary (from Latin brevis, short or concise) is a liturgical book containing the public or canonical prayers, hymns, the Psalms, readings, and notations for everyday use, especially for priests, in the Divine Office (i. ...


Extensive use is made of responsories between the celebrant (priest) and faithful during the Mozarabic mass, including during the confiteor (prayer of confession of guilt for sin), which is different from the Roman rite. While the liturgy is quite beautiful, it was also tended toward "prolixity" and at times lacking in "sobriety". The Roman (Tridentine) rite of mass is more ordered; the modern Novus Ordo mass is uncomfortably prone to extemporaneous alteration as well, which may be another mistaken influence of the Mozarabic. Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... SiN is a computer game developed by Ritual Entertainment and published by Activision in late 1998. ...


There was no fixed anaphora or Eucharistic prayer in the Mozarabic rite of mass, which permitted a fair degree of extemporaneous flexibility. When the Mozarabic rite was given a new lease on life in 1500, the Roman words of institution, the key words that Jesus used at the Last Supper, were required. Some Eucharistic prayers are addressed to Christ rather than to God the Father. After the consecration of the bread and wine (see Eucharist), the host (bread) was broken into nine pieces, each representing a facet of Christ's life on earth, and arranged in a cross. In the Eastern Christian liturgy, the anaphora is that part of the Liturgy having to do specifically with the consecration and offering of the Eucharist, as opposed to scripture readings, etc. ... Jesus, also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, most of the adherents of which worship him as the Messiah, son of God, and God incarnate. ... This article relates the event related in the New Testament of the Bible, see The Last Supper (disambiguation) for other uses, including a list of famous works of art with this name. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


References

  • Western Latin Liturgics, Liturgica.com [1]
  • Eastern Rites of the Catholic Church, Catholic Information Network [2]
  • Celebrating Being Catholic, the National Association of Pastoral Musicians [3]
  • Dom Fernand Cabrol, The Mass of the Western Rites [4]
  • Mozarabic Rite Celebration at St. Peter's, Catholic World News [5]
  • The Occidental Liturgies, History of the Christian Church, Schaff [6]
  • Charles R. Hale, Mozarabic Collects Translated and Arranged from the Ancient Liturgy of the Spanish Church, (Preface), 1881 [7]
  • Abbot Cabrol, The Excellence of the Roman Mass, The Angelus, Feb. 2001, Vol. 26, No. 2 [8]
  • Rev. Bertrand de Margerie, S.J., Part 2 of Mary Coredemptrix In the Light of Patristics [9]
  • Fr. Paul Bombardier, To learn about Gregorian chant, check out these Web sites, IObserve.org [10]
  • Cardinal Ratzinger's speech on the Liturgy, Association for Latin Liturgy [11]
  • History of Ash Wednesday, AmericanCatholic.org [12]
  • St. Veremundus, Catholic.org [13]
  • Blog by Robert Gotcher: Classic Catholic [14]
  • Fr Stephen Shield, The Traditional Latin Rite in the Church Today, Latin Mass Society of England and Wales [15]
  • Primary Sources for Medieval Studies, Library University College Cork, Ireland (list of resources about liturgy and hagiography) [16]
  • United States Catholic Bishops, Committee on the Liturgy, In the February 2000 Newsletter [17]
  • The Rites of the Catholic Church [18]
  • Mass for Advent Sunday [19]
  • Henry Jenner, Mozarabic Rite, Catholic Encyclopedia [20]
  • La Ermita (Spanish) [21]
  • Osés, Gutiérrez, & Redondo, Geografía e Historia de España y de los Países Hispánicos, Santillana, 1986.
  • H. S. Lee, The Mozarabic Rite, Catholic World, Vol. 49, No. 294, September 1889 [22]
  • Bat Ye'or, Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide, Fairleigh Dickenson University Press, ISBN 0838639437

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

External link


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Mozarabic chant (1540 words)
The basic structure of the rite that came to be known as the Mozarabic rite was documented by St. Isidore of Seville in the 7th century.
The Mozarabic rite was revived by Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros, who published in 1500 and 1502 a Mozarabic Missal and Breviary, incorporating elements of the Roman rite, and dedicated a chapel to preserving the Mozarabic rite.
Mozarabic chant is largely defined by its role in the liturgy of the Mozarabic rite, which is more closely related to the northern "Gallic" liturgies such as the Gallican rite and the Ambrosian rite than the Roman rite.
Mozarabic Rite at AllExperts (2379 words)
The Mozarabic rite was approved by Pope John X in 918, suppressed by Pope Gregory VII in 1085 yet permitted in six parishes.
The Mozarabic rite is the second-best attested liturgy in the Latin Church in terms of preserved documentation.
The Mozarabic rite was considered authoritative for the clarification of a Sacramentary received by Charlemagne from Pope Adrian I (d.
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