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Encyclopedia > Movie studio

A movie studio (aka film studio) is a controlled environment for the making of a motion picture. This environment may be interior (sound stage), exterior (backlot), or both. In general parlance, the term is synonymous with "major film production company," due largely to the fact that the leading production companies of Hollywood's "Golden Age"—stretching from the late 1920s to the late 1940s—owned their own studio facilities, as do a few today. However, worldwide (and even in the United States) the majority of production companies have never owned their own studios, but have had to rent space at independently owned facilities that, in many cases, never produce a film of their own. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Soundstage redirects here. ... A backlot is an area behind or adjoining a movie studio with permanent exterior sets for outdoor scenes in motion picture and/or television productions. ... Production company refers to a company responsible for the development and physical production of performing arts, film, radio or a television program. ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ...

Contents

Beginnings

In 1893, Thomas Edison built the first movie studio in the United States when he constructed the Black Maria, a tarpaper-covered structure near his laboratories in West Orange, New Jersey, and asked circus, vaudeville, and dramatic actors to perform for the camera. He distributed these movies at vaudeville theaters, penny arcades, wax museums, and fairgrounds. Other studio operations followed in New Jersey, New York City, and Chicago. Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Edison redirects here. ... The Black Maria was Thomas Edisons movie production studio, built in West Orange, New Jersey, completed in February, 1893 at a cost of $637. ... Map of West Orange Township in Essex County West Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of...


In the early 1900s, companies started moving to Los Angeles, California, because of the good weather and longer days[citation needed]. Although electric lights were by then widely available, none were yet powerful enough to adequately expose film; the best source of illumination for motion picture production was natural sunlight. Some movies were shot on the roofs of buildings in downtown Los Angeles. Early movie producers also relocated to Southern California to escape Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company, which controlled almost all the patents relevant to movie production at the time. The distance from New Jersey made it more difficult for Edison to enforce his patents. Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Most of the industrialized world is lit by electric lights, which are used both at night and to provide additional light during the daytime. ... Skyline of downtown Los Angeles Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, located close to the geographic center of the metropolitan area. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... The Motion Picture Patents Company (also known as the Edison Trust), founded in December 1908, was a trust of all the major film companies (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig, Lubin, Kalem, American Star, American Pathé), the leading distributor (George Kleine) and the biggest supplier of raw film, Eastman Kodak. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...


The first movie studio in the Hollywood area was Nestor Studios, opened in 1911 by Al Christie for David Horsley. In the same year, another fifteen independents settled in Hollywood. Other production companies eventually settled in the Los Angeles area in places such as Culver City, Burbank, and what would soon become known as Studio City in the San Fernando Valley. Greetings from Hollywood Hollywood is a district of the city of Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., that extends from Vermont Avenue on the east to just beyond Laurel Canyon Boulevard above Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevards on the west; the north to south boundary east of La Brea Avenue... Christie-Nestor Studios, Hollywood, 1913 The Nestor Motion Picture Company of Bayonne, New Jersey, owned by David Horsley and his brother William, opened the first motion picture studio in Hollywood in the Blondeau Tavern building at the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street in the fall of 1911. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Al Christie Al Christie, (November 24, 1881 – April 4, 1951) was a Canadian_born motion picture director, producer and screenwriter. ... David Horsley (March 11, 1873 – February 23, 1933) was English born pioneer of the movie industry who built the first movie studio in Hollywood. ... Motto: The Heart of Screenland Location of Culver City in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1917-09-07 [2] Government  - City Manager Jerry Fulwood [1] Area  - City  5. ... For the community in Santa Clara County, California, see Burbank, Santa Clara County, California. ... Studio City is a four-square-mile district in the San Fernando Valley region of the City of Los Angeles, California. ... San Fernando Valley from its southwestern edge. ...


The "majors"

For more details on this topic, see Major film studio.

The Big 5
By the mid-1920s, the evolution of a handful of American production companies into wealthy film industry conglomerates that owned their own studios, distribution divisions, and theaters, and contracted with performers and other filmmaking personnel, led to the sometimes confusing equation of "studio" with "production company" in industry slang. Five large companies, 20th Century-Fox, MGM, Paramount, RKO, and Warner Bros., came to be known as the "Big Five," the "majors," or "the Studios" in trade publications such as Variety, and their management structures and practices collectively came to be known as the "studio system." A major film studio is a movie production and distribution company that releases a substantial number of films annually and consistently commands a significant share of box-office revenues in a given market. ... A Film distributor is an independent company, a subsidiary company or occasionally an individual, which acts as the final agent between a film production company or some intermediary agent, and a film exhibitor, to the end of securing placement of the producers film on the exhibitors screen. ... A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, United States). ... 20th Century Fox logo Fox Plaza, the company headquarters. ... For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... RKO could stand for: RKO Pictures The R.K.O. - finishing manoever (and initials) of WWE professional wrestler Randy Orton. ... “WB” redirects here. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ... The studio system was a means of film production and distribution dominant in Hollywood from the early 1920s through the early 1950s. ...


The Little 3
Although they owned few or no theaters to guarantee sales of their films, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures, and United Artists also fell under these rubrics, making a total of eight generally recognized "major studios". United Artists, although its controlling partners owned not one but two production studios during the Golden Age, had an often tenuous hold on the title of "major" and operated mainly as a backer and distributor of independently produced films. This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... This article is about the film studio. ...


The minors

Smaller studios operated simultaneously with "the majors." These included operations such as Republic Pictures, active from 1935, which produced films that occasionally matched the scale and ambition of the larger studio, and Monogram Pictures, which specialized in series and genre releases. Together with smaller outfits such as PRC and Grand National, the minor studios filled the demand for B-movies and are sometimes collectively referred to as Poverty Row. Republic Pictures Corporation (aka Republic Entertainment) is an independent film, television, and video distribution company that was originally a movie production-distribution corporation with studio facilities, best known for its specialization in quality B pictures, westerns and movie serials. ... For other uses, see Monogram (disambiguation). ... PRCs logo 1945 One of the larger Hollywood production conglomerates of Poverty Row of the late 30s-mid 40s (along with Republic Pictures and Monogram Pictures and smaller outfits) PRC, as it was commonly known, intentionally made mostly small-budget B-movies. ... The term B-movie originally referred to a film designed to be distributed as the lower half of a double feature, often a genre film featuring cowboys, gangsters or vampires. ... Poverty Row is a slang term used in Hollywood from the late silent period through the mid-fifties to refer to a variety of mostly short-lived small studios, many clustered in the area of Los Angeles, USA known as Gower Gulch, near the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower...


The independents

The Big Five's ownership of movie theaters was eventually opposed by eight independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, David O. Selznick, Walt Disney, and Walter Wanger. In 1948 the federal government won a case against Paramount in the Supreme Court, which ruled that the vertically integrated structure of the movie industry constituted an illegal monopoly. This decision, reached after twelve years of litigation, hastened the end of the studio system and Hollywood's "Golden Age". Samuel Goldwyn (July 1882 (some sources say 17 August 1882, others 1879 [1]) – 31 January 1974) was an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning producer, also a well-known Hollywood motion picture producer and founding contributor of several motion picture studios. ... David O. Selznick David Oliver Selznick (May 10, 1902–June 22, 1965), was one of the icon Hollywood producers of the Golden Age. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Walter Wanger (July 11, 1894 - November 18, 1968) was an important American film producer. ... United States v. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... It has been suggested that Vertical expansion be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the economic term. ...


Film to television

Midway through the 1950s, with television proving to be a profitable enterprise not destined to disappear any time soon -- as many in the film industry had once hoped -- movie studios were increasingly being used to produce programming for the burgeoning medium. Some midsized film companies, such as Republic Pictures, eventually sold their studios to TV production concerns. Republic Pictures Corporation (aka Republic Entertainment) is an independent film, television, and video distribution company that was originally a movie production-distribution corporation with studio facilities, best known for its specialization in quality B pictures, westerns and movie serials. ... Production company refers to a company responsible for the development and physical production of a film or television program. ...


Today

With the breakup of domination by "the Studios" and the continued incursion of television into the cinematic audience, the major production companies gradually transformed into management structures that simply put together artistic teams on a project-by-project basis and made what studio spaces they retained available for rental, which remains the norm today.


Temperature Control

It is common for some of the larger studios to be cold and drafty. The cooler temperatures compensated for the heat that was generated by the abundance of lighting equipment. In modern times, the newer lighting systems generate far less heat. As many studio's are moving into the high definition era, an even larger abundance of lighting is required. A lack of lighting causing a shadow (visible on the HD telecast) would look like a bruise on the cast member or talent. Fortunately, some of the more modern studios are equiping themselves with the ability to heat that studio space, and making it more comfortable for occupants to explore said studio space.


Notable movie studios

AB Svensk Filmindustri or Svensk Filmindustri (SF) is Swedens most well-known company for film production and distribution of cinema, both Swedish and international. ... AVM Productions is the oldest, biggest and most respected production house in Kollywood, the Tamil language film industry of India. ... Filmstudio Babelsberg Logo showing a scene from Metropolis The Babelsberg Studios is a film studio located in Potsdam-Babelsberg, Germany. ... Barrandov Studios are a famous set of film studios in Prague, Czech Republic. ... The American Mutoscope and Biograph Company (also known as the Biograph Company) was founded in 1895 and is the oldest movie production company in the United States. ... The Buena Vista Motion Pictures Group is a collection of affiliated motion picture studios, all subsidaries of The Walt Disney Company. ... The Bridge Studios is a Canadian film studio in Vancouver, British Columbia. ... Christie Film Company was a pioneer motion picture company founded by Al Christie and Charles Christie, two brothers from London, Ontario, Canada. ... This article is about the film studio. ... The Black Maria (pronounced b. ... The Black Maria was Thomas Edisons movie production studio, built in West Orange, New Jersey, completed in February, 1893 at a cost of $637. ... Toronto ON-based Famous Players is a Canadian company which owns many movie theatres across Canada. ... The Fox Film Corporation was an American company which produced motion pictures, formed in 1915 when founder William Fox merged two companies he had established in 1913: Greater New York Film Rental, a distribution firm, which was part of the Independents; and Fox (or Box, depending on the source) Office... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Gaumont is a French film production company and is the worlds oldest film company. ... In 1916 Samuel Goldfish partnered with Broadway producers Edgar and Archibald Selwyn, using a combination of both names to call their movie-making enterprise the Goldwyn Picture Corporation. ... Central portal of Gorky Film Studio Gorky Film Studio (in Russian, Киностудия имени Горького) is a film studio in Moscow, Russian Federation. ... Kanteerava Studios (Kannada: ಕಂಠೀರವ ಸ್ಟುಡಿಯೋಸ್) is a film studio in Bangalore, Karnataka, predominantly used for the production of Kannada language movies from Kannada film industry. ... , For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... Kalem Studios and Hollywood staff, 1915 The Kalem Company was an American film studio founded in New York City in 1907 by Frank J. Marion, Samuel Long, and George Kleine. ... The Keystone / Mack Sennett studios Keystone Studios was an early movie studio founded in Glendale, California in 1912 as the Keystone Pictures Studio by Mack Sennett with backing from Adam Kessel and Charles O. Bauman, owners of the New York Motion Picture Company. ... Kinostudiya Lenfilm (Ленфи́льм) was a production unit of the Soviet film industry), with its own film studio, located in Leningrad, R.S.F.S.R.. After the fall of Communism and the foundation of the Russian Republic, it became a quasi-private film production company, retaining its name in spite of... Lubin Studios, Philadelphia (c. ... Marwah Films & Video Studios, near New Delhi, has produced over 1800 films and television shows during the past seven years. ... Georges Méliès (December 8, 1861 – January 21, 1938), full name Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, was a French filmmaker famous for leading many technical and narrative developments in the earliest cinema. ... Melnitsa Animation Studio (Russian: , melnitsa meaning windmill) is a Saint Petersburg-based Russian studio which produces animated films. ... Mosfilm logo was the Statue of the Worker and Kolkhoznitsa at VDNKh Mosfilm film studio (in Cyrillic, Мосфи́льм) is often described as the largest and oldest in Russia and in Europe. ... Mutual Film Corporation was an early American motion picture conglomerate that originated with the Western Film Exchange founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in July of 1906 by Wisconsin natives John R. Freuler (1872-1958) and Harry E. Aitken (1877-1956). ... Christie-Nestor Studios, Hollywood, 1913 The Nestor Motion Picture Company of Bayonne, New Jersey, owned by David Horsley and his brother William, opened the first motion picture studio in Hollywood in the Blondeau Tavern building at the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street in the fall of 1911. ... Nordisk Film is an Egmont electronic media production and distribution group that employs 1,090 people in six countries. ... Pathé or Pathé Frères is the name of various businesses founded and originally run by the Pathé Brothers of France. ... The gatehouse at Pinewood Studios Pinewood Studios is a major British film studio situated in Iver Heath, Buckinghamshire. ... Premium Picture Productions is a former movie studio located in Beaverton, Oregon which was active in the early 1920s. ... Entrance to the city Ramoji Film City (RFC) is the world’s largest integrated film studio complex at over 2000 acres of land [1]. It is also a popular tourism and recreation centre, containing both natural and artificial attractions. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... The Selig Polyscope Company was an American motion picture company founded in 1896 in Chicago, Illinois by William Selig. ... Solax Studios was an American motion picture studio founded in 1910 by executives from the Gaumont Film Company of France. ... Sony Pictures Entertainment, Inc. ... Winnie-the-Pooh by Soyuzmultfilm The Studio Soyuzmultfilm () is the most important Soviet animation film studio, founded in 1935 under the name of Soyuzdetmultfilm. ... Sverdlovsk Film Studio (Russian: ) is a Russian (former Soviet) film studio based in Yekaterinburg (former Sverdlovsk). ... The Thanhouser Company (later the Thanhouser Film Corporation) was a motion picture studio founded in New Rochelle, New York in 1909 by Edwin Thanhouser. ... The English-language version of Tohos famous logo, used from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. ... Touchstone Pictures (also known as Touchstone Films in its early years) is one of several alternate film labels of The Walt Disney Company, established in 1984. ... Triangle Film Corporation a. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... In 1912 the Victor Film Company was formed by movie star Florence Lawrence and her husband, Harry Solter. ... American Vitagraph was a United States movie studio, founded by J. Stuart Blackton and Albert E. Smith in 1897 and bought by Warner Brothers in 1925. ... Old logo from 1985-2006 Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner, was established as a designation in 1983, prior to which Disney films since the death of Walt Disney were released under the name of the... “WB” redirects here. ... Logo of Village Roadshow Village Roadshow ASX: VRL is an Australian media company with interests in cinema, theme parks, film production and distribution. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Movie studio
Production company refers to a company responsible for the development and physical production of performing arts, film, radio or a television program. ... A major film studio is a movie production and distribution company that releases a substantial number of films annually and consistently commands a significant share of box-office revenues in a given market. ... According to a 2000 study by ABN AMRO, only about 26% of Hollywood movie studios worldwide income came from box office ticket sales; 46% came from VHS and DVD sales to consumers; and 28% came from television (broadcast, cable, and pay-per-view). ... This article is about motion pictures. ... The History of film spans over a hundred years, from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 21st. ... Here is a list of cities that have film studios or significant film industries: Berlin, Germany Burbank, California, USA Hong Kong, China London, England Los Angeles, California, USA Montreal, Canada Moscow, Russia Mumbai, India Munich, Germany New York City, USA NOIDA,India Odessa, Ukraine Ouarzazate, Morocco Paris, France Prague, Czech...

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