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Encyclopedia > Movement of 15 Khordad

Movement of 15 Khordad (in Persian:نهضت پانزده خرداد ‎ ​) which took place on June 5 in protest against arrestment of Ayatollah Khomeini. On June 3 Khomeini made a historical speech against the dependence of the Shah’s regime on foreign powers, and its support of Israel. He was immediately arrested, but his imprisonment inspired major public demonstrations of support, that were eventually crushed by government troops in tanks.[1] This uprising marked a turning point in Pahlavi dynasty which finally result in Islamic revolution of Iran 15 years later. Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...

Contents

Background

In January 1963, the Shah announced the "White Revolution", a six-point program of reform calling for land reform, nationalization of the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchise women, profit sharing in industry, and an anti-illiteracy campaign in the nation's schools. All of these initiatives were regarded as dangerous, Westernizing trends by traditionalists, especially by the powerful and privileged Shiite ulama (religious scholars) who felt highly threatened.[2] The White Revolution was a far-reaching series of reform programs launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran, His Imperial Majesty Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... Ulema, a community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ...


Ayatollah Khomeini summoned a meeting of his colleagues (other Ayatollahs) in Qom and persuaded the other senior marjas of Qom to decree a boycott of the referendum on the White Revolution. On January 22, 1963 Khomeini issued a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. Two days later Shah took armored column to Qom, and he delivered a speech harshly attacking the ulama as a class. A marja, or marja-e-taqleed (Arabic and persian مرجع تقليد), literally source of imitation or source of tradition, is the second highest authority on religion and law in Shia Islam after the prophet and (Shia) Imams. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Ulema, a community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ...


Khomeini continued his denunciation of the Shah's programs, issuing a manifesto that also bore the signatures of eight other senior religious scholars. In it he listed the various ways in which the Shah allegedly had violated the constitution, condemned the spread of moral corruption in the country, and accused the Shah of submission to America and Israel. He also decreed that the Norooz celebrations for the Iranian year 1342 (which fell on March 21, 1963) be canceled as a sign of protest against government policies. Norouz (also spelled Norooz, Noruz, Naw-Rúz or Nowrouz) is the traditional Iranian festival of the New Year which starts at the exact moment of the vernal equinox, commencing the start of the spring. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


Ayatollah Khomeini's sermon

On the afternoon of 'Ashoura (June 3, 1963), Ayatollah Khomeini delivered a speech at the Feyziyeh madreseh in which he drew parallels between the Umayyad caliph Yazid I and the Mohammad Reza Shah and warned the Shah that if he did not change his ways the day would come when the people would offer up thanks for his departure from the country. [3] The Day of Aashurah, sometimes spelled ‘Ashurah or Aashoorah, falls on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. ... Ayatollah redirects here. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty of Caliphs. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16...


arrestment of Ayatollah Khomeini and revolt

The immediate effect of the Imam's speech was, however, his arrest two days later at 3 o'clock in the morning by a group of commandos who hastily transferred him to the Qasr prison in Tehran. As dawn broke on June 5, the news of his arrest spread first through Qom and then to other cities. In Qom, Tehran, Shiraz, Mashhad and Varamin, masses of angry demonstrators were confronted by tanks and paratroopers. It was not until six days later that order was fully restored. [4] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shiraz can refer to: Shiraz, Iran Shiraz grape/wine This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Mashhad (also spelt Mashad,Persian: ‎ , literally the place of martyrdom ) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia world. ... Varamin is a city located in the south of Tehran Province, Iran. ...


As Fateme Pakravan wife of Pakravan, chief of Savak says in her memoirs that her husband saved Ayatollah Khomeini’s life in 1963. Pakravan felt that his execution would anger the common people of Iran. He presented his argument to the shah. Once he had convinced the shah to allow him to find a way out, he called on Ayatollah Mohammad-Kazem Shariatmadari, one of the senior religious leaders of Iran, and asked for his help. Ayatollah Shariatmadari suggested that Khomeini be declared an Marja. So, other Marjas made a religious decree which was taken by Pakravan and Seyyed Jalal Tehrani to the Shah.[5] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A marja, or marja-e-taqleed (Arabic and persian مرجع تقليد), literally source of imitation or source of tradition, is the second highest authority on religion and law in Shia Islam after the prophet and (Shia) Imams. ...


After nineteen days in the Qasr prison, Ayatollah Khomeini was moved first to the 'Eshratabad' military base and then to a house in the 'Davoudiyeh' section of Tehran where he was kept under surveillance. He was released on April 7, 1964, and returned to Qom.[6] April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ...


Socio-political effects of Movement of 15 Khordad

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ [4]
  5. ^ Memoirs of Fatemeh Pakravan
  6. ^ [5]

See also


 
 

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